Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1986 (2023)







→ 22°30′N



The territory of HONG KONG

reading on-line 2010




HM200GL Edhion 11 1987 series

Laing #0 wu








Tum Bei



day of arrival

"Chek Lap KOL


lantau island




the country


sea ​​mode


Ma Wan







Peng Chau

chew and chaste


Shek Kwy





for happiness

Your Ling Chou


Central de Hong Kong)






To think











Shu Chan




















construction plan






Karte Mun

Kryn Ilha Resoivon,



blood lab,

Fo fuu Fan Chau

Ping Chou



Share exactly.


Building area

pop culture

landscape park border

main road

back roads

Mass Transit Railway (above/underground)

Kowloon Kantonsbahn

Contour (100 meters vertical distance with additional 50 meters contour)

Sea depth values ​​in meters








"Lung of Tuna









Summe Kong


Scale 1:200,000

kilometer 0










20 30






Keerenen Librar‹, L41Carbąááphy von Survey & Mapping Office


Building Land Department Hong Kong Government








With regards from




Her Majesty The Queen and Her Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh visited Hong Kong in October 1986 following their historic visit to China. They arrived in port aboard the Royal Yacht Britannia and were immediately greeted by concrete evidence of Hong Kong's remarkable development since their first visit in May 1975.

To mark the occasion, The Queen and Prince Philip spent two days in Hong Kong, carrying out a variety of engagements and meeting people from all walks of life. In her speech at City Hall, the Queen praised the people of Hong Kong for building “a unique city and a unique society”.






UCPL City Council Public Library

3 3288 00219608 9



Aladdin Ishmael,

government information services


Artur Hacker,

government information services

Photography: David H. P. Au, Eddie T. K. Cheng and other team photographers,

government information services



Derek Jones (Chapter 1)



Department of Census and Statistics

The publisher acknowledges all contributors and sources

All rights reserved

Code-No.: F300187 (ISBN 962-02-0015-2)

Price: 35.00HKD

US$8.50 UK £6.50


Save  No. 673863


KW 9 51,25




Cover: Trading Hall - Hong Kong Stock Exchange Limited. Frontispiece: The Royal Yacht Britannia.




book page








































































between the pages

royal visit


Tribute to the late Sir Edward Youde


Hong Kong Dinners


accent in youth


places and squares

Leisure time

harbor views





Hong Kong Territory

as costas:

Hong Kong buys the world














book page


















24-27 HEALTH





























Where dollars are referenced in this report, unless otherwise noted, they are in Hong Kong dollars. Since October 17, 1983, the Hong Kong dollar has been pegged to the US dollar at a fixed rate of HK$7.80 = US$1 through an agreement in the Note Issuance Facility.

Some figures in the text are estimates; real numbers appear in the appendices.

in October the Queen and

the Duke of Edinburgh made them

Second visit to Hong Kong

a moment to remember

Tung Ho-lun at his family's home in Lung Hang Estate



after the unveiling of a plaque at the Legislative Assembly building

a moving Gurkha farewell to Prince Philip at Lyemun Barracks

presentation of gold coins

celebrating two royal visits



Hong Kong as a partner in world trade

The most important feature of Hong Kong's economy is its almost complete dependence on trade with the world outside its borders. This is not surprising. How else could a small enclave, just over 1,000 square kilometers in size, and mostly islands remote, or mountainous and unsuitable for development, manage to feed, clothe, house up to 5.5 people, transport and provide other amenities? ? people? If Hong Kong were isolated and forced to live on its own resources, it could only support a much smaller population - farmers, fishermen, some artisans, perhaps a host of small and inefficient industries - and with a much lower standard of living.


Everything that has been developed in Hong Kong today - the mass of sometimes magnificent buildings, the roads, railways, water networks, schools and universities, hospitals, airport and container port, satellite telecommunications and social housing for half the population - came into being because Hong Kong is not isolated. On the contrary, over the years it has become one of the largest shopping centers in the world, with trade links to every inhabited continent. In addition to the plethora of services that Hong Kong also trades, it accounts for around 180% of its gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of goods alone, with around 2.5 million employees, roughly equivalent to the output of the entire economy. If trade in services is included, total trade is more than double GDP.

So how is it that, to echo Lord Palmerston's disparaging and oft-quoted words of some 140 years ago, "a barren rock with but a house on it" became one of the world's greatest and most exciting cities through trade? ? What factors were responsible and what policies were followed? Above all, are there any lessons from experience that can be applied to the general system of the world?

There are other reasons why the present may be a particularly opportune time to examine Hong Kong's role as a trading partner and the contribution it is making to the health of the global economy. If there was one catalyst that most contributed to the successful conclusion of the recent negotiations on the territory's future, it was probably the agreement of the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China, that their common objective was to maintain stability and Hong Kong's prosperity. Furthermore, both sides recognized that an important, even essential, condition for stability and prosperity would be the continued existence of Hong Kong as a free port, with its free trade policy, its own customs territory and even its own capitalist economic and trade system to decide its own economic and trade policies and to maintain and develop economic and trade relations with the outside world. With that in mind, and in accordance with the terms of the Joint Declaration, the two governments agreed in April 1986 that Hong Kong should become the 91st

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Contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which establishes the rules for conducting international trade and serves as a forum for negotiation.

A new round of multilateral trade negotiations under the auspices of the GATT also got under way in the last months of 1986, the eighth of its kind since the agreement came into force in 1947. This will be a crucial negotiation, the main task of which will be to contain protectionist forces and, hopefully, counterattack, which have strengthened in recent years in the current state of the world economy. Hong Kong will engage in these negotiations fully on its own for the first time and, given the enormous importance of trade to its economy, its overriding objective must clearly be to support forces working to further open trade channels to world trade.


First, it's important to realize that Hong Kong has always been a commercial hub. When it came under British administration nearly 150 years ago, it was declared a free port, meaning no tariffs or other obstacles to the free movement of imports and exports, and this has been the cornerstone of its economic policy ever since. Hong Kong, taking advantage of its location and possession of one of the best natural harbors in the world, certainly the best along China's long stretch of southern coast, has quickly established itself as one of the focal points for handling trade between China and the outside world. , a true port of call. And along with commerce came the essential ancillary services: communications, trade links, and finance needed to strengthen and lubricate trade channels. Regular remittance services were established, trading houses were established, and banking, insurance, and other financial services quickly followed. Ancillary activities associated with a busy port, such as ship repair facilities, were added in due course.

Steady population growth since its tiny beginnings, and indeed the expansion of territory with the acquisition of the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and the 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898, did little fundamentally alter the nature of activities centered in the region. port and through the Entrepôt trade that flows through it. Certainly there was a very considerable expansion of trade in terms of size, composition and destinations, and the built-up area of ​​the territory grew and expanded. But essentially, Hong Kong remained a center of commerce for 100 years until World War II.

early post-war years

The 1940s and early 1950s were undoubtedly one of the most traumatic periods in all of Hong Kong's history. There were times when the existence of the territory was at stake, both politically and economically. The end of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in 1945 saw Hong Kong devastated, looted and destroyed, with a population of just over 500,000. However, the pre-war population quickly returned and valiant efforts were made to rebuild and restore normal business and commerce. But this was quickly followed by the final stages of China's civil war and border closure, and almost immediately after by the Korean War and the United Nations trade embargo on China. This was a huge blow to what had been the core engine of Hong Kong's economy for over a century, its role as a commercial conduit between China and the outside world. At the same time, the territory's population was swelled by refugees from China's civil war, which numbered well over two million in the early 1950s. The future looked extremely bleak.


A miracle of economic growth


But starting from this highly desperate situation, a complete transformation of economy and society took place in less than 35 years. The driving force was economic growth, sustained for a generation, at a rate unprecedented in world history.

For example, real GDP in 1985, after adjusting for inflation, was more than four times what it was in 1966. And during that period, real GDP per capita grew nearly three times. This implied an average compound GDP growth rate of nearly 8% per year over the 19-year period (Table 1). Roughly speaking, the economy today is probably more than ten times larger than it was in the early 1950s, and real GDP per capita is nearly five times larger.







table 1

Real GDP growth 1966-85

BIP 1980

Prices ($ million)















Average compound growth rate

for a year






Source: Compiled Gross Domestic Product Estimates 1966-1985, Bureau of Census and Statistics 1986.

The main engine of Hong Kong's economic growth during this period was the equally rapid expansion of trade. At current prices, total merchandise trade in 1951, before the commodity trade hit, was $9.3 billion (one billion). In 1985, it was $466.6 billion, or 50 times more. There was, of course, a very substantial price increase in the intervening years, but in 1966 total trade was still only $17.7 billion, less than twice the 1951 level. 1980 constants) grew by almost seven times, making it probably about 12 times what it was in 1951 in 1985. However, in 1951 most exports were re-exports or warehouse trade, while in 1985 more than half consisted of Hong Kong's manufactured goods, which proportionately provided a much larger contribution to economic GDP. Raw data therefore tend to underestimate the contribution of trade growth to economic expansion.

Early stages of industrialization

Of course, the path wasn't easy at first. Total exports, which had recovered to $4.4 billion in 1951, dropped to a low of $2.4 billion in 1954 and recovered slowly thereafter. Imports also dropped. Even in 1960, total exports were less than $4 billion, and only surpassed 1951 levels for the first time in 1963. After that, they rose rapidly to, say, $17.2 billion in 1971, or almost four times the 1951 level.

However, stagnant totals in the 1950s and early 1960s belie the ferment behind it. This was the period when the area transitioned from a predominantly entrepot economy to one that depended primarily on its own exports of manufactured goods to provide the engine of economic growth. 1951,



Most exports were warehouse trade. In 1963 domestic exports accounted for more than three-quarters of total exports, and by the early 1970s that figure had risen to over four-fifths.

The early stages of industrial development were anything but challenging. The most important companies were the new spinning and weaving of cotton threads and gray fabrics. There were also a few workshops that made cheap, worn-out clothes, and several other small factories that made products such as plastic flowers and other simple plastic products, rubber shoes, and enamelware. Inexpensive electrical and metal products such as flashlights and batteries, fans and accessories such as electrical accessories, and the start of the toy industry soon followed.

Although production and exports from these industries grew rapidly in the 1950s and early 1960s, and they quickly began to absorb the largely immigrant workforce, the whole process had to start almost from scratch and markets were created where they could largely be found thousands of miles away. The process was neither easy nor inevitable at the time. It certainly wasn't planned. But it depended on a fortuitous confluence of circumstances and the seizing of opportunities.

country restriction

An important constraint that has had a major impact on Hong Kong's industry development is the scarcity of land. It is not the total area of ​​land that imposes the constraint, but its configuration. Most of the land area, including the entire center of Hong Kong Island itself, is very mountainous and unsuitable for development. Much of this is also needed for watersheds to feed reservoirs, and a good deal of it consists of coastal islands. Land suitable for development and intensive use is therefore strictly limited and a significant part of it must be reclaimed from the sea. Most of the population lives and works in the urban area that stretches around the port to the foothills of Kowloon, or in six new towns in the New Territories. Virtually the entire industry also operates in these areas.

The consequence is not just that there is little or no heavy industry in Hong Kong. There is also very little industry that cannot work in flat-topped factories in tall buildings. This has meant that industrial development has been largely confined to light manufacturing, much of which is relatively labour-intensive. There are special provisions for major public facilities, such as electricity companies, and elaborate arrangements to accommodate other carefully selected companies that cannot operate from tall buildings. However, commercial sites are usually allocated strictly according to the price mechanism and auctioned or advertised to the highest bidder. The resulting price ensures that it is economical to develop only high rises.

In a self-sustaining economic growth

In the early 1960s, the process of transforming Hong Kong into a modern city-state really began to take off. Not only that by 1963 total exports had recovered and surpassed the 1951 level, or that by then a state of more or less full employment had been reached and real wages had begun to skyrocket. During this period, the process of physical transformation of the territory also began, which has remained almost uninterrupted for a quarter of a century since then. It all started with the change in the building code in 1959, which allowed for much larger lots than before and therefore the construction of skyscrapers. The first building boom followed, along with the appearance of the first truly modern buildings, including the Hilton and Mandarin hotels in Hong Kong.


this mother and son, who signed a condolence book at central government offices, were among the many thousands from all walks of life who mourned the death of Governor Sir Edward Youde on 5 December




the Coldstream Guards contingent

from the funeral procession to the arrival

at St. John's Cathedral




the funeral service at St. John's Cathedral



Admittedly, there were still many ups and downs and traumas along the way. For example, in the mid-1960s, excessive borrowing to finance the housing boom of 1964-65 led to a banking crisis that was quickly followed by the Star Ferry riots of 1966 and the 1967 riots, followed by the bursting of the market bubble. stock market from 1973 after the first oil shock 1974/75 the severe global recession. In the early 1980s, the start of an even bigger real estate boom coincided with another global recession and the political uncertainties surrounding the start of negotiations on the future of the territory. However, the important lesson to be learned is not that these internal and external shocks occurred. They are almost inevitable in a turbulent and rapidly changing world. Hong Kong's economy and society were strong and resilient enough and, more importantly, flexible enough to absorb, adapt and weather any shocks, ready to resume the upward path of growth.

In virtually all cases, the effect of the shock, internal or external, was to contract and tighten the springs of competition within the economy, followed by a recovery in exports and general growth. This was the case in 1968 and 1969 after the shocks of the mid-1960s, in 1976 after the oil crisis recession, and in late 1983 and 1984 after the second oil price rise and the recession of the early 1980s.

Crucially, however, the economy accumulated enough savings during the 1960s to finance the capital investment needed to generate and sustain its growth from its own resources, primarily through expanded exports and trade. In other words, it had reached a state of self-sustaining growth.

Investment (or gross domestic fixed investment) has never fallen below 16 percent of GDP since the mid-1960s. It accelerated sharply in the 1970s, peaking at over 33 percent of GDP in 1980 and 1981. In particular , investments in plant, machinery and equipment have steadily increased in real terms. While foreign capital and know-how played an important role, particularly in the introduction of new technologies, most of the investment was generated from domestic sources. It is this capital investment, in an environment of competitive market forces, that led to the very substantial increases in labor productivity and, therefore, to the expansion of production and the increase in real wages observed in the period.

The increase in production, in turn, was reflected in an almost continuous increase in exports and, therefore, also in imports. In just two years since the early 1960s, during the global recession of 1974 and 1982, aggregate real exports have fallen. In 1985, total exports were almost 7.5 times the 1966 level. The trend in trade development is shown in Table 2.

mesa 2

Growth in trade volume 1966-85

($ million at constant 1980 prices)



Export (1966=100)



total exports


import index









































1 370





Source: Compiled Gross Domestic Product Estimates 1966-1985, Bureau of Census and Statistics 1986.



Despite the 5.5 times growth in national exports in two decades, as shown above, the contributions of the various industrial sectors did not change much in this period. The garment industry in particular, which got off to a small start but soon overtook textiles (yarns, fabrics and apparel) as the main export industry, maintained this position over the period, with a relatively constant share of around 35 percent of all domestic exports. The biggest changes have been the rise of the electronics industry, which now accounts for over 20% of domestic exports and, to a lesser extent, toys and games (excluding electronics) at around 8%. However, textile yarns, fabrics and ready-made garments, which spearheaded Hong Kong's early industrial development, now account for only 6% of total domestic exports. Overall, however, Hong Kong's exports still rely heavily on the soft consumer goods industry, and four main industries, namely apparel, electronics, toys and games, and textiles, still account for around 70% of the total.

However, this image belies the enormous evolution that has occurred over the years in the quality and sophistication of the products manufactured by these industries. For example, the apparel industry has been growing steadily and much of its output is now at the top of the ready-to-wear market. In fact, some of its factories are currently at the forefront of technological development in this industry. The electronics industry has also made great strides since it began to assemble inexpensive transistor radios in the 1960s. Such has been the benefit to Hong Kong in focusing its industrial efforts on what it can best manufacture and sell competitively in world markets, what a small territory it is now. the largest exporter by value of clothing and toys and, interestingly, electrical goods, hairdressing equipment and the largest exporter of watches and radios by volume.

importance of imports

Imports have been as important to the development of Hong Kong's economy as exports, and in some ways even more so. Importing and exporting are not opposites in the sense of opposites. They complement each other. It is trade as a whole that helps make the best use of economic resources, thereby accelerating economic growth and the generation of income and wealth. Hong Kong focuses its resources on producing products that it can export to world markets at the best prices and profits. This gives you the resources to buy imports from the cheapest sources at the lowest prices. In other words, Hong Kong exports for a living but thrives on imports.

In fact, the value of total imports of goods is often greater than the value of total exports. In other words, there is usually a visible trading deficit. Records show that since 1947 there has been a surplus in just one year, 1985. This is partly because Hong Kong has also produced a surplus in trade in services - shipping, aviation, tourism, financial services, etc. - the so-called invisible transactions - and partly because the territory normally attracts capital from outside. either as a direct investment or as a safe haven. Together, trade in goods and services and voluntary capital movements tended to balance out because of the linkage of the domestic economy to the balance of payments through the operations of the monetary system.

A look at the composition of Hong Kong's imports will illustrate their crucial role in the life of the territory. The breakdown for 1985 is shown in Table 3 as an example.


Tisch 3

Hong Kong imports by category in 1985

product groups

raw materials and

semi-finished products

Consumer Goods Capital Goods



No total


total imports

retained imports





millions of HK$


millions of HK$



of total imports held































It is clear that while Hong Kong's exports are concentrated in a narrow range of light finished products, mainly consumer goods, its imports cover the entire spectrum of tradables, from food and fuel to commodities and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods and capital goods. This is partly due to the concentration of local production in a few export products. Because the consequence is that most of the needs of the population have to be covered by imports. For example, most consumer goods purchased locally are imported, but less than half of all imported consumer goods are retained in Hong Kong and the rest are re-exported. Likewise, three quarters of the food consumed is imported, as well as all used fuel and almost all capital goods, such as installations and machinery for industry and means of transport.

Perhaps the most interesting point is that all these demands from the local economy, even including goods bought in bulk by the 3.5 million tourists that visit Hong Kong each year, represent just over half of the retained imports and only about a third of total imports. Nearly half of retained imports and around 40% of total imports consist of raw materials and semi-manufactured products used by local manufacturing industries and therefore effectively re-exported within the products they manufacture and export. And up to 45 percent of total imports become actual re-exports, the warehouse trade. Virtually all of Hong Kong's exports, whether domestic or re-exports, therefore contain a significant proportion of imported goods. In that sense, Hong Kong has remained true to its function, which it knows best, trade

The business.

It also means that the distinction between domestic exports and re-exports is not as sharp as the numbers suggest. The dividing line between them is, however, very important as it depends on the definition of Hong Kong origin, i.e. H. the products that can be classified as manufactured in Hong Kong on the basis of sufficient Hong Kong processing or added value . Domestic exports, so defined, are entitled to privileges over products manufactured in Hong Kong in foreign markets, such as Hong Kong quotas.

All other exports are re-exports. But in practice there is a spectrum of value creation or transformation. There is no export without Hong Kong content, even if it is just port fees, financing or market hunting. Other products are disassembled and repackaged for different markets or in containers and so on. Others still have some fabrication



surgeries performed on them, but not enough to qualify them as of Hong Kong origin. They are all re-exports. However, as we have seen, national exports also have an import component, some more than others, but in most cases significant.

Hong Kong's economy is therefore essentially a transitional economy, converting imports into salable exports or re-exports in one form or another. Every manufacturer is constantly looking for the best materials to make their products in terms of price and quality. There is very little vertical integration within the industry and manufacturers in the later stages of production are likely to use imported materials even if they are also manufactured in Hong Kong. For example, most clothing manufacturers now use imported fabrics, although there are also some fabrics made in Hong Kong. and weavers can use imported yarn. In any case, local production must compete with imports on equal terms. For example, while Hong Kong is the world's largest exporter of clothing, it is also the world's largest importer of cotton and synthetic fabrics. Another example is that Hong Kong, although it is the world's largest exporter of watches by volume and third in value, is also the second largest importer in value, with a significant amount sold to tourists.

determinants of growth

It is worth taking a closer look at some of the main forces behind and contributing to the growth of Hong Kong's trade and economy described so far. Given the desperate circumstances of the early post-war years, why did tiny Hong Kong become the first, the pioneer, of the so-called emerging economies (NICs) after Japan – ahead of South Korea and Taiwan or anywhere else? in Southeast Asia? or, for that matter, somewhere else in the developing world? How was Hong Kong the first developing country to enter rich markets in Europe and North America and sell manufactured goods? The relative importance of the factors involved can be debated, but the following are among the most important, although not exhaustive. They each did their part, but together they intertwined and strengthened to drive the engine of the economy. They are:

(1) The existence of free port and free trade.

(2) A convertible currency and the free circulation of money.

(3) Government policies, including relatively low taxation and prudent fiscal policies. (4) The long accumulation of commercial and financial experience.

(5) convenient Hong Kong location and good communication. (6) People's hard work and entrepreneurial instinct. (7) The flexibility of the labor market.

In many ways, the first of these, the free port, the most important, has been the bedrock of Hong Kong's economic policy since its inception. Contrary to popular misconception, the main beneficiary of free trade is the economy of the territory that actually applies it, as it ensures that all parts of the economic system are subject to and must adapt to world market forces and that, consequently, their resources become the most valuable. efficiently and productively used. This, in turn, ensures faster economic growth and a higher standard of living than would otherwise be the case. It is no coincidence that a recent study of developing countries, based on World Bank data, showed that capital was invested more efficiently in Hong Kong than elsewhere in terms of the resulting increase in production. Because none of the other economies examined have had to adapt so completely or so quickly to changes in world market forces.

The second element, the free movement of money, is also essential for the smooth functioning of the free port. The Hong Kong dollar is freely convertible into all other currencies and



There are no restrictions on the inflow or outflow of funds for any purpose and no exchange controls. Therefore, there are no payment restrictions on the way of trading, and capital can also flow in and out of the area without any problems. In practice, there are also no difficulties in the balance of payments, since net inflows or outflows of funds flow back into the domestic economy through the monetary system and interest rate levels and, under a flexible exchange rate regime, through movements in the euro exchange rate. This, in turn, leads to adjustments that mitigate or offset excessive cash inflows or outflows.

Third, there is the importance of certain longstanding and fundamental government policies. The government does not interfere in the conduct of private business through excessive controls and regulations. People are free to conduct their business in accordance with the rule of law, including sound and well-administered business laws, which are fundamental to the proper conduct of commerce. No decisions were made about which industries or activities were best suited to Hong Kong conditions, or to attract or subsidize certain industries at the expense of others, and everyone's luck depended on their success or grace in the market.

Of particular importance was the government's implementation of fiscal policy. It is based on the principle of balanced budgets, with revenues covering all expenditures, including capital expenditures, combined with a relatively low, simple, safe and easy-to-manage tax regime. In the 40 years since World War II, there have been only six budget deficits, and most of those deficits have been modest. The other 34 years all registered surpluses, some of them quite expressive. The result was the accumulation of large fiscal reserves and virtually no government debt.

This was accompanied by a relatively low but extraordinarily profitable tax level. In the early post-war years, total annual government revenues amounted to about US$200 million. In the last fiscal year 1985-86 it was over $40,000 million or 200 times the money. Even considering the interim price increase, it is likely to have been 35 times higher in real terms. This is another indication of economic growth during this period. Without them, the equally impressive expansion of public services would not have been possible.

Obviously, maintaining a low, simple, stable and secure tax regime, without loopholes and special deductions for an extended period, helped to create incentives to achieve and create wealth that results in benefits for the whole community. Indeed, this aspect of things is increasingly being recognized in some advanced industrial countries, and the recent tax reforms enacted in the United States follow a path that Hong Kong has certainly well trodden.

The fourth factor that helped Hong Kong in world markets was the accumulation of long-term commercial and financial experience. Over the years, a whole network of commercial organizations emerged, from large trading companies to small import/export companies, which were able to take advantage of contacts in distant markets and seek new ones. The existence of this network was of particular importance in the early stages of industrialization, as it offered ready-made connections to foreign markets. There was also a well-established banking and financial linkage to provide funds for working capital and for machinery and other equipment and to underwrite trade. After all, Hong Kong itself already had a network of shipping companies and other communication links with one of the most efficient ports in the world. All these elements together played an important role in giving Hong Kong a head start on industrialization.



Coupled with this is Hong Kong's favorable location in a strategic position in the Pacific Rim, across major sea and air routes that provide convenient connections to all major world markets. The territory's modern telecommunications network with all parts of the world via radio, cable and satellite has also played a crucial role in facilitating and streamlining commercial transactions in recent years. Of particular importance throughout its history has been Hong Kong's position on the border of China, making it the natural gateway for trade with the world's most populous country. As we will see, this has become even more important in recent years.

Next, and not least, are the characteristics of the people of Hong Kong. Swelled by successive waves of immigration as well as natural growth, the population has grown by about a million every decade since the late 1940s, from just over 2 million in 1950 to 3 million in the early 1960s, 4 million in beginning of the 1960s and 1970s. five million in the beginning of the 1980s. There are already about 5.5 million. They are busy and active people, tirelessly seeking ways to improve themselves, hardworking and sensitive. There is an abundance of entrepreneurial and business talent constantly bubbling to the surface, and many are willing, with a gambler's instinct, to try starting their own business, often on a very small scale. Many failed along the way, but many succeeded and became rich by contributing to economic expansion. Also important was the cross-fertilization between local and foreign companies, which brought investment and know-how from abroad. Lastly, and of particular importance for the functioning of the economy, was the functioning of the labor market. This oriented itself much more towards free market principles than most other economies, particularly the advanced countries. Wages were largely determined by the supply and demand of labor and were not strongly influenced by collective bargaining, much less by industry-wide central bargaining between employers' organizations and powerful unions. In the past, it was claimed that this led to the exploitation of labor; However, this is not a burden that can be easily sustained in a booming economy like Hong Kong's. The fact that real wages rose by about 40% in each of the 1960s and 1970s is evidence that the fruits of economic growth are indeed trickling down to the workforce and that the system is working. All of this certainly means that Hong Kong's labor market operates with a lot of flexibility to encourage workers to move from declining occupations to booming occupations and thus be employed more productively. This flexibility also ensures that full employment is the norm and that ongoing adjustments in wages and working conditions help maintain full employment.

Of course, that's not all. There is extensive state legislation that establishes minimum working conditions and covers health hazards in certain industries, employment of women and youth, compensation, and so on. Hong Kong has adhered to more International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions than any other region under comparable economic conditions and more than some advanced countries. Significant efforts are also being made in education and training to improve workforce skills. However, the flexibility of Hong Kong's labor market has played an important role in facilitating the continued adjustment of the economy as a whole to the demands and opportunities of world markets.

commercial partner

First, although Hong Kong trades with every continent and most countries in the world, it should be noted that most of its trade is with Hong Kong.



relatively few trading partners. Well over 80% of domestic exports, re-exports and imports go to or from the top 10 destinations or suppliers, and over two-thirds each go to the top 4 destinations or suppliers. Indeed, in 1985, 56.1% of domestic exports and 57.7% of re-exports went to just two markets, the United States and China, and China and Japan together supplied nearly half of all Hong Kong imports. All this is clearly shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Participation in Hong Kong trade in 1985

of the top 4 and 10 trading partners

Domestic Exports

commercial partner


Commercial partner for re-exports


Commercial partner for imports














United Kingdom






ocidental Germany






Top 4 geral




Top ten overall




Source: Hong Kong Annual Report, 1986.

For many years, most of Hong Kong's domestic exports were concentrated in the consumer markets of developed countries in North America and Western Europe, while its imports of commodities, food and some consumer goods came mainly from Hong Kong's neighboring countries. in Southeast Asia. The latter is expected as raw materials, semi-finished products and most groceries are bulkier or more perishable in value, which tends to give nearby suppliers a competitive edge. However, Hong Kong offers a good market for capital goods, higher-end consumer goods and some North American and Western European groceries, and the convertible currency it uses to pay for imports from other sources provides the countries in question with hard currency. to help pay for its own imports from advanced countries.

Re-exports and the Chinese dimension

However, the most dramatic development in Hong Kong's trade in recent years has been the almost explosive growth in trade with China following the opening of the Chinese market to more foreign trade in the late 1970s. expansion into Chinese exports, both for domestic use and for re-export; but by the late 1970s it had sold few, if any, of its own domestic exports to China. That picture has now changed dramatically, as illustrated by the following figures on Hong Kong's domestic exports to China since 1980:

billions of dollars















Of even greater importance has been the growth of the re-export trade in recent years. Table 2 gives an indication of the increase in re-export volumes, that is, from less than three times the actual volume in 1966 in 1976 to 7.5 times in 1981 and almost 14 times in 1985. Another indicator is the share of re-exports in the total exports, which has increased so much in recent years as follows:













From a low of less than 20 percent of total exports in the early 1970s, by 1978 the share of re-exports had barely risen to 1966 levels. Since then, however, re-exports have increased their share very rapidly, reaching almost 45 percent in 1985, despite the also very significant growth of domestic exports.

Most of this resurgence in reporting trading has been focused on China. In other words, once China started to open its trading doors to the outside world, Hong Kong was ready to resume its old role as a major conduit for that trade, but this time enhanced with larger dimensions and improved communications. ments of the modern world. Table 5 shows the extent to which Hong Kong's re-exports, which have now grown to over US$100 billion, are dominated by trade to and from China.

Table 5

China's role in Hong Kong re-exports in 1985

Re-export of goods originating in China to the rest of the world

Re-exports from the rest of the world to China

Goods originating in China that are re-exported to China

Total re-exports involving China

Re-exports from the rest of the world to the rest of the world

Re-export fees

million dollars

percentage of participation













Quelle: Hong Kong Trade Review 1985. Hong Kong Trade Development Council, maio de 1986.

China is now Hong Kong's biggest trading partner, accounting for nearly 26% of the territory's total exports and imports, compared to 20% for its second-largest partner, the United States.

Alongside the growth of trade, there was also a strong expansion of investment by Hong Kong companies in China, namely in the new Special Economic Zones, and of Chinese holdings in Hong Kong. Furthermore, Hong Kong also acts as a gateway for many western companies to do business with China and provides expertise to support this process. In addition to the millions of visitors that Hong Kong residents make to China every year, many tourists also enter China through Hong Kong. In general, economic ties between Hong Kong and China are steadily increasing in number and complexity, and much of southern China is particularly benefiting from its rapidly growing economic ties with Hong Kong. The growth of the Chinese economy is beginning to accelerate rapidly after the economic reforms of recent years. If it continues, it must be accompanied by a similar expansion in foreign trade, from which Hong Kong can only continue to benefit.


trade in services


No overview of Hong Kong trade would be complete without mentioning trade in services. In 1985, total merchandise imports and exports were nearly $467 billion, while trade in services accounted for about $80 billion, or about 17% of merchandise trade. Unlike trade in goods, however, where imports almost always exceed exports, the reverse is true for services. Exports always exceed imports, usually significantly. Trade in services focuses on Hong Kong's position as a commercial, communications and financial hub, as well as a tourist destination. Navigation and aviation, travel and banking, financial and insurance services together account for up to 90% of total service exports. In recent years, the surplus in trade in services has been between US$10 billion and US$15 billion, which has largely offset the deficit in trade in goods. In 1985, exceptionally, there was also a small surplus in trade in goods and in 1984 only a small deficit. These two years therefore saw sizeable surpluses in total trade in goods and services of $11 billion in 1984 and $17 billion in 1985. In terms of the overall balance of payments, they must have been offset by a net capital outflow.

Protectionism and the multifiber arrangement (MFA)

Overall, the last 40 years have seen a very significant reduction in barriers to international trade, mainly as a result of the seven rounds of multilateral trade negotiations held under the auspices of the GATT since the late 1940s. manufactured goods have been reduced to low levels in almost all developed countries. This, along with improvements in transport and communications, led over time to an unprecedented expansion in world trade and manufacturing and living standards in many countries. It is no accident that the expansion of trade is accompanied by increasing prosperity, for the two are closely linked. As we saw with Hong Kong, when a country lowers its own barriers to imports, it wins because it pushes it to use its domestic resources more efficiently and focus on what it does best.

Unfortunately, after the heady days of rapid expansion in the 1960s and early 1970s, the world economy has fallen on some pretty turbulent times over the past decade and beyond, leading to a resurgence of protectionist constraints. In particular, there has been a marked reluctance on the part of entire economies and their constituents to readily adapt to rapid and accelerating changes in technology and market conditions. This has led to excessive rigidity in product and labor markets and, in some cases, high and rising unemployment.

Hong Kong was lucky in these circumstances because the flexibility of its economy and its total dependence on world market forces allowed it to adapt quickly to any changes, whether external or internal. As a result, the economy continued to expand and full employment was maintained.

A particular manifestation of market rigidity in some developed countries has been the reluctance of certain declining and uncompetitive industries to adapt to market forces, particularly through import competition. Instead, through the political process and other means, these industries and their supporters exerted pressure to demand greater protections against imports. This is known to be the case in the textile and apparel industry, but other industries – including steel, automotive, machine tools and advanced electronics – are now also lining up for protection. In fact, there is even pressure, mainly in the United States, to tackle its trade deficit through a more general policy.



Restrict imports, a measure that would only make the situation worse, restricting trade in general and lowering production and living standards.

In the case of Hong Kong, arguably the greatest impact of overseas protection on its trade has been in textiles and clothing. This started with the so-called voluntary restriction on exports of cotton yarn and gray cotton fabrics to the UK in 1958. Since then, restrictions on exports to most major developed country markets have increased in scope and complexity, both in the short as in the long term. to the cotton textile agreements in the 1960s and then to the MFA, which came into force in 1973 and was recently extended for a third time for a further five years until 1991. Hong Kong therefore faced one or another restriction on its textile exports for nearly 30 years. However, as one of the first in this field among developing countries subject to such restrictions, it has typically been able to negotiate large quota claims based on its past export performance as restrictions spread to new products and new markets. Another consequence of the quantitative restrictions imposed by quotas has been a steady improvement in the quality of Hong Kong producers to penetrate the higher priced and more profitable market sectors. Despite the undeniable impact of the restrictions, Hong Kong has still managed to become the world's largest exporter of clothing.

In addition to textiles and of increasing importance in the conduct of world trade, the tendency of protectionism to spread to other products, as indicated above, was not so much through old-fashioned tariffs and import quotas, but through industry negotiation over sectoral agreements, voluntary export restrictions (VERs) and Orderly Commercialization Agreements (OMAs), that is, through cartelization agreements or direct trade and market sharing. Virtually all of the new protectionism, as it will soon be called, is being negotiated and organized outside the GATT system of non-discrimination. There is also growing pressure to change GATT rules so that emergency measures to support industries threatened by increased imports can be directed against exports from certain allegedly harmful suppliers, rather than being applied to imports from all sources of non-discriminatory way. . Such measures to restrict and direct trade and discriminate against suppliers could be particularly harmful for Hong Kong, which is so dependent on the efficient functioning of a liberal, open and non-discriminatory world trading system. It is therefore a particularly important task for Hong Kong to work together with other like-minded members in the GATT forum against the new protectionism and for the continuation of an open and non-discriminatory world trading system. Given its own fully open market, it will no doubt be able to tackle this task without ambivalence or hypocrisy.

Is Hong Kong a laissez-faire economy?

People who read all of the above and know little or nothing about Hong Kong can be excused from assuming that the territory maintains a totally laissez-faire economy, more or less in the spirit of the 19th century, and that for its functioning it depends entirely on the free play of market forces. Mention of the government's role so far has been limited to maintaining free trade, a convertible currency, low taxes and a balanced budget. This is true to the extent that the government allows private companies to conduct their business without undue interference and without subsidies. But it is far from being the whole truth. The fact is that the government acts broadly and effectively in areas appropriate to its role and, in some cases, of vital importance to the State.



functioning of a civilized society. And because of the aforementioned revenue-generating efficiency of the tax system, it can raise and spend more than $40 billion a year on it.

For example, the government or various organizations through it that are subsidized by public funds provide free or heavily subsidized education from elementary school through university; free or heavily subsidized medical and health and hospital services; Social assistance for the elderly and needy paid out of general taxes, and a vast network of affordable housing for about half the population. In addition, there is a large and growing program of public works, including water supply, roads, railways, the construction of six new cities for an eventual population of around 2.5 million people, the airport and the port. There are extensive programs and activities in the areas of recreation, culture and sport and the operation of extensive landscaped parks and a growing anti-pollution network. Public utilities such as electricity and telephone as well as banking and securities are regulated. Labor legislation has already been mentioned.

As for the industry, although the government does not seek to control its activities, except for safety, sanitation and pollution control, general support is provided in areas where individual companies cannot easily or economically provide it. For example, there is a business development organization, the Hong Kong Business Development Board, an Export Credit Insurance Corporation and a Productivity Board, as well as facilities such as a standards and calibration laboratory. Industrial training is also organized by a central body with subordinate bodies for different branches, each organized in cooperation with the branch in question.

All these diverse activities combined and others not mentioned contribute to making Hong Kong a modern, innovative, complete and humane society as much as possible. Many of them are essential for the efficient functioning of the economy and therefore complement private sector activities in the production of goods and services in all respects. Together they make Hong Kong a free economy, but one certainly not committed to the extremes of laissez-faire.


The above has attempted to tell some of the story of how trade with the outside world in all its forms has been the main sustaining factor of Hong Kong's economic life for nearly 150 years. The totally open nature of the economy means that it must continually adapt to world market forces, both at the micro level of the individual company wishing to sell its products at the best profit and to buy from the cheapest sources and thus use resources more efficiently. efficiency - right down to the macro level, where the general equilibrium of the economy adjusts to maintain the balance of external payments. This process, which went on uninterruptedly for many years, contributed to boosting the territory's economic development.

Of course, as with any free economy, there were ups and downs. There have been occasional episodes of excessive domestic credit creation and speculation - for example, the housing booms of the early 1960s and late 1970s - and external blows, most notably the global recessions of the mid-1970s and early 1980s. If so, however, the economy paused in adjustment and then surged forward again, with trade leading the way.

Another feature that stands out clearly is that the economy was driven by trade in both directions, both imports and exports. Most of their domestic consumption and investment was met by imported products, their industries depended on




in imported raw materials, and all its intermediary trade includes imports and exports by definition. There was absolutely no attempt to artificially increase exports through subsidies or premiums, or to restrict imports in order to increase employment, strengthen foreign reserves, or protect the domestic economy. Taxation is levied impartially on all people who earn income or do business in Hong Kong and there is no policy to attract investment through tax breaks or other special incentives.

Another consequence is that the adjustment process between the domestic economy and the trade balance, in constant progress, tends to force the system to unite in the direction of a balance between the movement of goods and services and the voluntary movement of capital. Thus, in general, Hong Kong very rarely runs large foreign trade surpluses or deficits, and on the rare occasions that it does, there are forces at work to bring the system back into balance.

When all these factors are taken together, they paint a picture of a very complacent partner in world trade. Hong Kong not only offers a free, open and growing import market for a wide range of goods and services from around the world, but its exports also meet the needs of consumers in many markets at competitive prices and qualities that can only improve its standards. of life. Which just goes to show that international trade, when done right, is not a game of winners and losers. All trading partners benefit from trade, and participating in a more open international trading system can only increase growth and prosperity. That's a lesson that Hong Kong has undoubtedly learned all too well.


constitution and administration


HONG KONG is administered by the Hong Kong government and its administration evolved from the basic standard used in all British-ruled overseas territories. The head of government in Hong Kong is the governor. Hong Kong becomes a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China effective July 1, 1997, in accordance with the Joint Declaration of the British and Chinese Governments on the Question of Hong Kong, which entered into force on May 27, 1985.

role of governor

The Governor is the Queen's representative in Hong Kong. He is the supreme head of the administration of Hong Kong and also the nominal Commander-in-Chief. As head of government, he presides over meetings of the Executive Council and the Legislative Council. The governor is in close contact with the administration of the territory and exerts great influence in the direction of affairs.

Sir Edward Youde, who had been Governor of Hong Kong since May 1982, died suddenly in Beijing on 5 December 1986. The Chief Secretary, Sir David Akers-Jones, was appointed Acting Governor pending the appointment of a new Governor .

The Governor is appointed by the Queen and derives his authority from the Letters Patent approved under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. The Letters Patent sets out the basic structure of the administration of Hong Kong and, together with the Royal Instructions adopted under the Manual of Royal Signs and the Signet, sets out the procedures to be followed in the written constitution of Hong Kong. However, there are several well-established practices that significantly change the way this formal constitution works, so there is extensive community consultation on all major policy and governance issues. The combined effect of the Constitution and these practices constitute government practice in Hong Kong.

The Letters Patent creates the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong, obliging him to obey its laws and instructions given by the Queen or the Secretary of State. They also deal with the constitution of the Executive and Legislative Councils and the Governor's powers in relation to legislation, land disposition, appointment of judges and officers, pardons and tenure of Supreme Court and District Court judges.

The Royal Instructions deal with the appointment of members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the nature of the Executive Council's procedures, the Governor's responsibility to consult the Executive Council and his right to intervene (a right not recently exercised). - See below). They also address the composition of the Legislative Council and election to the Legislative Council, the nature of procedures there, the format of legislation passed by the council, and the types of legislation that may not pass.



The Rules of Procedure of the Council on Legislation, issued under the authority of Royal Directive XXIII, determine how bills are to be passed.

central government

executive order

The Executive Council comprises four ex officio members - the Chief Secretary, the Commander of British Forces, the Finance Secretary and the Attorney General - plus other members appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Secretary of State. As of December 31, 1986, there were 12 appointed members, including two official members. The term of office of appointed members is limited.

The Council meets behind closed doors at least once a week and its deliberations remain confidential, although many of its decisions are made public. In theory, the function of the Council is to advise the Governor, who is obliged by Royal Instructions to consult him on all important political matters. Subject to compliance with certain procedures, the Royal Instructions allow the Governor to act against Council advice and refuse a member's request that a particular matter be referred to Council. There has not been a recent case where the governor has done any of these things. In practice, policy is decided collectively. The governor-in-council - the governor who acts in conjunction with the executive council - is the central and most important executive authority in Hong Kong.

In addition to policy issues, the governor-in-council decides on appeals, petitions, and appeals pursuant to ordinances that provide the statutory right of appeal. The Council also considers all major legislation before it is presented to the Legislative Council and is responsible for making subsidiary legislation (ordinances) under a series of ordinances. Council advice on policy matters affecting the use of public funds is subject to approval of the necessary funds by the Finance Committee of the Council on Legislation.

Legislative Rat

The Legislative Council is formed by virtue of the Charter and its primary function is to legislate, including that relating to the application of public resources. A bill passed by the Legislative Council does not become law until the governor gives his approval; Upon approval by the Governor, a bill becomes an ordinance without requiring external approval, although the Queen has reserved powers to oppose an ordinance. The right of withdrawal has not been used for many years.

The Legislative Council has a maximum number of members of 57, composed of the Governor, who is the President; three ex officio members, namely the Chief Secretary, the Financial Secretary and the Attorney General, seven official members, 22 appointed members and 24 elected members.

Official Members and Appointed Members are appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Secretary of State. Official members normally remain appointed while holding office under the Crown of Hong Kong. Nominated members may be appointed for up to three years and reappointed for additional terms of up to three years at a time.

Elected members are elected from nine functional constituencies and 12 constituencies composed of the members of the Municipal Councils, City Council and Regional Council.

Each functional constituent represents an occupation or occupational group: commercial; industrial; financially; Works; social services; doctor; Teaching; legal; and Technology



Architecture, topography and planning. Of these, the functional constituents of Commerce, Industry and Labor elect two members each, while the other six elect one member each. For the electoral college, the 19 district officials are divided into 10 constituencies consisting of one, two, three or four district officials, representing approximately 500,000 people. Members of the Municipal Council and the District Council form two further constituencies.

Elections are usually held every three years. The governor has the power to dissolve the council; in the event of dissolution, all elected members vacate their offices and a new election takes place within three months. In case of random vacancy, a by-election will be held.

The Legislative Council meets once a week in public. In August and September there is a break of about two months. Procedures are bilingual; members can address the Board in Chinese and English, and facilities for simultaneous interpretation of negotiations will be provided.

Legislation is enacted in the form of bills that go through three readings and a committee stage. Most business, including bills, are resolved through motions decided by majority vote. If an oral vote does not result in a clear majority for or against a motion, the President may instruct the Council or Committee to proceed to a division, with votes taken by individual members and recorded by the Secretary of the Council. Official members are expected to vote with the government on all matters except those where “free voting” is expressly permitted. Private bills, in addition to government action, intended to benefit any particular person, association or corporation, are introduced from time to time and enacted in the same manner. All bills, after passing through the Legislative Council, receive the approval of the Governor and are published as ordinances.

In addition to passing legislation, the Council's work includes two major debates in each legislature: a broad debate on government policy, which follows the Governor's speech at the opening of the new Council session in October each year, and the budget debate on finance - and Economic Affairs, which takes place in February and March during the second reading of the annual Appropriation Bill.

Members can also ask the government questions about policy issues for which the government is responsible and request information on such issues or request official action on them. Members may request oral or written responses to questions asked, and additional questions may be asked to clarify an answer already given.

Other Council matters include motions on auxiliary legislation, declarations and strategy documents (Green Papers and White Papers) for debate. A complete record of all documents submitted to the Council is maintained for each legislative period, along with verbal minutes of meetings (Hansard).

finance committee

The Finance Committee of the Council on Legislation comprises the Chief Secretary (Chairman), the Secretary to the Treasury, one other official member of the Council (currently the Secretary of Lands and Works), and all nominated and elected members of the Council. It reviews public spending both at special meetings in March, where members consider draft spending estimates, and at regular meetings held throughout the year to consider motions to amend provisions agreed by the Legislative Council on annual estimates. or look at the financial impact of new policies. Special sessions have been public since 1984 and are all ordinary sessions



have been held publicly since March 1985. The Finance Committee consists of two subcommittees, the Subcommittee on Charters and the Subcommittee on Public Works.

The Subcommittee on Establishment is composed of 27 members of the Council on Legislation, one of whom is the President, plus the Secretary of the Public Service and the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, who are the only public servants on the committee. He carefully reviews and makes recommendations to the Finance Committee on directorship proposals, creation of new levels and changes to salary scales. It also reviews reports on cost-benefit studies and reports to the Finance Committee on changes in departmental facilities and on the size and cost of the public service.

The Public Works Subcommittee comprises the Treasury Secretary (President), the Land and Works Secretary, and 26 other members of the Legislative Council. It reviews the progress and priority of capital works in the public works program and makes recommendations to the Finance Committee on proposed changes to the program.

Public Accounting Committee

The Public Accounts Commission, established by decision of the Legislative Council on May 10, 1978, is a permanent commission of the Legislative Council, composed of a President and six members, none of whom are members of the Council. Its main function is to examine and report on the report of the Director of Audit on the audit of the annual accounts of the Government prepared by the Director of Accounts, as well as on all matters related to the performance of his duties and the exercise of his powers. in accordance with the review regulation. The committee's primary concern is to ensure that public expenditure has not been made for any purpose other than that for which the money was allocated, that full value is obtained for the sums expended, and that the administration has not been remiss or negligent in your financial transaction management.

The Director of Audit's report will be submitted to the Legislative Council in November. The commission then meets publicly and inspectors from the various expenditure items report on the various aspects of public expenditure covered by the Director of Audit's report. The Committee's report will be submitted to the Council on Legislation within three months of the presentation of the Director of Audit's report. The Government's response to the Commission's report is contained in the Government Minutes, which describe the actions taken to implement the Commission's recommendations or the reasons why the adoption of these recommendations is not considered appropriate. This record is also submitted annually to the Council on Legislation within three months of the submission of the Public Finance Committee report.

select committees

Two special commissions were appointed by the Legislative Council in the 1985-6 session. One of them was entrusted with the task of examining measures to solve the problems of prosecuting and prosecuting complex economic crimes, including changes in procedures before and during the proceedings and in the manner of the procedure. The other was asked to consider the future management of the Hong Kong War Memorial Fund, taking into account relevant legislation, the interests of the Fund's beneficiaries and the public interest. The two special committees were dissolved in July 1986 after reporting their findings to the Board.


OMELCO means Cabinet of Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils and is the cabinet of non-governmental members of the Executive and Legislative branches



advices. Members play a significant role in the governance of Hong Kong. They advise on the formulation of government policy, draft and enact legislation, investigate complaints by members of the public against government departments and agencies, control public expenditures, and monitor the effectiveness of public administration. Until October 1986, members were referred to as "non-official" to distinguish them from the governing (official) members of the two councils. After a review, it was decided to drop the term 'unofficial' as it could be misleading to people unfamiliar with the workings of the Hong Kong system.

Through their work, members are involved in important public affairs. They review and comment on bills and major policy initiatives proposed by the government, and take into account public views through members' contacts with various constituencies, district committees, and representations of community members.

OMELCO members have 21 professional bodies that oversee the work and needs of various sectors of activity, such as Education and Labour, Health and Welfare, Public Service, Housing, Language, Transport, Trade and Industry, Public Relations and Future Affairs from Hong Kong. In addition to meetings with each other, panel members hold regular meetings with senior government officials and stakeholders to hear their views. There is also an OMELCO group appointed by the Governor to oversee the handling of complaints against the Independent Commission Against Corruption. In addition, members serve on more than 300 committees and panels that deal with public and community affairs and are increasingly appointed to chair the most important of these.

Members maintain regular informal contact with district leaders and keep in touch with what is happening across the area through regular visits to government offices and districts in the city and the New Territories. They receive the latest information about development plans and the problems people are facing, and as a result of these contacts and visits, many of the issues in the Legislative Council are raised.

In addition to the Chamber of Councillors, the Legislative Assembly Building also provides accommodation for OMELCO members and office staff. The office is not a government agency, although it is funded by the government and includes a number of senior government officials who provide research and administrative support to members. It is also a channel for the public to file grievances and handle all complaints, appeals and public representations on behalf of members alleging mismanagement by government officials. A complete record of OMELCO's work is included in its annual report.

Municipal council, district council and district administration

town hall

The City Council is the statutory council for urban areas with responsibility for providing municipal services to around four million people. As such, the Council has significant executive powers and full responsibility for a wide range of municipal functions. These functions include street cleaning, garbage collection, general hygiene control of the environment and fulfillment – ​​through approval – of requirements for the hygienic handling and preparation of food in restaurants, stores and slaughterhouses, among others.

Throughout the year, the Board carried out a major review of street vendor and public market policies. District councils were consulted extensively on the proposals contained in the revision. Controlling street vendors (hawkers) has proven difficult due to the large scale and long tradition of this practice in Hong Kong.



Within the metropolitan area, the City Council also builds and manages all public sports facilities, such as swimming pools, parks, playgrounds, indoor and outdoor stadiums, tennis courts, football pitches, squash courts, basketball courts and promotes various sports. sports in the district. The council manages museums, public libraries and several important cultural spaces and multi-purpose facilities, including City Hall, Queen Elizabeth Stadium and the Hong Kong Coliseum. It is currently planning the construction of a large science and technology museum. Meanwhile, a new art museum is also under construction in the Kowloon Cultural Complex area, which will also include a new concert hall, opera house and theater to complement facilities already operated by the city government in other parts of the metropolitan area. . It sponsors cultural performances and runs a comprehensive program of public entertainment throughout the city.

The council is made up of 30 members, 15 of whom are elected by the constituencies and 15 are appointed by the governor. It meets publicly once a month, adopts rules of procedure, deals with finances, formal requests and questions about its activities. The day-to-day running of the Board is managed by 13 special committees and 16 subcommittees. The Board Standing Committee now conducts most of its business in public, and the Hong Kong Liquor Licensing Board and Liquor Licensing Board and Libraries, Food Sanitation and Cleaning Committees have opened their meetings to the public.

The chief executive of the Council is the Director of City Services, who oversees the operations of the Department of City Services, which employs 18,000 people. The Director is charged with executing the Board's policies and implementing its decisions.

The Council has had financial autonomy since 1973 and will spend approximately $2 billion on activities and projects controlled by the Council in 1986-1987. The board is funded by a portion of fees, which makes up about 75% of its revenue, with the rest coming from various royalties and other fees.

The council has individual or collective district secretariats spread across the metropolitan areas, where councilors attend and respond to complaints from the population on various subjects. Although most issues raised are outside the Board's jurisdiction, Board members can often assist and, if necessary, seek redress from various government departments and public bodies.

Regional Council

The new regional council, created on April 1, 1986, is the statutory municipal authority for the area outside the jurisdiction of the municipal council, which includes the new towns of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Sha Tin, Tuen Mun, Tai Po and Fanling /Sheung Shui and Yuen Long and its hinterland, along with rural Sai Kung areas and islands. Like the municipal council, the regional council is responsible for all matters related to environmental hygiene, public health, sanitation, alcohol licensing and provision of recreational and cultural equipment and services within its jurisdiction - the area of ​​the regional council, home to 1 .8 million people.

The regional council is made up of 36 members. Twelve of the members are elected directly from the 12 constituencies of the regional council. Nine representative members are elected by the nine district councils in the same area, 12 are appointed by the governor, and the remaining three (the president and two vice presidents of Heung Yee Kuk) are ex officio members.

The regional council's policy is implemented by its executive body, the Department of Regional Services, which employs 8,500 people.



The Regional Council is financially independent. It is funded by revenues from fees, emoluments and tariffs collected in the administrative district. A one-time initial grant of US$100 million was provided by the central government. During the first year of its existence in 1986-87, recurring and one-time expenses are expected to be $850 million. However, expenditure on investment projects will be financed by the Government under a transitional regime that will last until 1988/89.

The Regional Council scheduled 13 sessions for 1986-7. In addition, the board has established three functional selection committees, nine geographically-based district committees, and a spirit licensing board. The three selected committees deal with finance, investments, administration, environmental sanitation and recreation and culture, while the district committees deal with operational issues in each district. Select district council committees meet monthly, district committees meet bimonthly, and the liquor licensing committee meets quarterly. All meetings of the regional council, its selected committees, district committees and the spirits committee are open to the public.

The regional council maintains close ties with the district councils in the regional council area and with Heung Yee Kuk to ensure that local aspirations and views are taken into account in its deliberations. Some district council members are co-opted into the district council district committees to improve cooperation and communication between the regional council and district councils.

district administration

District committees are statutory bodies established in 1982 to provide an effective forum for public consultation and participation in governance at the district level.

There are 19 district committees across the territory. They are composed of elected or appointed members appointed from constituencies in each district and councilors or chairpersons of rural committees who have reserved seats on councils in urban areas and in the New Territories, respectively. There are a total of 237 elected and 132 appointed members on the committees.

The tasks of the district councils set out in the district council ordinance are basically consultative. Through their councils, committees make an important contribution to the management of district affairs. In overseeing the work of government at the district level, councils discuss a wide range of issues that affect the well-being of the district's population.

They are also responsible for small environmental improvements and for promoting recreational and cultural activities in their respective districts, with funds specifically earmarked for this purpose. For the 1986/87 effect, the 19 district boards received 35 million dollars.

To stay in close contact with local residents, many board members participate in the "Meet the Public" program. This program allows residents to set up a meeting to meet their council members at the district office and share their views on local issues and issues.

In the attributions of local power, the bodies work closely with the District Management Commissions (DMCs), which are presided over by district leaders and composed of representatives of the various ministries that work in the districts. DMCs provide a forum for cross-sectoral consultation and discussion to ensure that government action is coordinated and aligned with local needs and that advice from district councils is taken into account as much as possible.



Until 1986, the district offices in Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi were administratively part of a district headed by District Commissioner Tsuen Wan. In August, however, the two district offices became independent of each other. As a result, the number of administrative districts increased to 19, equal to the number of district councils.

District offices and their sub-offices operate 66 public information centers throughout the area. These centers provide a wide range of free services to the public, including: answering general inquiries about government services, distributing government forms and information materials, administering affidavits, and administering the Free Legal Advice Scheme and the Rent Officer Scheme. During the year, these centers processed 15 million visits from people who asked questions and sought help.

In addition to district issues, the views of district executives were also sought on key policy documents with national implications, addressing issues such as the future of broadcasting in Hong Kong, proposals on medical services, and law changes related to the society's triad of crimes. and other law reform proposals.

During the year, the New Territories' nine district councils elected their representatives to the new regional council formed in April. These nine members became the chairs of district council committees created in each district to carry out their statutory functions. Each district committee is made up of 15 members, four of whom come from the district councils and three from the community, the rest being regional councillors.

Connections between representative institutions

The City Council has established a close connection with the City Councils of the metropolitan areas, with all councilors having seats in the Municipal Councils: elected councilors are ex officio members of the councils of the Parish where their constituency is located, while appointed councilors are assigned to different Boards. In addition, the City Council maintains a closer relationship with district executives through its regular meetings with district executive chair groups.

The district councils of the New Territories maintain close ties with the Heung Yee Kuk (a statutory advisory body representing the indigenous peoples of the New Territories). Seats on the district councils are reserved for the chairpersons of rural committees, who are also ex officio members of Heung Yee Kuk's Executive Committee. With the formal formation of the regional council in April 1986, close ties were established with the district councils of the New Territories. Each district council has a representative member on the regional council, and district council members are also represented on the newly established special district committees of the regional council. Through these channels, district officers are consulted on a wide range of council matters that affect them.

The regional council also has a formal affiliation with Heung Yee Kuk through the ex-officio membership of the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the council. Furthermore, three of its appointed members were also chosen from among members of the Imperial and Royal to ensure a strong relationship with the traditional inhabitants of the New Territories.

The City Council and the Regional Councils, which largely cover the same areas in their respective areas, established articulation meetings between the two bodies throughout the year and also formed joint ventures. Notably, the Keep Hong Kong Clean Committee now includes both councils. The 1986 flower show was also the responsibility of both councils and planning began for the first joint flower show to be held in March 1987 in the regional council's Shatin Central Park.



In addition, the district boards and the Municipal and Regional Councils have links with the Legislative Council. District councils are grouped into 10 constituencies, each of which sends a member to the Legislative Council. The City Council and the Regional Council each form an constituency, each of which sends one member to the Legislative Council.

Electoral system for municipal council, regional council and district councils

Elections for city council, regional council and district councils are held on a constituency basis and by broad suffrage. Virtually anyone aged 21 or over who is a Hong Kong citizen or has resided in Hong Kong for the last seven years can apply to register as a voter in the constituency in which they reside. New voters are registered voluntarily in August and September each year. At the end of the year, the electoral roll contained 1,446,212 names, representing 44.2 percent of a total potential electorate estimated at 3.3 million. 994,530 of these eligible voters reside in the town hall area and are entitled to vote in town hall elections and district board elections in the town hall area. The remaining 451,682 reside in the government district and are entitled to vote in government council elections and district council elections in the government district.

There are 145 constituencies for district table elections, 83 in the 10 districts of the municipal council area and 62 in the nine districts of the regional council area. There are 15 constituencies for City Council elections, each consisting of a number of City Council constituencies within the City Council area. The regional council has 12 constituencies, each covering a number of constituencies in the regional council area. In total there are 237 elected district executives, 15 elected councilors and 12 elected regional councillors.

The voter can only vote in the constituency in which he is registered. However, he can run for city council, regional council or district executive in any district as long as he has been a resident of Hong Kong for the past 10 years or more and his nomination is supported by 10 voters in that district. Elections are held every three years and voting is by simple majority.

City council elections held in March saw 39 candidates running in 15 constituencies. One was elected unopposed and the remaining 38 candidates contested the other 14 seats. Of the 944,844 eligible voters in the contested constituencies, 218,573 cast ballots, which corresponds to a turnout of 23.1 percent. The first elections for the regional councils were held at the same time as the elections for councillors. A total of 40 candidates were nominated in the 12 constituencies. One was elected unopposed and the remaining 39 candidates contested the other 11 seats. Of the 400,375 eligible voters in the contested constituencies, 143,534 cast ballots, which corresponds to a turnout of 35.8 percent.

Electoral system for the Legislative Assembly

The system of indirect elections for the Legislative Council, introduced in 1985, includes an electoral college and nine functional constituencies. The electoral college is made up of two special constituencies, the City Council and the Regional Council, and 10 district executive wards, each of which sends one member to the Legislative Council. The functional circles, covering the sectors of commerce, industry, finance, labour, social services, medicine, law, education and engineering, architecture, surveying and planning, also have a total of 12 members.



The right to vote in elections to the Legislative Council is prescribed accordingly. For the electoral college, the voter must be a member of the municipal council, the district chamber or the district board that constitutes the respective special constituency and district constituency. For functional constituencies, an eligible voter who is an individual must be registered for city council, county council, and county council elections in accordance with the Electoral Planning Act and be a member of an organization of the respective constituency. No person may be registered in more than one functional constituency, even if eligible. A non-individual voter must designate a person who is not already a voter in the same district as their authorized representative to vote in an election. That person cannot be the proxy for another qualified voter in the same or another constituency. However, if an individual is eligible to vote, he can be registered as an authorized representative, in addition to voting in both the electoral college and the constituency to which he belongs. For the year, the number of voters registered in the electoral college and functional constituencies is 436 and 42,428, respectively, compared to corresponding potential voters of 439 and 70,678, respectively.

The requirements for candidacy are simple: for an electoral college constituency, anyone who is a registered voter under the Electoral Provisions Decree (and need not necessarily be an eligible voter in an electoral college constituency) and who has been in Hong Kong in the last 10 years of residence or more years may be nominated if supported by five voters in that district. Any person who is a registered voter under the Electoral Provisions Decree, has resided in Hong Kong for the last 10 years or more and has a significant connection with the relevant functional constituency can be nominated for a functional constituency if he is supported by 10 voters from the constituency relevant constituency.

Voting is by absolute majority, using a redial system for constituents and a preferential system for working constituents. After 1985, elections are held every three years.

Advisory Committees

The network of government bodies and committees is a differential of the region's government system, which seeks, through consultation with community interest groups, to obtain the best possible advice to support decisions. Advisory bodies of one kind or another can be found in almost every ministry. In general, advisory bodies can be divided into five categories: public bodies that advise a department head (such as Endangered Species Advisory Committees); statutory bodies that advise the government (for example, the Board of Education); non-governmental bodies advising a department manager (for example, the Airport Facilitation Committee); non-governmental bodies that advise the government (eg Transport Advisory Board); and committees of an executive nature (such as the Chinese Temple Committee).

Government officials and members of the public are represented on these committees. Well over 4,700 members of the public are appointed to a total of 435 boards and committees, and some serve on more than one of these advisory bodies. These members are appointed on the basis of their experience or expertise, or on the basis of their merit or interest in contributing to the life of the community. Increasing importance is being attached to its contribution to the formulation and implementation of public policy and, to realize its full potential, systematic and systematic exploitation



The composition and effectiveness of these bodies are regularly monitored. The government is also expanding the cross-section of representation and encouraging the steady flow of new ideas, maintaining a reasonable membership rotation wherever possible.

The administration

chief secretary

The Chief Secretary is the Governor's primary adviser on policy matters and is primarily responsible for its implementation. He is the head of the civil service. The Chief Secretary, Financial Secretary and Attorney General meet regularly with the Governor.

The chief secretary has a very small personal staff. He exercises leadership mainly as head of the Secretariat of Government, a central body formed by the secretaries of policy and their officials. Since 1902, when the office of Lieutenant Governor expired, the Chief Secretary (or his predecessor, the Colonial Secretary) has replaced the Governor in his absence. He is the senior official of the Executive and Legislative Councils and chairs the Finance Committee.

Role of the financial secretary

The Finance Secretary is responsible for the financial and economic policies of the Hong Kong government and is an ex officio member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. He is also a member of the Finance Committee of the Legislative Chamber and chairs the Subcommittee on Works of the Finance Committee. As a government official with primary responsibility for Hong Kong's financial and economic policies, the Finance Secretary oversees the operations of the Departments of Finance, Currency, Trade and Industry and Economic Services of the Government Secretariat.

The Secretary of the Treasury is responsible, in accordance with the Public Finance Regulations, for annually submitting estimates of government revenues and expenditures to the Legislature. As an official member of the Legislative Council, he makes a major speech each year, presenting the government's budget proposals and promoting the passage of the Budget Law, which gives legal force to the annual spending proposals contained in the budget. He is also personally responsible under a number of regulations for the performance of various executive functions, such as: B. Establishing certain fees and charges and overseeing the accounts of certain trusts and public entities.

examiner's role

The audit of all government accounts is carried out by the Director of Accounts. It also audits the accounts of the City Council, the Housing Authority and more than 50 statutory and non-statutory trusts and other public bodies, and reviews the financial aspects of the operations of various government-subsidized organizations operating in Hong Kong. The appointment, term, functions and powers of the Director are defined in the Review Ordinance. In order to ensure his complete autonomy and independence in the exercise of his functions, the Chief Audit Officer is not a public official and the Regulation provides that he is not subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority. It also prescribes certain safeguards against his dismissal or early departure from office.


administration structure


Hong Kong government administration is organized into branches and departments. The branches, each headed by a secretary, form the Secretariat of Government. There are currently 12 policy departments, two resource departments dealing with finance and public service, and a department with specific responsibility for coordinating measures to implement the provisions of the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong. There is also an Office of the Assistant Secretary General, which coordinates work on issues that span the responsibilities of two or more branches and undertakes specific functions related to constitutional development.

The political departments, whose secretaries report directly to the Chief Secretary, are: Administrative Services and Information, Administration of Cities and New Territories, Education and Human Resources, Health and Social Assistance, Housing, Lands and Works, Municipal Services, Security and Transport. The Department of Public Service, a Department of Resources, the Department of General Affairs, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary General also fall under the aegis of the Secretary General. The policy areas whose secretaries report directly to the Treasury Secretary are: Economic Services, Monetary Affairs, and Trade and Industry. The Department of the Treasury, a resource department, also reports to the Secretary of the Treasury. The head of the Department of the Treasury is the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, who, despite his title, has the same rank and status as the other secretaries.

With certain exceptions, heads of government departments are accountable to branch secretaries for the direction of their departments and the effective implementation of approved government policies. An exception is made to bodies such as the Department of Public Accounts and the Independent Commission Against Corruption, whose independence is guaranteed by its director or director, who reports directly to the Governor; the Judiciary, overseen by the President of the Court; and the Legal Department, overseen by the Attorney General. Currently, there are 59 departments and agencies in this structure.

To help coordinate government policy, six Policy Groups have been established under the aegis of the Chief Secretary's Committee, bringing together Branch Secretaries in related program areas. The four, headed by the Chief Secretary, are Community Affairs; constitutional issues; Land, works, transport and housing; and Social Services Policy Group. The Legal Affairs Policy Group is chaired by the Attorney General and the Finance Group is chaired by the Financial Secretary.

foreign relations

The Role of the UK Government and Political Adviser Due to Hong Kong's status as a dependent territory, the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is constitutionally accountable to the UK Parliament for the actions of the Hong Kong Government and has powers of direction to the governor of Hong Kong. In practice, however, such formal instructions were not issued in living memory, and Hong Kong conducts its affairs with a high degree of autonomy in all domestic matters. Relations between London and Hong Kong are also essentially cooperative. For example, an important task routinely performed by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office is to ensure that Hong Kong interests and views (which do not always coincide with those of the United Kingdom) are properly reflected in the British government apparatus, particularly when it comes to new policy actions are being formulated by other Whitehall departments.


Christmas Lights in Tsim Sha Tsui East









Twilight over Happy Valley






I support Mun Waterfront

Hong Kong Pavilion at Expo '86

in vancouver






i am a hard worker






Hong Kong's foreign affairs are constitutionally the direct responsibility of the British government. Thus, the UK Government has an international responsibility to ensure that the Hong Kong Government fulfills its obligations under the many international conventions and agreements that apply to Hong Kong and the UK. But in practice, Hong Kong enjoys a considerable degree of autonomy in the day-to-day conduct of foreign policy, particularly on trade matters. It is an independent contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

The Political Adviser is a senior member of the British Diplomatic Service seconded to the Hong Kong Government primarily to advise the Governor and Chief Secretary on matters affecting Hong Kong's relations with China. His office is part of the Hong Kong government. Having been fully involved in the Sino-British negotiations that culminated in the Joint Declaration, the Office of the Political Adviser, together with the General Duties Branch, is closely involved in the work of implementing the Joint Declaration. In addition, the Political Advisor's Office continues to advise and, in some cases, coordinate action on many other routine matters, notably in promoting the various contacts between government departments in Hong Kong and their counterparts in Guangdong Province, namely in the Special Bureau of Shenzhen Economic Zone. Close and effective cross-border cooperation has developed in areas as diverse as opening new border crossings and transport links, solving pollution and flooding problems, as well as immigration, customs, postal and telecommunications issues. The Political Adviser's Office is also one of the channels of communication between the Hong Kong Government and the Overseas and Commonwealth Missions in Hong Kong. However, these missions deal directly with the relevant departments of the Hong Kong government on most day-to-day matters.

foreign trade relations

Hong Kong has complete autonomy in managing its external trade relations. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), whose fundamental objective is to liberalize world trade and uphold the most favored nation principle, is the cornerstone of Hong Kong's external trade relations. The Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which aims at the orderly development and expansion of international textile trade, forms the framework within which Hong Kong negotiates bilateral restriction agreements with textile-importing countries.

On April 23, 1986, Hong Kong became the 91st part of the GATT. Hong Kong has previously participated in GATT activities within the UK delegation. The UK spokesperson for Hong Kong was invariably a Hong Kong government official. The agreement allowed Hong Kong to assume positions different from those of the EEC and, consequently, the United Kingdom. Effective 23 April 1986, the Head of the Office of the Government of Hong Kong in Geneva was appointed as the Permanent Representative of Hong Kong to the GATT.

In the United Kingdom's declaration on Hong Kong's status as a separate party to the GATT, the British Government formally notified the Director General of the GATT that Hong Kong has full autonomy in the conduct of its external trade relations and other GATT matters. Simultaneously with this declaration by the British government, the Chinese government also declared that the Hong Kong SAR will qualify as a separate customs territory from 1 July 1997



Contracting Party and may therefore continue to be considered a separate contracting party to GATT under the designation "Hong Kong, China". Through their respective declarations, the Governments of the United Kingdom and China took the necessary concrete steps to ensure Hong Kong's continued participation in the GATT and MFA in the years before and after 1997.

Hong Kong government offices abroad

The Hong Kong government maintains representative offices in Geneva, Brussels, Washington, New York, San Francisco and London primarily to protect and promote Hong Kong's economic and commercial interests abroad.

The Geneva office represents Hong Kong in general tariffs and trade agreements. The Office is following developments arising from the deliberations of the GATT and other international organizations in Geneva and, in the last year, has been heavily involved in multilateral discussions on the future of the Multifiber Arrangement and the preparatory process for the new multilateral round of trade negotiations. . The Brussels office represents Hong Kong's economic and related interests to the European Community and Member State governments (except the United Kingdom). The New York, Washington and San Francisco offices review economic or other developments, proposed legislation and other matters in the United States of America that may affect Hong Kong's economic interests generally and mutual trade with the United States in particular. The San Francisco office opened in July in recognition of the need to further Hong Kong's interests in the United States amid growing protectionist sentiment there and the threat they pose to Hong Kong's commercial interests. The New York and San Francisco offices comprise the Department of Industry's Industrial Investment Promotion Offices.

Compared to other overseas offices, the London office has a much wider range of functions. It acts as a direct point of contact between Hong Kong and UK government agencies, MPs, media and organizations with an interest in Hong Kong, monitoring UK trade, economic and industrial developments and official reflections on trade policy. international and advising the Hong Kong Government on the likely implications of these developments. In addition, the office represents Hong Kong in inquiries about trade relations with certain European countries, where necessary, and includes an Industrial Promotion Office that advises British companies on investment opportunities in Hong Kong industry. The office also supports Hong Kongers in the UK, including Hong Kong students, oversees the recruitment and training of Hong Kong civil servants in the UK, and provides promotional services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image there. Given the UK's role in implementing the Joint Declaration and its constitutional responsibility for Hong Kong until 1997, the London office will continue to occupy a special place among Hong Kong offices abroad.

See Appendix 2 for details on overseas representation.

Public service

The civil service provides staff for all ministries and other administrative units. With Hong Kong's centralized form of government, the civil service administers a wide range of services that, in many countries, would be administered by other public bodies. These include medical services, public works and utilities,



Cleaning and public health, education, fire and police. Responsible for these areas are the Medical and Health Departments with 25,098 facilities, the Lands and Operations Departments (22,094), the Community Services Department (25,796), the Education Department (6,349), the Fire Department ( 6,669) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (30,965) accounts for 64.8% of the establishment of the entire civil service. During the 1985/86 financial year, the size of the civil service stabilized through staff turnover and increased productivity. As of April 1, 1986, the service's total strength was 174,946, over 98 percent of whom were local officers.

Responsibility for administering the public service rests with the Department of Public Service of the Government Secretariat. The Secretariat deals with matters such as appointment, remuneration and conditions of service, personnel management, personnel planning, training and discipline, and is also the central point of consultation with the main workers' associations.

Recruitment and promotions to the middle and upper echelons of the civil service are subject to the opinion of the Civil Service Commission independent of the Government. The commission has a full-time chairman and leading citizens as members.

Two independent bodies advise the government on wages and conditions of service. The Standing Committee on Management Compensation and Conditions of Service advises on matters affecting executive directors (the approximately 1,000 most senior directors). The Permanent Commission on Salaries and Conditions of Service in the Civil Service deals with all other civil servants. During the year, the two advisory bodies offered their advice on the salary structure of various individual levels and oversaw the conduct of a salary survey by an independent consultancy with the aim of determining whether public servants' compensation, including salaries and fringe benefits, was broadly in line with that of Private Sector Employees performing comparable functions. The survey results, together with the recommendations of the two advisory bodies, will provide important guidance for future public sector compensation determinations. During the year, the vacation and transition regimes for civil servants were also reviewed, and improvements were made to the current system of allowances for work, on the advice of the Permanent Commission.

At the same time, some improvements were revised and introduced to the Housing Purchase Regime and the Housing Credit Regime for Civil Servants. Arrangements have also been made to allow public officials who occupy cooperative housing to acquire ownership of these housing.

The Government fully recognizes the value of good relations between civil servants. In addition to providing a wide range of social and leisure facilities for employees, great importance is attached to promoting effective employee counseling. The formal advisory mechanism consists of two central service-wide advisory bodies: the Senior Civil Service Council and the Scale 1 Model Personnel Advisory Council, a Police Force Council for members of the police force, and departmental advisory committees for staff from all over the world. the other departments. Outside of these councils and committees, individual civil servants or associations of civil servants have direct access to their department or grade heads and the Civil Service Department. A comprehensive review of the existing query engine is underway to examine how it can be strengthened.

In 1986, new efforts were made to increase productivity and improve the quality of service to the public. For this purpose, work improvement studies and price-performance studies were carried out in various departments. The results of these studies did not materialize



not only improvements in service quality, but also more efficient use of staff and significant savings in resources.

The government attaches great importance to training civil servants to improve their operational efficiency, prepare them for new challenges and increased responsibilities, and respond to the service's growing staffing needs. Most of the training is carried out in person under the coordination of the Civil Service Training Centre. The center organizes management and language training and advises and supports the departments on training issues. The center also manages the government's training scholarship program and various overseas training programs.

Under the auspices of the Senior Personnel Course Advisory Board, a series of courses designed to prepare mid-career officers for leadership positions continues. Each course lasts 12 weeks and has up to 40 participants, including some from the private sector. Since the beginning of the program, in September 1984, more than 200 participants have participated in the courses.


Hong Kong's official languages ​​are English and Chinese. While the former is used by the expatriate community and in business, financial and professional circles, it is also widely understood by local populations whose first language is Chinese. Most of the local Chinese community speaks Cantonese, a southern Chinese dialect, and interest in learning to speak Putonghua (Mandarin) is gaining momentum as closer ties are developed with China. Laws are currently enacted in English and Chinese translations of selected pieces of legislation are available to the public. It is planned to pass the laws in both English and Chinese.

the legal system

well in hong kong

In general, Hong Kong law follows that of England and Wales. The English Law Enforcement Ordinance was passed in 1966 to determine the extent to which English law applied in the territory. Section 3 provides that English common law and Hong Kong equity rules will apply to the extent applicable to the circumstances of Hong Kong or its residents, subject to such changes as those circumstances may require.

In addition, the decree applies some English laws to Hong Kong, such as the Justices of the Peace Act of 1361 and the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679.

English laws are occasionally applied to Hong Kong, either directly or by order of Her Majesty in Council, the power to make whatever laws seem necessary for the peace, order and good government of the territory expressly granted by Article IX of the Charter . In practice, this is largely limited to issues affecting Hong Kong's international standing. For example, the Air Navigation (Overseas Territories) Order 1977 is an Order of Council applying provisions of civil aviation treaties to which the UK is a party to the Overseas Territories of the UK, including Hong Kong.

In order to ensure that Hong Kong has a comprehensive legislative body by 1997 that owes its authority to the Hong Kong legislature, it will be necessary to replace these English laws with local laws on the same subjects. The Hong Kong government therefore passed a legislative program to override the application of English laws.



transferred to Hong Kong and replaced by Hong Kong regulations. The Hong Kong Act 1985 gave the Hong Kong Legislature powers by Order in Council to delegate additional powers needed in certain areas and the Hong Kong Order (Legislative Powers) 1986 specified the areas of civil aviation, merchant marine and jurisdiction of the Admiralty. It is expected that other orders will be issued in the future, conferring similar powers in other areas.

Local legislation (i.e., decrees enacted by the Legislative Council and approved by the governor) usually begins with one of the political branches of the Hong Kong government formulating the drafting of instructions for the drafting department of the Attorney General. Instructions are prepared in consultation with relevant government bodies and, where appropriate, interested public groups as to the policy to be followed. After drafting the bill, it is submitted for approval by the governor in council to be forwarded to the Legislative Council. If the bill is approved by the vote of the Legislative Council, the governor is empowered to enact it by giving his assent and it is put into effect.

Similar to the common law of England, Hong Kong's evolved on the basis of English common law and rules of equity, following and applying local law and English or British law where appropriate. Hong Kong regulations generally rely heavily on UK law or Commonwealth country law where deemed more appropriate. Cases from Commonwealth countries and the United States of America are cited in court and treated with respect. Hong Kong courts apply a doctrine of binding precedent similar to that adopted by English courts. The Hong Kong Court of Appeal is bound by its own past decisions. Appeal from the Court of Appeal rests with the Privy Council and it was said in a 1969 Full Court case that Hong Kong courts were "clearly bound by the decisions of the Privy Council and the House of Lords". The Supreme Court revisited the issue of precedent in 1973, concluding that "any relevant decision of the Privy Council" was binding on Hong Kong courts.

The Office of the General Prosecutor assumed responsibility for drafting new laws in Chinese and English and for translating existing laws into Chinese. The Chinese text will be an authentic version of the laws, which courts can consult alongside the English text to determine the meaning of an enactment. In May 1986, a discussion paper for public comment was issued by the Attorney General's Chambers, examining how best to introduce legislation in both Chinese and English. The discussion paper was positively received. It is to be expected that after passing the necessary enabling laws, initially only new basic laws will be issued in two languages. Translating existing laws into Chinese will take several years. The Chinese language team in the drafting department of the Attorney General's Office began drafting laws in Chinese in July 1986.


The Chief Justice is the head of the judiciary. He is assisted in the exercise of his administrative functions by the Registrar and the Deputy and Deputy Secretaries of the Supreme Court. During the year, a senior magistrate from England conducted an audit of the court's administration. All changes in court administration recommended as a result of the review are expected to be implemented in 1987.

The Presiding Judge, Judges of Appeal and Judges of the Superior Court are appointed by charter issued under public seal by the Governor under the direction of the Governor



Queen, transmitted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. District judges are appointed by the governor by letter under the public seal, and magistrates are appointed by the governor by warrant.

The judiciary reviews all cases and decides on civil disputes, either between individuals or between individuals and the government. Fundamental to Hong Kong is the principle in English constitutional law that members of the judiciary are wholly independent of Organs executive and legislative bodies of government in the exercise of their judicial office.

The courts in Hong Kong are the High Court (composed of the Court of Appeal and the High Court), the District Court, the Magistrates' Court, the Coroners' Court, the Juvenile Court, the Land Court and the Labor and the Small Claims Court.

The Lands Court was established in 1974 and has three main judicial functions. First, it determines the amounts to be paid by the government and others in compensation to people whose land is forcibly reopened or devalued as a result of public or private development. Second, the Court has appellate jurisdiction from the Commissioner of Classification and Evaluation. This includes objections to assessment fees under the Tariffs Ordinance and objections to rent increase certificates and other findings under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance (Association). Third, since 1982, the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal includes all property claims under the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Act and ancillary pecuniary claims.

In exercising its jurisdiction, the arbitral tribunal shall have the powers of the district court. In addition, it enjoys the powers of the Superior Court in certain matters and has the power, at its discretion, to follow the practice and procedure of the Superior Court.

Small Claims Court hears monetary claims of up to $8,000. The procedure followed is simple and informal and no legal representation is allowed.

The Labor Court handles individual monetary claims from employment contracts. The subsequent informal procedure initially serves to reconcile the parties to the dispute.

Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of criminal and summary offences. Their criminal powers are usually limited to a maximum of two years imprisonment or a fine of $10,000, although cumulative prison sentences of up to three years may be imposed for two or more crimes tried at the same time.

All criminal cases proceed from a magistracy. The Attorney General may request that a case be referred to the District Court or the Superior Court, depending on the seriousness of the case. High Court trial assignments are usually made by a magistrate when, after hearing evidence in a preliminary inquiry, he or she considers that there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused to trial in the High Court. Exceptions exist in cases where the defendant opts for automatic placement.

Lay judges sit as counselors with newly arrived judges recruited from abroad. Evaluators are local residents with knowledge of local customs, traditions and community sentiments. They are selected from a panel of around 320 experts.

Five special Cantonese-speaking judges, who have no legal qualifications but experience in the judiciary, were appointed to handle cases of a more routine nature, such as trafficking and minor transit cases. However, his power to punish does not include imprisonment.



Two medical examiners conduct investigations into the cause of or circumstances involving sudden, accidental, violent, or suspicious death. You can sit with a three-person jury.

The Juvenile Court hears charges against children (under the age of 14) and youth (aged 14 to 16) for crimes other than manslaughter.

The District Court, created in 1953, has limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters. Has civil jurisdiction over monetary claims up to $60,000 or, if the claim is for land reclamation, the annual rent or taxable amount does not exceed $45,000. Within its criminal jurisdiction, the court can hear the most serious cases, with the exception of some very serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and rape. The maximum sentence she can impose is seven years. It also exercises appellate jurisdiction in appeals filed against the collection of stamp duty instituted by the Collector of Stamp Revenue.

The Supreme Court has unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. The court also exercises jurisdiction in matters of bankruptcy, liquidation, adoption, probate and insanity.

The most serious offenses, such as murder, manslaughter, rape, armed robbery, and major drug-related offenses, are tried by a Supreme Court judge, consisting of a jury of seven, or nine if the judge directs. The jury decides whether the accused is guilty or innocent. In cases where the law provides for the death penalty, the jury's decision must be unanimous. In other cases, a jury may return a majority of five to two.

The Court of Appeal is the highest court in Hong Kong. He handles appeals on all civil and criminal matters to the Superior Court and the District Court, as well as appeals from the Land Court. It also decides legal questions submitted to it by lower courts.

Further appeals may be made by the Court of Appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. Such remedies are not common due to the costs involved and the strict conditions that apply to the granting of a special permit.

attorney general

The attorney general is the governor's legal advisor. Royal instructions provide for him to be an ex officio member of both the Executive Council and the Legislative Council. He also chairs the Hong Kong Law Reform Commission and the Long-Term Prisoner Review Board, and is a member of the Judicial Services Commission and the Complaints and Operations Review Committee of the ICAC. He is also the nominal head of the Hong Kong Bar Association.

The Attorney General chairs the Legal Affairs Policy Group, one of several policy bodies established under the aegis of the Chief Secretary's Committee to bring together branch secretaries in related program areas. The group has an important coordinating role on legal policy issues and decisions, including assigning responsibilities for other legislative initiatives that have significant legal policy content. Frequently, the group asks the Attorney General of the Republic to assume responsibility as sponsor and spokesman for legislative proposals to be presented to the Executive and Legislative Councils.

Any government agency that needs legal advice can get it from the Attorney General. He is the Crown's representative in all proceedings brought by or against the Crown. He is also responsible for drafting all laws and conducting all law enforcement actions.



The Attorney General's chambers are divided into four divisions and a Special Affairs Division, each headed by a magistrate to whom the Attorney General delegates some of his powers and responsibilities. The Civil Department is headed by the Crown Solicitor and is responsible for providing all civil legal advice and handling all civil litigation involving Crown. The Public Prosecutor's Office is chaired by the Public Prosecutor's Office, which is responsible for instructing and conducting the criminal proceedings. The Drafting Department is headed by the Law Rapporteur, who is responsible for drafting all statutes and regulations. The Attorney General directs the Department of Policy and Administration, which includes the Secretariat of the Law Reform Commission. The Special Tasks Department was created to review the treaties that Hong Kong has joined and other international commitments in the light of the Sino-British Joint Declaration.

The Attorney General is normally represented in court by Advocates of the Crown, who are members of its chambers. Occasionally, the services of external legal advisers are used.

It is the Attorney General who is responsible for all law enforcement actions in Hong Kong and it is his sole responsibility to decide whether or not to prosecute in a particular case and it is his responsibility to carry out and control the actions. In this regard, the Hong Kong Court of Appeal ruled in 1979 that the powers and responsibilities of the Attorney General of Hong Kong are mutatis mutandis the same as those of the Attorney General in England.

The vast majority of minor criminal cases heard by judges are routine matters handled by law enforcement agencies under established guidelines issued under the authority of the Attorney General and without individual reference to the chambers of the Attorney General. When such cases are complicated matters or raise difficult legal issues, advice is sought from the public prosecutor. For serious crimes where the jurisdiction is the District Court or the Supreme Court, guidance from the Public Ministry must be sought.

Legal Reform Commission

The Law Reform Commission has been appointed by the Governor in Council to consider and report on matters that may be referred to it by the Attorney General or Chief Justice. Its members include legislative advisors, academic and practitioner advocates, and prominent members of the community. The commission's proposals on commercial arbitration, bills of exchange, community service orders, inter-offender contributions, and compensation for personal injury and death were approved. Reports on insurance issues, the admissibility of confession statements and the legal consequences of age have been published, with reports of contempt of court and unfair contract terms to follow shortly. The Commission examines hearsay evidence in civil proceedings, breach of trust, coroners, wills and legal succession, the law relating to bail, arrest and detention, the law of international arbitration, interest on debts and damages, and the competence and capacity of spouses .

legal assistance

To ensure that people unable to afford the costs of protecting their legitimate rights and freedoms have access to the courts, Hong Kong has developed an extensive legal aid system over the years. This system is administered by the Legal Aid Department and provides legal representation before civil and criminal courts. In addition, the Law Society of Hong Kong operates the Law Society Legal Advice and Duty Lawyer Schemes, which provide free legal advice on civil law matters and free legal advice.



Representation of defendants in certain criminal cases before district courts and juvenile courts that are not covered by the legal aid department. Both aspects of legal aid are funded by the Hong Kong government, but the Legal Aid Department itself is a government department.

The report of a review by an administrative working group on the scope of legal assistance and its administration was presented to the legal profession during the year. Taking into account the opinions of the profession, the government will issue a document for public consultation.

Legal aid, as administered by the Department of Legal Aid, is available to Hong Kong residents and non-residents who satisfy the Director of Legal Aid as to financial eligibility and justification for legal action. Financial limits in civil and criminal cases are the same. Legal aid eligibility limits were changed in 1986 to $2,200 monthly disposable income and $15,000 disposable capital. Disposable income and assets are determined after grants have been deducted from the applicant's actual income and assets. Depending on the amount of income and available capital, legal aid is provided free of charge or against payment of a contribution. If a court assistant is successful in a civil case and court fees are reimbursed in the case, any contribution he or she has paid may be reimbursed. In the event of an unsuccessful legal dispute, a court attendant's liability for costs is limited to the amount of contribution he may have made.

In addition to financial eligibility, the applicant must satisfy the Director of Civil Legal Assistance that he has a reasonable chance of succeeding in the litigation for which he is seeking legal assistance and subsequently recovering the debt. Legal assistance is available for a wide range of civil cases before the District Court, High Court, Court of Appeal and appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. Traffic accident claims, industrial injury and employment claims, immigration matters and all areas of family law from divorce, separation, child support, child custody and guardianship all fall under the purview of the department. Cases such as admiralty, bankruptcy and liquidation proceedings are handled along with a variety of general court proceedings involving landlords and tenants, breach of contract and professional negligence. An applicant who is denied legal aid may appeal such denial to the Clerk of the Supreme Court or, in Privy Council cases, to a Board of Review.

Estimated total spending for 1986-7 was $28 million for civil matters. A total of 14,898 civil legal assistance requests were received, of which 5,583 were granted and a total of $84 million was recovered for assisted civil clients.

Legal assistance is available for criminal proceedings before the District Courts, High Court, Court of Appeal, Judicial Commission of the Privy Council and for representation in proceedings before Magistrates' Courts where the prosecution intends to place a defendant at the High Court hearing. The extension of legal assistance to magistrates' courts for more serious offenses is being actively explored.


Most of the accused in these criminal courts are legally protected. For such criminal cases, legal aid is granted without exception due to the severity of the charge and the severity of the sentence - subject to financial law. Legal assistance may also be granted to raise mitigating objections. Appeals against a murder conviction, whether or not there is a basis for appeal, require the approval of legal counsel. For all other criminal appeals, including appeals against judges' decisions, legal aid will be renewed, subject to financial eligibility, if the Director of Legal Aid is satisfied that there are valid grounds for appeal. A person who is denied legal aid in criminal matters may still receive legal aid, subject to financial eligibility, by a first-degree judge or legal aid



by the Court of Appeal or, in connection with an appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, by a Board of Review.

The estimated total spending for 1986-7 is $24 million for criminal cases. 3 720 requests for legal aid in criminal cases were received, of which 2 040 were granted.

When legal aid is granted to a person, the Head of Legal Aid assigns the matter to a private solicitor and, if necessary, a barrister or one of his own career officers. To this end, the department maintains a litigation department specializing in personal injury litigation, employee compensation claims and family law.

In August 1986, the Legal Aid Department headquarters moved to new premises at Government Offices in Queensway. The new building is adjacent to the Supreme Court building and is much more conveniently located in terms of access to the courts and registers.

Complementary legal assistance regulation

The Supplementary Legal Aid Scheme provides legal aid to "sandwich" class persons whose funds are outside the financial limits of legal aid but are insufficient to cover the high costs of litigation on a private basis. This system, introduced in October 1984, is limited to Superior Court claims for personal injury or death. The system is administered by the Director of Legal Assistance.

Under this program, applicants may be eligible for legal assistance if their gross income does not exceed $15,000 per month and their total assets, excluding the value of an owner-occupied home and other allowances, do not exceed $100,000. The program is funded by a fund consisting of a loan from the State Lottery Fund, and it is a condition of being eligible for legal aid under this program that claimants agree to contribute a percentage of the indemnified damages to be paid, which percentage depends on the percentage of the amount recovered and whether or not the case is resolved before trial. This percentage ranges from 10% to 12.5%.

The estimated total expenditure in 1986-7 was $200,000. During this period, 86 applications were received, of which 36 were approved.

Legal advice and mandatory power of attorney regulations

In cooperation with the Bar Association, which provides various representatives to the Executive Committee, the Law Society has administered three programs since 1978 to provide free legal representation, legal advice and legal information to the people of Hong Kong. The government funds these programs through grants totaling $17,184,000 in the 1986-87 fiscal year.

The Duty Lawyer Scheme operates in the eight law offices and four juvenile courts and utilizes the services of 500 solicitors and solicitors through rosters and assignments to provide free legal representation to criminal defendants accused of specific crimes. In magistrates' courts these are: membership in a triad society, vagrancy, illicit possession, equipment for theft, resisting arrest, possession of dangerous drugs for illicit trafficking, possession of dangerous drugs, possession of devices suitable for use with dangerous drugs are , and possession of offensive weapons. In addition, free legal representation is available for extradition proceedings and discretionary cases, although such cases are necessarily limited in number due to general resources. All but the least serious offenses entail free legal representation in juvenile courts. There is no means test. During the year, a total of 15,332 adults and youth faced approximately 24,779 charges and received counseling and representation in court.



The free legal advice program is conducted in the evenings in the district offices of Sha Tin, Tsuen Wan, Wan Chai, Eastern, Mong Kok, Wong Tai Sin, Kwun Tong and Yau Ma Tei by 345 volunteer lawyers, 24 of whom are deployed weekly. About 3,273 people who have been placed by 120 agencies receive counseling each year. Once the issue is identified, appointments are made within seven to 10 days, and as agency staff jot down details of issues during their discussions with clients, attorneys can provide credible advice based on the Research required prior to meeting. . People are supported on marriage and work issues, landlord and tenant issues, and a variety of other topics.

In 1984, the Bar Association introduced "Tel-Law", whereby recorded legal information on a variety of legal matters was made available over 10 telephone lines during working hours and at night. The tapes are 24 minutes long and encourage individuals who discover their own legal issues while listening to the tapes to take advantage of the free legal assistance program. The bands, which are updated frequently, focus on four main areas of interest - matrimonial, tenant, criminal and financial law - but a large number of new bands have been added detailing consumer law and employment law, for example . The number of people with questions about these topics has increased. 54 Cantonese and English tapes were available and in 1986 47,578 calls were answered.


implementation of

The Sino-British Joint Declaration

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real sound machine

After two years of negotiations, the British and Chinese governments signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong on 19 December 1984. As a result, the Hong Kong Act 1985 was passed by the British Parliament ending sovereignty and British jurisdiction over Hong Kong, receiving Royal Assent on 4 April 1985. The Joint Declaration entered into force on 27 May 1985, when instruments of ratification were exchanged between the two governments in Beijing. It was then simultaneously registered with the United Nations on June 12 by the two governments of the People's Republic of China. The SAR will have its own government and legislature made up of local residents and will enjoy a high degree of autonomy. However, the Central People's Government will be responsible for Hong Kong's foreign and defense affairs. Hong Kong's social, economic and lifestyle systems will remain unchanged for 50 years after 1997, and China's socialist system and policies will not be practiced in the SAR.

Upon ratification of the Joint Declaration, the British and Chinese governments took immediate steps to implement its provisions, with the aim that the transition from present-day Hong Kong to a special administrative region of China would be smooth and coordinated, resulting in the least disruption to social life. , business and administrative environment in Hong Kong. The most important steps were the formation of the Sino-British Land Commission and the Joint Liaison Group.

state commission

The Sino-British Land Commission was established in 1985 under Annex III of the Joint Declaration. Its role is to advise on land leases and other related matters. The Commission is made up of three senior officials from each side. It meets regularly in Hong Kong and by the end of 1986 had held ten formal sessions.

Despite its short history, the Commission has made solid progress. Agreed on a set of legal documents to be used in various types of real estate transactions covered by the provisions of Annex III and the agreements to share premium income from real estate transactions. The Commission also agreed on the annual land sale program for 1985 and 1986. In August 1986, the Chinese side of the Land Commission created an Investment Committee composed of respected local bankers and foreign exchange experts to manage the investment of bonus due to future SAR. Premium income credited to the SAR account at the end of 1986 was $1,615 million.

The state commission will meet regularly until July 1, 1997.


The Joint Liaison Group


The Sino-British Joint Liaison Group (JLG) was formed pursuant to Annex II of the Joint Declaration. Its functions are to consult on the implementation of the Joint Declaration, discuss and exchange information on matters related to the smooth transition of government in 1997, and consult on matters that can be mutually agreed upon. As the JLG is a liaison body and not a power body, it has no role in the administration of Hong Kong.

The JLG consists of a senior representative and four other members from each side. Support staff and specialists also attend meetings as needed. It meets at least once a year in Beijing, London and Hong Kong. The first JLG meeting was held in London in July 1985, the second in Beijing in November 1985, the third in Hong Kong in March 1986 and the fourth in London in July 1986. in Beijing at the end of November 1986. The JLG will meet at these three locations through the year 2000 and will be headquartered in Hong Kong from July 1988.

Since its inception, the JLG has been instrumental in implementing the Joint Declaration. Your meetings take place in a friendly and collaborative environment. A good working relationship has been established and the mutual trust between the two sides is constantly growing. Positive results were achieved in several areas critical to Hong Kong's future.

Hong Kong and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Annex II of the Joint Declaration specifically refers to the need for the JLG to consider maintaining Hong Kong's participation in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA). Discussion on Hong Kong's future participation in these important trade agreements was successfully concluded at the third session of the JLG, in which it was agreed that Hong Kong should become a party to GATT and retain that status after 1997. The UK government announced in 23 In April 1986, it issued a declaration to the Director General of the GATT pursuant to Article XXVI(5)c of the GATT, declaring that Hong Kong would be party to the provisions of that Article from that date. On the same day, the government of the People's Republic of China issued a parallel declaration that Hong Kong, as a special administrative region of China, would continue to meet the criteria necessary to maintain its party status after 1997 under Article XXVI(5)c . Hong Kong thus became the 91st contracting party to the GATT and in this new capacity confirmed its accession to the MFA. These events were well received by many of Hong Kong's major trading partners.

This new status made it inappropriate for Hong Kong to participate in the GATT as part of the UK's diplomatic mission in Geneva. The Permanent Representative of Hong Kong to the GATT is now listed separately from the UK Mission, and its office has been renamed the Hong Kong Economic and Commercial Office, in line with the terms used for such missions in the Joint Declaration.

Identity cards and travel documents

The third JLG meeting confirmed the agreement that the passports of British nationals (foreigners) would have an annotation that the passport holder has a permanent Hong Kong identity card stating that the holder has the right to reside in Hong Kong - a annotation, which is crucial for the international acceptance of the passport. The new British national (overseas) passports will be introduced from 1 July 1987.



At the same meeting, it was also agreed that identity cards issued in Hong Kong before 1 July 1997 would remain valid until replaced by the SAR government. At the fourth meeting of the JLG, the design of the new identity card was also agreed upon.

In the case of identity certificates used by approximately one million Hong Kong residents when traveling abroad, it was agreed at the fourth meeting of the JLG that such documents issued before 1 July 1997 would remain valid for ten years and would have substantially similar notation. to which you agreed to be included in the British National (Overseas) Passports.

aviation contracts

Until this year, all air services on routes between Hong Kong and other countries were governed by Air Services Agreements (ASAs) signed between those countries and the UK. Noting that such arrangements will not last beyond 1997, a common view was reached at the fourth session of the JLG on procedures for separating Hong Kong interests from existing UK ASAs. This measure would allow the maintenance of separate agreements beyond 1997, in accordance with the provisions of the Joint Declaration. On September 17, Hong Kong signed its first "separate" ASA with the Dutch government. It is planned to separate the remaining 22 WINGS applicable to Hong Kong well before 1997.

Hong Kong shipping record

At the fourth JLG meeting, agreement was reached on principles for establishing a shipping register in Hong Kong. The plan envisages the creation of a register which will be separate from the UK register currently in place in Hong Kong, but which will be based on the UK's internationally recognized high standards. The plan agreed with the Chinese government was released on 14 October and the Hong Kong government is now in consultation with stakeholders, including shipowners and unions, to implement it.

Location of UK law applicable to Hong Kong

Some of the laws of Hong Kong, for example those governing merchant shipping and civil aviation, are in fact laws of the United Kingdom which apply to Hong Kong either directly or by order of the Council. Prior to 1997, the provisions of all such laws that are still required in Hong Kong must be "localized", i.e. replaced by similar laws but enacted in Hong Kong. As a first step, the Hong Kong (Legislative Powers) Order 1986 of 25 July 1986 gives the Hong Kong legislature the power to amend or repeal laws applicable to Hong Kong in the areas of merchant shipping, aviation civil and jurisdiction of the admiralty. The regulation also authorizes the Hong Kong legislature to enact laws with extraterritorial effect in these areas.

International Rights and Obligations Subgroup

The first permanent subgroup established by the JLG, the Subgroup on International Rights and Obligations, was formally established at the fourth session of the JLG to consider and discuss matters relevant to the continued application of international rights and obligations in relation to Hong Kong and to report its findings to the JLG. The sub-group is made up of three specialists from each side, supplemented by other specialists and support staff as needed. It has its main base in Hong Kong, but can meet in Beijing or London if necessary.



The multitude of treaties relevant to Hong Kong and international obligations that the subgroup has to examine individually means that its work will take many years to complete. Two expert exchanges in January and May got off to a good start, paving the way for agreements reached at the fourth meeting of the Joint Liaison Group on Hong Kong's continued involvement in international meteorological and postal affairs after 1997. Both sides agreed that the SAR of Hong Kong should have its own separate postal administration and that its representatives should attend Universal Postal Union meetings as members of the Chinese delegation. They also agreed that the Hong Kong SAR should continue to have its own meteorological service and remain a member of the World Meteorological Organization.

After the subgroup's first meeting in October, the Joint Liaison Group, at its fifth meeting, reached agreement on how the Hong Kong SAR can maintain its status as an associate member of the International Maritime Organization and on continued application of the conventions of law shipping relevant to Hong Kong. At the same meeting, it was agreed how to ensure that the Hong Kong SAR continues to participate adequately in the activities of the International Telecommunication Union and exercise the same autonomy over telecommunication services that it currently enjoys.




The economy

AFTER a sluggish performance in 1985, Hong Kong's economy recovered significantly in 1986. The real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate accelerated from 0.6% in 1985 to around 8.7% in 1986. domestic exports were the main driver of this overall growth.

The buoyancy of export demand, along with growing domestic demand, helped to keep the unemployment rate low. With an unemployment rate of 2.2% in the fourth quarter of 1986, the workforce was virtually full-time. Earnings in most sectors of the economy increased significantly in real terms. Demand for most types of real estate increased, and trade in the real estate market was active.

Despite the acceleration of import prices for many commodities, the rate of increase in consumer prices through the end of 1986 was still moderate. Lower commodity prices from China due to the depreciation of the renminbi had a somewhat dampening effect on consumer price increases. For the year as a whole, the consumer price index (A) recorded an average increase of 2.8 percent compared to 1985.

Structure and development of the economy

Due to its limited natural resources, Hong Kong relies on imports for virtually all of its needs, including food and other consumer goods, raw materials, capital goods, fuel and even water. It must therefore export enough to generate foreign exchange earnings to pay for these imports, and export volumes must continue to grow if the population is to enjoy rising standards of living.

The external orientation of the economy can be seen from the fact that in 1986 the total value of visible trade (composed of exports, re-exports and domestic imports) was 190% of GDP. If imports and exports of services were added together, this proportion would be 221%. Between 1976 and 1986, the real compound annual growth rate of domestic exports was about 9%, about twice the growth rate of world trade. As a result, Hong Kong ranks high among the world's commercial economies.

Contributions from different economic sectors

The relative importance of different sectors in the economy can be gauged by their contributions to GDP and total employment.

Primary production (including agriculture and fisheries, as well as mining and extraction) is small in terms of its contribution to employment and GDP.


Within secondary production (which consists of manufacturing, electricity and water supply, and construction), manufacturing accounts for the largest share of GDP and employment. Manufacturing's contribution to GDP has declined



from 31% in 1970 to 21% in 1982, but recovered to around 24% in 1983 and 1984. In 1985, the manufacturing sector's contribution to GDP fell to 22% due to the decline in domestic exports. Despite this decline, manufacturing was still the largest contributor in terms of GDP. The construction sector's share of GDP increased from 4% in 1970 to 8% in 1981 before falling to around 5% in 1984 and 1985 when construction activity slowed.

The contribution of the general tertiary service sectors (including wholesale, retail, and import/export trade, restaurants, and hotels; transportation, storage, and communications; financial, insurance, real estate, and business services; and municipal, social, and personal services) to the GDP increased from 61 percent in 1970 to 65 percent in 1982. Its share of GDP remained stable between 1983 and 1985 at around 62 to 64 percent.

The tertiary service sectors are highly diversified. The contribution of wholesale and retail trade, import and export, restaurants and hotels to GDP has remained relatively stable at around 19 to 22 percent over the past 15 years. The transport, storage and communication sector's contribution to GDP also held steady at around seven to eight percent.

However, the share of the financial, insurance, real estate and business services sectors in GDP has fluctuated significantly. It rose from 15% in 1970 to 24% in 1981, but dropped to 16% in 1984, largely reflecting the depressing effect of the housing crisis. In 1985, its contribution to GDP remained unchanged at 16%.

In terms of employment, the most notable change in recent years was that, although manufacturing employment still represented the largest share of the employed labor force, the share fell from 47% in 1971 to 41% in 1981 and beyond 36% in 1986. On the other hand, the share of total tertiary service sectors in total employment increased from 41 percent in 1971 to 47 percent in 1981 and still to 55 percent in 1986.

Type and relative importance of manufacture

While trade statistics show that Hong Kong's domestic exports are still dominated by a few key product groups, there has been a significant improvement in quality and diversification within these product groups. Growing pressures from protectionism and increasing competition from other economies have increased efforts by local manufacturers to diversify, not just in terms of products but also in terms of markets. It is estimated that up to 90% of Hong Kong's production will eventually be exported.

Hong Kong companies need to be flexible and adaptable to deal with frequent changes in demand patterns and remain externally competitive. The existence of many small companies and an extensive system of subcontractors made the necessary relocation of production much easier and contributed to increasing the flexibility of the economy. Due to the limited amount of usable land, Hong Kong's manufacturing industries are generally those that can successfully operate in multi-story factory buildings. In practice, this implies a concentration on the production of lightweight finished products. Many new industries have emerged and grown since the post-war years, the most important being plastics and electronics. Other emerging industries include metal products, watches, toys, optical and precision instruments, and real and imitation jewelry.



Between 1973 and 1984, the net output value of manufacturing grew at an average annual rate of 18%, while manufacturing employment grew at an average annual rate of 4%. Within the manufacturing sector, the most significant change has occurred in the textile industry. Its share of net industrial output fell from 27% to 14% over the period and its share of industrial employment from 21% to 12%. This decline was offset by expansion in the apparel, electrical and electronics, and professional and scientific equipment (including watches) industries. Between 1973 and 1984, their share of net industrial output increased from 20% to 24%, from 9% to 18% and from 1% to 4%, respectively, while their share of industrial employment increased from 26% to 31%. , from 11 percent to 15 percent and from two percent to four percent.

Domestic exports in 1986 consisted mainly of clothing and clothing accessories (34 percent of total value), electronics (22 percent), plastic products (8 percent), watches (8 percent), textiles (7 percent ), household appliances (three percent) and metal products (three percent). Percent). In terms of share of domestic exports, the most important changes in the last decade have been the decline in the relative importance of clothing (from 44% in 1976 to 34% in 1986) and textiles (from 9% in 1976). to 7% in 1986) and the increasing relative importance of electronics (from 13% in 1976 to 22% in 1986) and watches (from 4% in 1976 to 8% in 1986).

Market diversification, partly as a result of government-funded promotional efforts, has long ended the dominance of the UK and Commonwealth countries as Hong Kong's main export markets. Since the introduction of the Certificate of Origin system in the late 1950s, the United States has become Hong Kong's biggest export market. Gradually, the proportion of domestic exports to other countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and Southeast Asia also increased. In recent years, Hong Kong has continued to diversify into new markets, most notably China, which is now the second largest market for Hong Kong's domestic exports, as well as countries in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Africa.

Nature and relative importance of the financial sector

Hong Kong's favorable geographical position, bridging the time gap between North America and Europe, coupled with strong ties with China and Southeast Asian countries, and supported by excellent communication links with the rest of the world, has helped Hong Kong Kong to become one of the world's leading developing international financial centers. Banks and Depository Companies, Insurance Companies, Pension Funds, Mutual Funds and Similar Businesses, Forex and Money Brokers, Stock and Commodity Brokers, Other Financial Organizations and Auxiliary Businesses, as well as a wide range of financial and related services in Hong Kong for local and international customers.

Under the three-tier structure established since 1981, deposit-taking institutions in Hong Kong are classified into three separate groups, namely licensed banks, licensed deposit-taking firms and registered deposit-taking firms.

Banking licenses are granted at the discretion of the Governor on the Board, pursuant to the Banking Ordinance. Currently, a domestic company (i.e. a company incorporated in Hong Kong predominantly beneficially owned by Hong Kong



Kong Interests) to be eligible for a banking license must have a paid-in capital of at least US$100 million, have been in the business of taking deposits and making loans to the public for at least 10 years, and have at least US$1,750 million in public deposits and at least $2,500 million in assets. A bank incorporated outside Hong Kong wishing to apply for a banking license must meet several criteria: it must have total assets (net of counterparties) of at least US$14 billion and its country of incorporation must provide an adequate form of regulatory supervision of banks and banks an acceptable form of reciprocity for banks in Hong Kong.

At the end of 1986, there were 151 licensed banks in Hong Kong, 32 of which were incorporated locally. They maintained a total of 1,386 offices in Hong Kong. There were also 134 representative offices of foreign banks. Total deposits owed by all licensed banks to customers at the end of the year were $491 billion.

Only licensed banks are allowed to maintain checking or savings accounts. They can also accept deposits from the public of any size and duration. The interest rate rules of the Hong Kong Association of Banks (of which all licensed banks must be members under the terms of their license) result in the definition of maximum rates payable less per day on bank deposits with an original maturity of up to 15 months, excluding deposits of $500,000 or more with a maturity of less than three months for banks to compete freely.

Licensed deposit-taking status is granted at the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury. Licensed depository companies must have a minimum of US$100 million in issued share capital and US$75 million in paid-in capital and meet certain criteria relating to size, ownership and quality of management. They can also accept deposits of any maturity from the public, but in amounts not less than $500,000. There are no restrictions on the interest rates they can offer. At the end of 1986, there were 38 companies licensed to take deposits and their total customer deposits were $25 billion.

The Commissioner of the Bank has the power to register companies that accept deposits. Since April 1981, the Commissioner, under direction of the Governor, has restricted reregistration to companies that not only meet certain basic criteria, such as a minimum paid-in capital of $10 million, but are also more than 50% owned by banks. in Hong Kong or elsewhere. Registered depository companies can only accept deposits of $100,000 or more with a minimum maturity of three months. At the end of 1986, there were 254 registered deposit-taking companies and their total customer deposit liabilities were $46 billion.

The Banking Commissioner is the regulator of all institutions that accept deposits for the purposes of the Banking Regulations. The Commissioner's Office also receives regular feedback and dispatches audit teams to foreign branches of Hong Kong-incorporated banks and depository companies (subject to local authority approval). The principles of the revised Concordat issued by the Committee on Banking Regulation and Supervisory Practices, which meets regularly in Basel, Switzerland, and the principles of global supervision of Hong Kong-based banking groups are accepted and practiced.

Forex, money and other financial markets

Hong Kong has a mature foreign exchange market where local currency and major international currencies are actively traded. Several factors contributed to the development of the foreign exchange market. First, there are no exchange controls in Hong Kong. Second, international banks can do business through their Hong Kong offices, while others



Centers in Europe and North America are closed. Third, the continuing demands of local industry and commerce regarding their transactions with the rest of the world have ensured active trade in the local currency.

There is also a well-developed interbank money market where Hong Kong dollar deposits are traded wholesale between deposit-taking institutions. However, trading in short-term financial instruments is less than in other centers, in part because the government does not issue such instruments and does not conduct open market operations on them. However, the markets for locally issued certificates of deposit and commercial paper have gained importance.

The stock market is an important source of capital for local companies and continues to attract strong interest from foreign investors. 1986 was an important year for the securities industry. Hong Kong Stock Exchange Limited, formed by the merger of the former Far East Stock Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Kam Ngan Stock Exchange and Kowloon Stock Exchange, took office on 2 April 1986 after 10 years of planning and preparation for the exchange. With its modern computerized trading system and efficient administration, this new unified exchange ushered in a new era in stock trading in Hong Kong. The opening ceremony took place on October 6 and was attended by representatives of several foreign exchanges.

At the end of 1986, the exchange had 151 members as legal entities and 708 individuals acting as brokers in partnership with other members of the exchange or with non-members. A total of 253 public limited companies had their securities listed on the stock exchange. Its total market cap at the end of the year was $419 billion. Hong Kong Commodity Exchange Limited, established in 1977 and licensed as the only company authorized to trade in futures contracts on an exchange, was reorganized in 1985 and renamed Hong Kong Futures Exchange Limited. The Futures Exchange has five markets offering contracts for cotton (although there has been no trading in cotton in recent years), sugar, soybeans, gold and, most recently, Hang Seng index futures. Trading of Hang Seng index futures contracts, which began on May 6, 1986, quickly became a very active market. It allows investors to hedge their stock portfolios against adverse price fluctuations. It is now the most active stock index futures market outside the United States. At the end of 1986, the futures exchange had 106 members.

The Chinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society operates a gold market that is among the busiest in the world. Gold traded through the company is 99% pure, measured in taels (a Chinese unit weighing approximately 1.2 troy ounces) and quoted in Hong Kong dollars. After allowing for exchange rate fluctuations, prices are closely aligned with those of the main markets in London, Zurich and New York. Membership of the Society remains closed to 193 member firms.

There is another active gold market in Hong Kong where the main players are major international gold trading companies. It is commonly known as Loco-London Gold Market. Marketing in this market has grown significantly in recent years. Dealing is generally in US dollars per troy ounce of gold with a purity of 99.95 percent, with delivery in London.

The Commissioner for Securities and Commodities Trading oversees securities and commodity trading in Hong Kong by administering the Securities Ordinance, Protection of Investors Ordinance and Commodities Trading Ordinance.

The Securities Ordinance provides a regulatory framework within which the exchange operates and requires the registration of traders, commercial partnerships and investments.



Advisers, partners and agents of investment advisors and enabling the regulation of securities trading practices. Among other things, it also provides for the investigation of misconduct and the creation of a compensation fund to compensate defaulting brokerage clients. Over the course of the year, amendments were introduced to the regulation, imposing new financial and qualification requirements for compliance by registered traders. In addition, the Securities (Stock Exchange Listing) Rules 1986 came into effect, requiring disclosure of the holdings of directors and officers of publicly traded companies and other company information. These legislative changes bring Hong Kong's practices in line with those of other major financial centers in this regard.

The Investor Protection Ordinance prohibits the use of fraudulent or reckless means to induce investors to buy or sell securities or to participate in investment agreements and regulates the issuance of investment-related publications.

The Commodity Trading Regulations provide a regulatory framework within which the futures exchange operates and which regulates traders, advisers and agents for commodity trading and their trading practices. Among other things, it also provides for the maintenance of a compensation fund to compensate the customers of defaulting commodity traders.

Increased economic ties between Hong Kong and China

The introduction of an open-door economic policy by China since 1979 to support its modernization programs has resulted in increased economic ties between Hong Kong and China, which have had a significant impact on the growth and development of Hong Kong's economy.

Most striking is China's growing importance as a trading partner for Hong Kong. From a relatively low base in 1979, the value of Hong Kong's trade with China has grown by 724% over the past seven years. China has been Hong Kong's largest trading partner since 1985. In 1986, the value of visible trade between Hong Kong and China was US$141 billion. China was Hong Kong's largest supplier of goods (accounting for 30% of Hong Kong's total import value in 1986) and the second largest market for Hong Kong's domestic exports (accounting for 12% of the total value of domestic exports). In terms of Hong Kong's warehouse trade, China was Hong Kong's largest re-export market, as well as the largest source of goods re-exported through Hong Kong. In 1986, more than three-quarters of Hong Kong's corporate trade was linked to China, either as a market or as a source of supply. Although the growth rates of some of these trade flows slowed in 1986 as a result of China's tightening of import controls in early 1985, trade with China still occupied an important position in Hong Kong's economy.

In addition to commodity trade, various forms of invisible trade between Hong Kong and China have also increased. These included tourism and travel services, transport services, financial services and professional services and other business services.

In 1986, Hong Kong residents made 11.9 million trips to China. Another 0.7 million trips were made to China by foreign visitors via Hong Kong, reflecting Hong Kong's position as a convenient gateway to China for business and tourism purposes.

In line with the growth in trade and passenger movements, the demand for transport services linking Hong Kong with China has increased significantly in recent years. For cargo traffic, the average annual growth rates in tonnage between 1979 and 1986 were about 12% for inbound cargo from China and about 55% for outbound cargo to China. Part of these cargo movements were transshipments. Most of the cargo was



transported by sea, although an increasing proportion of this was transported by road and rail. Between 1979 and 1986, passenger traffic grew by an average of 21% per year. The increase mainly affected rail transport and, to a lesser extent, maritime and air transport.

Reflecting the growing financial ties between Hong Kong and China in recent years, the foreign liabilities of Hong Kong financial institutions to banks in China increased 127 times, from HK$213 million at the end of 1979 to HK$27.1 billion at the end of 1986. Over the same period, claims by Hong Kong's external financial institutions on banks and other companies in China increased 7.9 times, from HK$5.9 billion to HK$46.8 billion. Hong Kong was not only a source of cash, it also gave China access to the world's major financial markets. The Bank of China Group's business in Hong Kong has grown significantly since the late 1970s, as reflected in its vastly expanded retail banking network and the growing range of financial services offered.

In terms of investment, Hong Kong's direct investment in China has focused on hotel and tourist facilities, as well as light industries such as electronics, textiles and clothing. Most of the investments took the form of joint ventures with Chinese companies. Some Hong Kong manufacturers have matched trade and external processing agreements with Chinese companies, particularly in the Special Economic Zones and the Pearl River Delta. At the same time, Chinese-owned companies have also increased their investments in Hong Kong, and their activities have shifted from commerce to areas such as real estate development, manufacturing, supermarkets, hotels and infrastructure projects.

The growing economic ties between Hong Kong and China have been mutually beneficial and have added a new dimension to Hong Kong's economic growth.

The economy

Hong Kong's economic performance in 1986 was characterized by a strong recovery in domestic exports, a significant improvement in the GDP growth rate, a low inflation rate, virtually full employment, and a small visible trade deficit. Personal income grew faster in real terms than in 1985, and consumer demand continued to improve.

Preliminary estimates show that the real GDP growth rate was 8.7% in 1986, a significant improvement over the preliminary estimate of 0.6% for 1985.

Foreign trade

In 1986, domestic exports grew by 19% in monetary terms, or about 16% in real terms. This was in stark contrast to the 6% decline in monetary terms or 5% in real terms in 1985. A key factor in the strong export performance was improved demand for imports in many of Hong Kong's main overseas markets. The devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar against the US dollar under the system of pegged exchange rates against most major currencies has also helped to improve the price competitiveness of Hong Kong products. Domestic exports to the US and China, Hong Kong's two biggest export markets, grew in real terms by around 9% and 16% respectively. However, domestic exports to other markets such as the Federal Republic of Germany (around 35 percent in real terms), the United Kingdom (around 13 percent) and Japan (around 32 percent) grew much faster. ), whose currencies were relatively strong against the Hong Kong dollar. The



The relatively low growth rate of Hong Kong's domestic exports to China in 1986 was in part a reflection of China's tighter control over its foreign exchange spending since April 1985. However, the recovery in the pace of growth since the The second quarter of 1986 suggests that the impact of control measures on Hong Kong's exports may have been absorbed.

With regard to the most important product categories, in 1986 real domestic exports of clothing grew by around 13 per cent and those of textile products by around 42 per cent; represented 34% and 7% of the total value of domestic exports, respectively. There were also significant increases in national exports of watches (around 17 percent in real terms), household appliances (around 12 percent) and radios (around 27 percent). For domestic exports of other products, the growth rate in 1986 was around 16% in real terms.

The growth rate of re-exports in 1986, at 16 percent in monetary terms, or around 14 percent in real terms, was lower than in 1985, when it was 26 percent in monetary terms or 25 percent in real terms. Much of this slowdown was due to reduced re-exports to China, reflecting measures taken by China in early 1985 to restrict its imports and control its foreign exchange spending. In addition to China, the other important re-export markets were the United States, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of Korea and Singapore. However, re-exports of Chinese origin to foreign markets via Hong Kong increased significantly in 1986, reflecting China's efforts to promote its exports and the use of Hong Kong as a shipping port. In addition to China, the other main origins of re-exports were Japan, the United States and Taiwan. When analyzed by end-use category, a significant proportion of re-exports via Hong Kong consisted of raw and semi-manufactured goods and consumer goods, each representing 40% of the total value of re-exports in 1986. Re-exports of textile yarns, fabrics and apparel, apparel, travel goods, and miscellaneous manufactured goods increased faster in real terms than other items.

Imports increased by 19 percent in monetary terms, or about 14 percent in real terms, in 1986, compared with respective growth rates of 4 percent and 6 percent in 1985. The main sources of imports were China, Japan , Taiwan, the United States, Singapore and the United States. With re-export trade slowing, much of this growth was due to a substantial increase in retained imports of around 13% in real terms. In particular, retained imports of raw materials and semi-finished goods and consumer goods increased by around 20 percent and 7 percent, respectively.

As the value of total exports (domestic exports plus re-exports) exceeded the value of imports, an apparent trade surplus of US$0.6 billion was recorded in 1986, equivalent to 0.2% of the total value of imports compared to the apparent trade surplus of 3.7 billion dollars, which represents 1.6% of the total value of imports recorded in 1985. With the real growth rate of total exports practically equal to that of imports, the smaller apparent trade surplus was due to , in large part, to the deterioration in the terms of trade following the depreciation of the Hong Kong dollar during the year.

inner night question

The growth rate of domestic demand was 7% in real terms in 1986, compared to 2% in 1985. Within domestic demand, private consumption is an important component. Due to improvements in employment and labor income, private consumption increased by 7% in real terms in 1986, compared with 5% growth in 1985. Government consumption expenditure increased by 5% in real terms. This one was bigger than both



Percentage increase from last year, but still below the GDP growth rate, reflecting the government's policy to keep public spending under control. Investment demand, as measured by domestic gross fixed capital formation, grew by 7% in real terms in 1986, after falling by 2% in 1985. Of the main components of investment demand, construction expenditures showed little change in real terms in 1986, with declining public sector spending due to the completion of the island MTR line and some public works projects offset by an increase in private sector spending on some large construction projects. By contrast, spending on plant, machinery and equipment increased by 8% in real terms in 1986, after falling by 2% in 1985. A significant part of this increase was due to increased investment in plant and machinery for use in the manufacturing sector.

Labor market

The recovery of the economy in general and national exports in particular led to an increase in demand for labor in 1986. At the same time, the supply of labor increased due to greater participation in the labor force and an increase in the working-age population . Due to tight demand for labor, both the unemployment rate and the underemployment rate declined over the year. In the fourth quarter of 1986, seasonally adjusted unemployment and underemployment rates were 2.2% and 1.2%, respectively, compared with corresponding rates of 3.1% and 2.3% in the same quarter of 1985. Rates are low by historical standards and reflect virtually full employment in Hong Kong.

Manufacturing activity experienced significant growth in 1986 as a result of the strong performance of domestic exports. The industrial production volume index was 15% higher in the first three quarters of 1986 than in the same period of 1985, after falling 5% for 1985 as a whole. At the same time, labor productivity (defined as output per person employed) has improved in manufacturing, partly due to greater investment and utilization of plant and equipment, and partly due to more overtime.

Compared September 1986 with the same month in 1985, manufacturing employment increased by 2% to 869,800. Employment in service sectors as a whole. it also increased four percent to 983,300. In the service sectors, employment in wholesale, retail and import/export, restaurants and hotels increased by four percent, as did finance, insurance, real estate and business services by seven percent. Construction site employment in civil engineering (including civil engineering) increased by 7 percent during this period, reversing the downward trend (year-on-year) since the second quarter of 1981. For construction as a whole, employment (workers local and non-local) increased by 5%.

In terms of labor income, workers in industry, commerce and services had a significant increase in income (measured in terms of payroll per employed person) in monetary and real terms in the 12 months to September 1986. They are generally the direct beneficiaries during a foreign trade boom. In the same period, wages in construction also showed some increase, both in monetary and real terms.

the real estate market

In 1986, absorption appeared to have improved or remained at high levels for most property types.




New residential construction throughout the year, vacancy rates for virtually all major property types were lower at the end of 1986 than the year before. Demand for most residential property categories remained strong. This was particularly evident in small and medium-sized apartments in easily accessible locations and in better-planned developments. In addition, there was a renewed interest in buying ready-made properties. The improvement in economic conditions and the gradual reduction in mortgage rates throughout the year contributed to increasing interest in property purchases. Home prices and rents have firmed. Prices and rents for other types of real estate, particularly commercial real estate in central business districts and on main streets, also increased in 1986.

Reflecting the upward trend in finished home prices and rents, land prices rose in 1986. Most state land auctions were well received, indicating continued confidence among developers in the real estate market.

the financial scene

Under the pegged exchange rate regime, the Hong Kong dollar remained stable against the US dollar for most of 1986, trading within a narrow range of HK$7.775 to HK$7.825 per US dollar. . This was achieved despite general volatility in the currency market and the significant depreciation of the US dollar against most major currencies. In addition to the US dollar, the Hong Kong dollar also lost 20.1 percent against the Japanese yen and 20.6 percent against the German mark over the year. On the other hand, it appreciated 16.9% against the renminbi. The Hong Kong dollar trade-weighted index, which broadly reflected these developments, fell 8.2 percent. The depreciation of the Hong Kong dollar, mainly against the European and Japanese currencies, has strongly supported the performance of Hong Kong's exports to these markets.

One of the implications of the pegged exchange rate regime is that Hong Kong dollar interest rates will be broadly aligned with the corresponding US dollar rates. In 1986, interest rates administered by the Hong Kong Association of Banks were adjusted three times. Of those three adjustments, two were down. Market interest rates also dropped, benefiting several sectors, including real estate development.

In the year, deposits at deposit-taking institutions and the money supply increased by 25.3% and 24.8%, respectively. The component of foreign currency deposits continued to grow faster than total deposits, in part reflecting Hong Kong's development as an international financial centre. At the end of 1986, Hong Kong dollars accounted for about 44 percent of all deposits. Loans and advances from institutions that receive deposits increased by 14% in the year. Of these institutions' total outstanding credits at the end of 1986, 54% were for Hong Kong use. In line with an international trend towards debt securitization, and taking advantage of lower interest rates and liquidity in the monetary sector, financial institutions continued to increase the issuance of negotiable certificates of deposit, in particular fixed rate certificates of deposit denominated in Hong Kong . But the outstanding value of these certificates was still only a small fraction of total deposits or the money supply.

Several money market funds were launched during the year, offering retail investors higher wholesale money market returns.

In the banking sector, four local banks experienced difficulties in 1986. The government intervened pragmatically, providing short-term liquidity in some cases and merely playing a catalytic role in others while commercial solutions were worked out. These measures were aimed at protecting the integrity of Hong Kong's financial system and



Maintaining the stability of the Hong Kong dollar exchange rate. They also served to protect the interests of bank depositors. The measures taken have been effective in overcoming these problems.

In order to further promote the stability and functionality of the banking system, a new Banking Ordinance was issued on May 29, 1986, which came into effect on September 1. The new regulation, which replaces the previous Banking and Custody Regulation, provides for: a single prudential framework for banks and depository societies, now collectively referred to as “authorised institutions”. The regulation includes new provisions designed to allow for more effective supervision of banks and deposit-taking companies, notably by giving the bank commissioner sufficient discretion and flexibility to identify problems early and intervene as the situation requires.

A total of 10 new banking licenses were granted to foreign banks in 1986, the most since the moratorium was lifted in 1981. The growing number of foreign banks doing business in Hong Kong, using Hong Kong as a base to expand their operations elsewhere places, reflects the growing importance of Hong Kong as an international financial center. However, the number of registered deposit-taking companies continued to decline, reflecting an ongoing process of adjustment to the three-tier banking system introduced in 1981 and the result of stricter licensing requirements. The gradual "trimming" of the sector, with most of the remaining deposit companies now owned by banks, has removed many of the weaker institutions and the sector as a whole is now fundamentally sound.

On the exchange, total earnings in 1986 (combining the earnings of the previous four exchanges and the single exchange) were $123 billion, 62.4% above 1985. The Hang Seng Index ended the year with an unprecedented high of 2,568 (July 31, 1964 = 100), up from 1,752 at the end of 1985.

In 1986, there were 9 IPOs and 13 rights issues, raising a total capital of US$8,685 million. There were nine corporate reorganizations or reactivations of shell companies.

The total number of authorized issues of commercial paper and certificates of deposit was 119 as of December 31, 1986, up from 90 at the end of 1985.

The movement on the futures exchange in 1986 was: for sugar, 273,800 lots of 50 long tons each; for soybeans, 330,524 lots of 30,000 kg each; for gold 6,366 lots of 100 troy ounces each; and for Hang Seng Index futures, 825,279 lots.

The price of Loco-London gold fluctuated between US$ 325 and US$ 445 per troy ounce in 1986, with dynamic negotiations mainly in the second half of the year. Gold price movements on the Chinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society were similar to those on the Loco-London gold market. Tael gold prices fluctuated between $3,030 and $4,100 in 1986, peaking at $4,095 on October 7, 1986, before ending the year at $3,629.


The consumer price inflation rate, as measured by the increase in the consumer price index (A), remained low at 2.8% in 1986. Together, 1985 and 1986 represent the two best consecutive years for this inflation rate since the mid-1980s. of the 1970s. However, towards the end of 1986, the lagged effect on retail prices of increases in import prices since the second quarter of the year began to be felt. In addition, aggregate demand begins to pressure the aggregate supply of resources at the end of the year.



Annual prices for locally produced goods and services tend to rise faster. However, weak world commodity prices in general and the decline in Chinese import prices in particular continued to have a somewhat dampening effect on consumer price inflation.

Among the various goods and services components of the CPI(A), miscellaneous goods and clothing and footwear recorded the highest price increases in 1986, with averages of 11% and 8% respectively. These two components combined accounted for 28% of the total increase in the index, with food price increases accounting for another 21%, as this component is heavily weighted in the CPI(A).

Government participation in the economy

economic policy

Economic policy in Hong Kong is largely dictated and limited by the specific circumstances of the Hong Kong economy. Due to its small and open nature, the economy is vulnerable to external factors, and government action to compensate for unfavorable external factors is generally of limited effectiveness. The government believes that the allocation of resources in the economy is generally more efficient when market forces are relied on and government intervention in the private sector is kept to a minimum unless social considerations are considered paramount.

This essentially market-oriented free enterprise system has contributed to Hong Kong's economic success. The narrow tax structure with relatively low rates encourages workers to work and entrepreneurs to invest. Both workers and entrepreneurs are highly motivated because all people have equal opportunities to pursue the goal of individual improvement and wealth accumulation. The government's main task is to provide the necessary infrastructure and a stable legal and administrative framework that promotes economic growth and prosperity.

monetary policy

The government has consistently worked to create an enabling environment in the financial sector, with sufficient regulation to ensure, as far as possible, sound business standards and confidence in the institutional framework, but without unnecessary bureaucratic or fiscal obstacles.

Unlike most major economies, Hong Kong does not have a central bank. Most of the functions normally performed by a single person – such as overseeing financial institutions, managing official foreign exchange reserves, certain types of open market operations, issuing banknotes and providing banking services to the government – ​​​are performed by others. government offices under the Currency Department of the Government Secretariat or selected commercial banks.

The Hong Kong Government Exchange Fund was established by the Currency Ordinance 1935 (later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance). Since its inception, the Exchange Fund has supported bond issuance. Hong Kong dollar banknotes are issued by the two note-issuing banks - Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and Standard Chartered Bank - against their promissory notes. They are non-interest bearing liabilities of the Exchange Fund and are issued or redeemed as the value of outstanding Debentures increases or decreases. In 1976, the Exchange Fund's role was expanded with the assets of the Coinage Security Fund (which provided support for currencies).


Reference Library, Stadthalle



issued by the government) and most of the foreign currency investments held in the general government revenue account that were transferred to the fund. In both cases, the transfer was made against the Exchange Fund's issuance of interest-bearing Hong Kong dollar-denominated debt securities. On December 31, 1978, the Coinage Security Fund was merged with the Exchange Fund and all debentures held by the Coinage Security Fund were redeemed.

The Exchange Fund was further expanded in 1978 when the government began transferring Hong Kong dollar balances in its general revenue account (excluding operating balances) to the Exchange Fund in exchange for issuing interest-bearing debt securities. . Accordingly, most of the government's financial assets are now held in the FX Fund, primarily in the form of bank deposits denominated in certain foreign currencies and Hong Kong dollars, and interest-bearing instruments denominated in foreign currencies. The main activity of the Exchange Fund is the day-to-day management of these assets. Its statutory role, as defined in the Exchange Fund Ordinance, is to influence the exchange rate of the Hong Kong dollar. The Foreign Exchange Fund is managed by the Department of Monetary Affairs of the Secretariat of Government, headed by the Secretary of the Treasury, who is advised by a committee composed of prominent members of the banking and financial community.

Another function related to the exchange fund is the delivery of bills and coins to the banking system. Daily Circulation Notes in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 and $1,000 can only be issued by the two commercial banks issuing the notes against stocks of promissory notes held by the Exchange Fund (other than a trust very small) issued by securities issued or guaranteed by the Government of the United Kingdom or the Government of Hong Kong). When the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to the pound before June 1972, notes were issued and redeemed in pounds sterling at a fixed exchange rate. Between June 23, 1972 and November 24, 1974, when the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to the US dollar, and between November 25, 1974 and October 15, 1983, when the Hong Kong dollar floated freely, such payments were made in Hong Kong dollars. The promissory notes have been issued and redeemed by the two central banks since October 17, 1983 for payment in US dollars at a fixed exchange rate of US$1 = HK$7.80. The exchange fund bears the maintenance costs of issuing the promissory note (except for the part of the costs attributable to the fiduciary issuance) and the net proceeds from the issuance of the promissory note revert to the fund. The 5, 2, 1, 50 cent, 20 cent, 10 cent and 5 cent coins and the 1 cent banknotes are issued by the government.

The eleventh in a series of $1,000 gold coins minted to commemorate the Lunar New Year were issued in early 1986. In November 1986, there was another limited issue of $1,000 gold coins to commemorate the Queen's second visit and from Prince Philip to Hong Kong. These gold coins are legal tender but not in circulation. The total coin in circulation at the end of 1986, with details of its composition, is given in Appendix 5.

Few monetary instruments are available to the government for monetary policy purposes. From November 1974 to October 1983, the Hong Kong dollar was a floating currency. During this period, the Exchange Fund's role in directly affecting the exchange rate, intervening in the exchange market, was limited to smoothing out short-term fluctuations.

On October 17, 1983, after a period of great exchange rate instability, a revised exchange rate system was introduced. Under the new regime, Exchange Fund notes will be issued and redeemed for payment, which the two note-issuing banks must hold as collateral for the issuance of Hong Kong dollar notes.



in US Dollars at a fixed exchange rate of US$1 = HK$7.80. In practice, therefore, any increase in banknote circulation will be offset by a US dollar payment to the exchange fund and any decrease in banknote circulation will be offset by a US dollar payment from the exchange fund. The two note-issuing banks in turn extend this fixed exchange rate to their note transactions with all other banks in Hong Kong. Since October 1983, the forces of competition and arbitrage have worked to keep the market exchange rate of the Hong Kong dollar against the US dollar stable and almost fixed.

This important aspect of Hong Kong's monetary framework means that the exchange rate is no longer a variable in the economy's adjustment process. In the fixed exchange rate regime, interest rates, the money supply and the level of economic activity tend to adjust automatically to balance of payments pressures without the need for government intervention. Interest rates therefore play a more passive role than before, changing more frequently in response to inflows and outflows of funds.

The Hong Kong Banking Association, which sets the maximum interest rates payable on deposits (excluding $500,000 or more with a maturity of less than three months) at licensed banks, is required by law to help the government set the consultation of that interest rate. This process aims to ensure that the Association takes the general public interest into account in its decisions, including their impact on the exchange rate. Under the pegged exchange rate system, it is neither necessary nor desirable as in the past for the State to play an active role in this process.

The Exchange Fund, through its bankers, operates a system that allows it to withdraw short-term funds from the local interbank market and ensure that such funds are not re-entered into that market. This arrangement squeezes the local money market and puts upward pressure on short-term market interest rates. Therefore, despite the October 1983 change in the monetary structure, arrangements still exist whereby the government can influence interest rates through the Hong Kong Banking Association or the local money market.

In response to the rapid development of Hong Kong's financial markets and increased interaction between them, policy responsibilities within the government were reorganized in 1986, with the Department of Monetary Affairs of the Government Secretariat now responsible for securities, commodities and futures, in addition to the insurance industry in its portfolio of banking and monetary policy issues. Consolidating political responsibility for all aspects of the financial sector into a single sector allows the government to keep pace with changes in financial markets and facilitates the proper coordination of policies for these markets.

Public Sector and Public Finance

For purposes of spending analysis, the public sector typically includes the government itself, along with the housing authority and city and regional councils. Expenditure by private or quasi-private sector institutions is included to the extent that it is covered by government subsidies, but expenditure by organizations in which the government has only an equity interest, such as B. Mass Transit Railway Corporation and Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation are not included. are included.

The government controls its finances through various fund accounts. General Revenue is the main account for daily department expenses and revenue collection. Six other funds were set up primarily to finance investments and grant loans. These are the Capital Works Reserve Fund, Development Loan Fund, Home Ownership Fund, Lottery Fund, Mass Transit Fund, and Student Loan Fund.



The Capital Works Reserve Fund finances the Public Works and Land Acquisition Program. With the enactment of the Sino-British Joint Declaration on May 27, 1985, the Fund was reorganized to allow for the implementation of Annex III of the Joint Declaration, which deals with the accounting of premium income from real estate transactions. The Fund's income comes mainly from this source and from transfers from the General Revenue.

The promotional loan fund is mainly used to finance social and economic developments, in particular loans to the housing authority for the construction of public housing developments. Transfers are made from the general tax office to the fund to meet housing authority loan requirements. Otherwise, the Fund's income is derived from interest payments and principal repayments.

The own housing fund mainly finances the construction of houses for sale under the own housing regime. The Housing Authority is the government's agent for the design, construction and marketing of these homes. The fund was originally constituted by a transfer from the Federal Revenue and obtains its income from the proceeds from the sale of apartments. The fund also finances the recurrent management and planning expenses of the private sector participation program.

The lottery fund is used to finance the development of social welfare services through loans and grants. It derives its income primarily from a portion of the proceeds from the Mark Six lotteries. The Mass Transit Fund will be used to finance the purchase of government stakes in Mass Transit Railway Corporation. Your earnings come entirely from transfers from the General Revenue.

The Student Loan Fund is used to finance student loans at the two universities, the two polytechnics, Baptist College and other accredited post-secondary institutions, as well as Hong Kong students studying in the UK. When necessary, transfers are made from general income to enable the fund to meet its obligations, the only other source of income being loan repayments.

medium term forecast

The main technique used by the government in managing its finances is medium-term forecasting. This is a five-year income and expense forecast that focuses on the consolidated financial position of general income and all funds except the lottery fund. Expenditure forecasts take into account the expected increase in demand and supply of government services. Revenue projections reflect expected collection patterns in light of fiscal policies, fees for various government services, and the general economic outlook.

The strategy adopted in medium-term forecasts is based on several principles. First, the projected growth rate in government spending must not exceed the projected growth rate in gross domestic product. Second, there must be a broad balance between income and expenditure, with more emphasis on surplus than deficit, to ensure that the government's fiscal reserves are not depleted. Third, to maintain fiscal stability, at least half of capital expenditures must be financed by the operating surplus, that is, the excess of recurrent revenues over recurrent expenditures. There are other principles as well. They deal with tax policy, capital spending and the size of the public service.

The budget, which is presented annually to the Legislative Council by the Secretary of Finance, is framed in the medium-term perspective, which ensures that these long-term principles and considerations are fully considered.


the public sector


Consolidated public spending in 1985-6 was $43.4 billion, of which $40.7 billion went to the government itself. The growth rate of public expenditure last year was 8.9 percent in monetary terms, or 2.7 percent in real terms less the effects of inflation. In 1985, gross domestic product grew by 6% in monetary terms, or 0.6% in real terms, although actual growth rates were lower than forecast.

For a comparison of the growth rate of consolidated government expenditures to gross domestic product, see Appendix 8. The ratio of consolidated government expenditures to gross domestic product has fallen from a peak of 19.1% in 1982-83 to 15.9% in 1984-5. Due to low economic growth in that year, it rose to 16.3% in 1985/86 and is likely to remain at the same level in 1986/87.

Consolidated government revenues and expenditures in 1985-6 were $43.7 billion and $40.7 billion, respectively. The consolidated surplus of US$3 billion included an increase of US$1.4 billion in the general surplus on revenues and of US$1.6 billion in the balances of other funds. The surplus reflected exceptional capital gains for the year, which are unlikely to be repeated in 1986/87. Details of revenue sources and expenditure components for 1985-6 and as estimated for 1986-7 are provided in Appendix 7. An analysis of output by function can be found in Appendix 9.

About $10.9 billion (or 27%) of consolidated spending in 1985-6 was on investment. The operational surplus for the year was enough to finance 61% of these investments. The remainder was funded by capital gains, including proceeds from property sales. This means that the principle that at least half of the investments must be covered by the operational surplus was observed. It is expected to be maintained in 1986-7.

From 1985 to 1986 there was no recourse to credit, and the balance of outstanding government loans at the end of the year was $1.4 billion.

public expenditure

Estimated expenditures for general income are included in the proposed expenditure estimate presented by the Secretary of the Treasury to the Legislative Council in its annual budget speech. It is the estimate of the total expenditure of the general revenue whose allocation is proposed in the Bill of Appropriation, which is being processed concurrently in the Legislative Assembly.

Expenditure Estimates provide information on estimated capital and recurring expenditures for all government entities, including estimated payments to grantee organizations and estimated transfers to statutory funds. They also provide for the payment of government debt.

With only four exceptions, the General Tax Service has reported a surplus of income over expenditure at the end of each year for the last 20 years. The exceptions were 1974-5 with a deficit of $380 million, 1982-3 with a deficit of $3,500 million, 1983-4 with a deficit of $2,993 million, and 1984-5 with a deficit of $1,563 million, of which $ 1,004 million was financed through the issuance of government bonds. The accumulated net surpluses of general revenue form the government's fiscal reserves. These secure the state's contingent liabilities and ensure that it can withstand excessive expenditure of short-term revenue.

The City Council and the Regional Council, through the Municipal Services Department and the Regional Services Department, respectively, establish their own budget and spending priorities. Expenses of the City Council and the Regional Council



is provided primarily funded by a fixed percentage of the Urban Council Area (Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon) property fees and all Regional Council Area (New Territories) property fees as well as fees and charges for services rendered by the councils.

The housing authority, which operates through the housing department, is also financially independent. His income comes mainly from rents. When cash flow is insufficient to cover the costs of building new settlements, the agency borrows on concessional terms from the Development Loan Fund. The land is provided to the Housing Authority without any premium, but the value of the land is recorded on its balance sheet as a government contribution. A portion of the agency's recurring expenses is funded by general income from activities such as squatter control and emergency shelter management. The agency is also responsible for conducting a squatter improvement program funded by the Capital Works Reserve Fund.

income sources

There is no general tax on goods entering Hong Kong, but duties are levied on seven categories of goods, whether imported or locally made. These are hydrocarbon oils, intoxicating alcoholic beverages, non-intoxicating alcoholic beverages, methyl alcohol, tobacco, soft drinks and cosmetics. All companies that import, export, manufacture or store these goods must be licensed, and in certain cases a distribution license is also required.

A 20% CIF tax is levied on European-style spirits, excluding beer, cider and perry. value of brandy and, in addition, the respective specific rates. Specific rates for alcoholic beverages range from US$1.20 per liter for beer to US$60 per liter for cognac. For tobacco, prices range from US$40 per kilogram for Chinese-made tobacco to US$210 per kilogram for cigarettes. The tax is $2.30 per liter for motor and jet fuel and $1.15 per liter for road diesel. Methyl alcohol tax is $4 per liter. Non-alcoholic beverage tax is $60 per hectoliter. In the c.i.f. an ad valorem tax of 25 percent is levied. Price for imported or wholesale price for locally produced cosmetics.

Interest is charged on land use at a percentage of the assessed taxable amount which, in short, is the annual rent at which the property can reasonably be expected to be rented. New assessment lists are drawn up periodically as directed by the Governor so that assessable values ​​can be reviewed and updated in line with market rent levels. The current listings came into effect on April 1, 1984, with all benchmarks being determined based on rents as of July 1, 1983. For newly appraised properties, benchmarks are also based on rent level on that key date. Percentage contributions on taxable assets are determined annually by decision of the Council on Legislation. For 1986-7, the rate is six percent. In order to cushion the effects of interest rate increases on interest payers after the 1984 revaluation, a tax exemption scheme was introduced on April 1, 1984. Under this system, the maximum increase in interest rates payable ​on property in any year is not more than a prescribed percentage of the amount payable in the preceding year. The required percentage for 1986-7 is 20 percent.

Installments are paid quarterly in advance and there are only a few exceptions. However, the government generally provides financial assistance to nonprofit educational, charitable, and welfare organizations for the payment of fees when the facilities they use are operated in accordance with an approved goal or policy. The repayment of installments for vacant housing buildings is not allowed, but half of the installments paid in the case of vacant non-residential buildings may be refunded.



final touches before the show

Ballettunterricht Tete-a-Tete

Three cellists by the sea


ribbon dancer






voices in unison



During the year, preparatory work began on a general review of all taxable amounts with a view to adopting the new taxable amounts on April 1, 1988. Approximately 500,000 claim forms were issued to taxpayers in October and December 1986 and approximately 250,000 more will be issued between January and April 1987. The objective is to obtain lease information that will be analyzed and used as a basis for determining new taxable amounts.

Taxes and fees constituting Inland Revenue, other than the Passenger Departure Tax and the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Pass Tax, are collected by the Inland Revenue Department. These include gambling tax, amusement tax, inheritance tax, hotel accommodation tax, stamp duty and income tax.

Betting tax is levied on bets placed on authorized totalizers and on proceeds from Mark Six lotteries. Depending on the type of bet, the tax rate is either 9.5% or 16% on the bet and 30% on the lottery winnings.

An entertainment tax, which differs from admission prices, is levied on the price of admission to cinemas and racing events. In the case of theaters, the average is around nine percent, and 29 percent for races.

Estate tax is levied on the Hong Kong portion of a deceased's estate. Fees range from a minimum of 10% for discounts worth $2 million to $2.5 million to a maximum of 18% for discounts worth more than $4 million. Properties valued at less than $2 million are tax-exempt.

A five percent accommodation tax is levied on guest accommodation expenses in hotels and guesthouses.

The Stamp Duty Ordinance imposes fixed and ad valorem taxes on various types of documents relating to real estate assignments, leases and transfers of shares.

Income and profit tax is charged in accordance with the Income Tax Ordinance. Hong Kong has a programmed taxation system that allows taxpayers to be taxed on four distinct and separate sources of income, namely corporate profits, wages, property income and interest income. Personal scoring is a form of aggregation overlaid on the scheduling system. The standard rate is 17%.

Profits tax is levied only on profits arising in or derived from Hong Kong from a trade, occupation or business conducted in Hong Kong. Profits of unincorporated companies are taxed at 17 percent, while corporate profits are taxed at 18.5 percent. Taxable profit is determined based on actual profits for the year. The tax is provisionally paid based on the profit for the year prior to the settlement year. As in many countries, Hong Kong's taxable income is net income. In principle, all expenses to earn a taxable profit are deductible. There is no withholding tax on dividends paid by companies and dividends received from companies are exempt from corporate income tax.

Wage tax is levied on earnings accrued or originated in Hong Kong. The calculation base and payment method are similar to the profit tax system. Payable taxes are calculated on a sliding scale ranging from five percent to 25 percent on $10,000 segments of net income (that is, income after deducting allowances). Effective for fiscal years beginning April 1, 1985, the segment subject to the 20% rate was expanded from $10,000 to $20,000. However, the total effective tax rate is capped at a maximum of 17% of income before deducting personal and other allowances.

Property tax is levied on the owner of land or buildings in Hong Kong at the standard rate of 17% on actual rent received, less 20% allowance for repairs



and maintenance. A similar provisional tax deduction system applies to profit tax and payroll tax. Real estate owned by a company doing business in Hong Kong is exempt from property tax, but profits derived from the property are subject to profit tax.

Interest tax is levied on interest accrued or originated in Hong Kong. This is essentially a withholding tax that is deducted at source, unless the interest forms part of the profits of a company conducting a trade or business in Hong Kong, in which case it is subject to profit tax. The interest tax rate on creditable interest is 17 percent. Interest on foreign currency and Hong Kong currency deposits placed with financial institutions doing business in Hong Kong is tax exempt. Interest paid or payable by the government and utilities is also tax-exempt, as long as it does not exceed a certain rate, which varies according to prevailing interest rate levels.

Business registration fees, which form part of fee income, are also collected by the tax office. Business registration is mandatory for companies incorporated in Hong Kong, foreign companies incorporated in Hong Kong and companies operating in Hong Kong, except those operated by non-profit entities and licensed traders. The annual registration fee is $500, but a payment waiver is provided for small businesses. Each branch of a corporation is required to obtain a certificate of branch registration and pay an annual registration fee of $15. In addition, there is a $100 fee payable to the Wage Protection Bankruptcy Fund on each commercial registration certificate issued to a company or its branch.

Other revenues arise from motor vehicle registration taxes, fines, fines and fines, royalties and concessions, real estate income, real estate investments and transactions, reimbursements and contributions, public services and fees and charges for the provision of a wide range of goods and services Services.

Audit of Public Accounts

The audit of all government accounts is carried out by the Director of Accounts. It also audits the accounts of the City Council, Regional Council and Housing Authority, as well as more than 50 statutory and non-statutory trusts and other public bodies, and reviews the financial aspects of the operations of the various government-sponsored organizations operating in Hong Kong. The appointment, term of office, duties and powers of the Director are set out in the Revision Regulation, which also provides that the same is not subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority.

The Director of Audit's report on the Government's financial statements is submitted to the Governor as Chairman of the Legislative Council for presentation. It is then forwarded to the Audit Committee, made up of a Chairman and six members, all members of the Council on Legislation. In exercising its powers, the Committee may request any employee or other interested person to provide information, explanations and any necessary documents and records. The Committee will hold its meetings in public unless the Committee considers that the public interest justifies confidentiality. The Audit Commission's report on the Audit Director's report on the Government's accounts is also submitted to the Legislative Council. Both are copied to the Secretary of State.



industry and Commerce

The manufacturing industry performed well overall in 1986. The value of domestic exports for the year was US$153,983 million, 19% above 1985.

Overall, the key factors that contributed to Hong Kong's success as a major industrial and commercial center continued to work well. These include the government's unwavering commitment to free enterprise and free trade, as well as a simple tax structure, a flexible and hard-working workforce, a modern and efficient seaport with the third largest container port in the world, an airport located centrally with a computerized cargo terminal, and excellence in global communications.

The government's approach to economic policy considers that, due to the external nature of the economy and the need to allow it to adjust efficiently, trying to plan the allocation of resources is often futile and even detrimental to the performance of the economy or to thwarting the forces from the market . The state rarely intervenes and only when it is clearly in the economy's long-term interest. In practice, this means that, in addition to providing the necessary structure for private companies to prosper, the government is more concerned with avoiding frustration for individual companies and maintaining incentives. To this end, the tax system was kept low, the size of the public sector effectively constrained, and corporate subsidies avoided.

Manufacturing is an important part of Hong Kong's economy, accounting for around 22% of gross domestic product and 36% of total employment. It is estimated that up to 90% of Hong Kong's production will eventually be exported. Lack of usable land has generally prevented diversification into capital and land intensive industries. Thus, light industry predominates, which mainly produces consumer goods and works in multi-storey factory buildings. About 65 percent of all industrial workers are employed in the textile, apparel, electronics, plastics and watchmaking industries. These industries together accounted for 79% of Hong Kong's domestic exports in 1986, a pattern that is likely to continue.

Despite the focus on light industry, there has been a continuous process of updating in terms of quality and range of products. Many new and sophisticated product lines were introduced and many simpler ones abandoned, partly due to foreign competition and partly in response to demand in Hong Kong's main established markets.

To act

This year, 1986, was a busy year for commerce. In a year when the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) and most of Hong Kong's bilateral textile agreements expired



After the renegotiations, serious concerns arose due to increased protectionist sentiment in some of Hong Kong's key markets, particularly in the United States. Indeed, Congressman Ed Jenkins' name became well known in Hong Kong for his support of the Jenkins Act, which would have severely restricted Hong Kong's exports to the United States. President Reagan's veto of the bill was narrowly upheld in August, helped by a deal to extend the MFA for five years and strike bilateral textile deals with some major suppliers, including Hong Kong.

During the year, Hong Kong actively participated in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations, leading to the start of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in September. At the same time, negotiations on goods and services are being conducted.

The other major development in 1986 was Hong Kong becoming a separate part of GATT following consultations between the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China. The future participation of the future special administrative region in the GATT is also assured.

textiles and clothing

Textiles and clothing form Hong Kong's largest industry, accounting for about 41% of total domestic exports and about 43% of manufacturing employment. Domestic exports of textiles and apparel were valued at $63,117 million in 1986, compared to $52,735 million in 1985.

Production of cotton yarn in 1986 was 178 million kilograms, compared with 142 million kilograms in 1985. Production of synthetic yarn and synthetic cotton fiber yarn was 13 million kilograms, compared with 15 million kilos in 1985 and the production of wool and combed yarn was four million kilos, against four million kilos in the previous year. Most of the yarn produced was used locally.

Weaving, with 22,293 looms, produced 781 million square meters of fabrics of different fibers and mixtures, compared to 679 million square meters in 1985. Most of the production - 95% - was cotton. Much of the fabric produced was exported as a piece, but local clothing manufacturers used most fabrics woven and finished locally.

The knitting sector exported 42 million kilograms of knitwear in 1986 - of which 24 percent were synthetic fibers or cotton blends and 76 percent cotton - compared to 22 million kilograms in 1985. of all fibers was used by local clothing manufacturers.

The finishing sector of the industry offers sophisticated support facilities for the spinning, weaving and knitting industries. It processes a large amount of fabrics for bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing. Processes include yarn texturing, multicolor roll and screen printing, transfer printing, pre-shrinking, permanent pressing and polymerization.

Apparel is the largest single manufacturing sector, employing about 299,373 workers, or about 34% of manufacturing employment. Domestic apparel exports were valued at $52,162 million in 1986, compared to $44,912 million in 1985.


The electronics industry is the second largest export market after apparel. Domestic exports of electronics were valued at $33,393 million in 1986, compared to $27,014 million in 1985. The industry has 1,090 factories employing 75,178 people.



workers. It is known for its quick adaptability to rapidly changing consumer demands. It produces a wide range of sophisticated, high-quality products and components, such as radios, cassette players, hi-fi systems, televisions, electronic watches, portable televisions and games, wired and cordless phones with built-in memory and auto-dial functions, telecommunications equipment, calculators, photocopiers, microcomputers, disk drives, printers, modems, switching power supplies, computer memory systems and sets, magnetic read/write heads, and computer-aided design and test equipment. It also produces multilayer printed circuit boards, liquid crystal displays, quartz crystals and semiconductor devices, including integrated circuit wafers.


In 1986, the plastics industry accounted for 8% of total domestic exports and 10% of total industrial employment, 460 companies and 89,447 workers. Hong Kong remains one of the world's leading suppliers of toys, accounting for most of the industry's production.

clocks and clocks

Hong Kong is a major world exporter of watches. Domestic exports in 1986 were US$ 11.667 million, against US$ 9.573 million in 1985. The industry has 1,633 establishments that employ 32,805 people. Production includes mechanical and electronic watches, clocks, watch cases, dials, metal bracelets, assembled mechanisms and bracelets made of various materials.

Other light industries

Other important light industries produce machinery, electrical appliances and equipment, metal products, jewellery, optical and photographic and travel goods, handbags and related items.

heavy industry and services

Hong Kong shipyards offer a competitive repair service and build a variety of vessels. Several large shipbuilding and repair yards on Tsing Yi Island provide services to the shipping industry and build and maintain oil platforms.

The port of Hong Kong, which is among the three largest container ports in the world, handled approximately 2.7 million TEUS (20-foot units) in 1986.

The aircraft construction industry enjoys a high international reputation and offers extensive maintenance and repair services. Facilities are available for complete airframe and engine overhauls for many types of aircraft.

The manufacture of machinery, machine tools and their parts supports other local industries and also contributes to Hong Kong's export trade. Blow molding, extrusion and injection machines with an injection capacity of up to 12,256 grams are of particular importance for the plastics industry; power presses; lathes, planers and drills; polishing machines; printing machines; Textile knitting and warping machines; and electroplating plants.

industry department

The Ministry of Industry's main mission is to provide Hong Kong's manufacturing industry with the necessary support to achieve productivity gains and improvements.



in quality, in the form of industrial support services. These services are generally provided after industry-specific identification of the demand and supply side determinants and constraints on the growth of various industries and are funded by the government under the guidance of the Industry Development Council. The Ministry of Industry is also responsible for promoting investment and monitoring the availability or unavailability of services and facilities on which Hong Kong's manufacturing industry depends, including the provision of skilled labor, developed land, financial services, freight services and load handling and power sources provide.

Industrial support facilities and technical support services

With regard to industrial support services, in April, the government started funding a three-year plan to improve the capacity of the Hong Kong Productivity Board to provide a range of consultancy offices and consultancy services related to industrial automation and tools. of precision. These services are designed to support productivity growth. In an effort to encourage the wider application of quality assurance, the manufacturing department generally strives to provide competent benchmarks for manufacturing. To meet the demand for industrial design services, Hong Kong Design Innovation Company Limited - a publicly traded company - started operations in March to provide consulting services to manufacturers. The department's standards and calibration laboratory, which maintains high quality reference standards traceable to international standards institutes and provides calibration services for electronic and electrical measurements, was accredited by the UK's National Measurement and Accreditation Service in July . The Department's Office of Product Standards continued to respond to the growing demand for information and technical advice on foreign product standards. The Hong Kong Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, which aims to introduce quality assurance to testing laboratories in Hong Kong, evaluated eight laboratories for accreditation during the year.

Two of these labs have been successfully accredited and the program is being expanded to include rebar testing.

While industrial support services have the effect of transferring and disseminating technology to manufacturers through consulting offices and advisory services, the main objective of the Ministry of Industry's industrial investment promotion program is to encourage foreign manufacturers to introduce new products. and enhanced in Hong Kong through its investments. , new designs and improved processes, and improved management techniques. These investments not only serve to expand Hong Kong's production capacity, but also encourage local manufacturers to modernize their own operations. The program is implemented through a network of five international offices in New York, San Francisco, London, Stuttgart and Tokyo and supported by a One Stop Unit in Hong Kong. During 1986, 24 projects were implemented under this program with support from the Department of Industry, with investments totaling over US$515 million. In terms of the quality of this foreign investment, 1986 saw a healthy influx of technology, namely from the United States and Japan. For example, the expansion of Mita, Japan's leading photocopier manufacturer, in the first half of the year led some of its contractors to invest simultaneously in Hong Kong to produce photoconductive drums, heavy metal parts and precision metals and plastics components, all new in Hong Kong and represent a large extension of the Hong Kong fastener industry. The Ministry of Industry's “One-Stop-Unit” actively supports these investors in their search for adequate labor and industrial housing.



In August, Motorola Incorporated, which has its Asia-Pacific regional headquarters in Hong Kong, set up a large development center for application-specific integrated circuits to meet the needs of Hong Kong and the region. This investment, along with similar assets, represents a significant boost to an important industry that Hong Kong's electronics industry will depend on to move from assembly-intensive production to higher value-added and more innovative production.

During 1986, the Ministry of Industry and the Industry Development Council continued to oversee the supply of skilled workers. As a result of intensive study by the electronics industry, proposals to introduce a training fellowship program to provide a pool of people skilled in the design of application-specific integrated circuits were accepted in principle. Similar studies of the plastics processing industry have led to proposals for the establishment of a Plastics Industry Center to provide information and technical services.

Regarding commercial and residential land, in 1986 the government auctioned or tendered eight commercial lands for a total area of ​​27,675 square meters. Developers completed 610,000 square meters of level factory space. Of the stocks available on the market, 780,000 square meters were retaken.

commercial areas

The Hong Kong Industrial Property Corporation, of which the Director of Industry is the chief executive, develops and manages industrial properties intended to house industries with a relatively high level of technology that cannot be operated in ordinary multi-storey factory buildings. The first two phases of the Tai Po Industrial Zone cover 55 hectares of industrial land. The third phase, currently under construction, will produce an additional 14 hectares by 1987. A second property in Yuen Long offers 67 hectares of industrial land. Land on industrial estates is sold by the corporation to claimants at cost-based premiums. By the end of 1986, 133 of the 271 applications received by the company had been approved, and 73 companies in Tai Po Industrial Zone and Yuen Long had been awarded land, representing a 29% sales growth rate over 1985. The company also manufactures turnkey factories available for those who want to start production with minimal delay. These standard factories are fully serviced and offer maximum flexibility. Two standard four-story factory blocks and four standard one-story factory blocks in Tai Po and Yuen Long industrial zones were occupied.

Foreign trade

Total merchandise trade in 1986 was US$552,484 million, an increase of 18% over 1985. Imports increased 19% to US$275,955 million and re-exports increased 16% to US$122,546 million, while domestic exports increased by 18.6% to US$153,983 million. Combined domestic exports and re-exports, worth US$276,530 million, increased by 18%. Annexes 11 and 12 contain summary statistics on foreign trade. Hong Kong relies almost entirely on imported resources to meet the needs of its more than 5.5 million people and diverse industries. In 1986, imports of raw materials and semi-manufactured goods amounted to US$119,518 million, or 43% of total imports. The main imported items were transistors, diodes, semiconductors and integrated circuits (US$ 8.046 million); Fabrics Made from Synthetic Fibers (US$13,506 million); Iron and Steel (US$ 6,865 million); Cotton Fabrics (US$7,632 million); Plastic Materials for Molding (US$6,892 million) and Movements, Enclosures and Parts (US$7,193 million).



Imports of consumer goods, worth US$85,181 million, accounted for 31% of total imports. The main imported consumer goods were clothing (US$ 19.667 million); radios, television receivers, gramophones, records, amplifiers and tape recorders ($8,629 million); Diamonds ($6,268 million); Watches ($5,308 million); Carts, Toys, Games and Sporting Goods ($4,462 million); Scholarships ($3,533 million); Cameras and photographic accessories ($2,623 million).

Imports of capital goods totaled US$39,501 million, or 14% of total imports. Imported capital goods consisted mainly of transportation equipment (US$4,147 million), office machines (US$3,376 million), electrical machinery (US$6,483 million), electronic components and computer parts (US$5,259 million) and textile machines (US$ 2,260 million). dollar).

Food imports were estimated at $23,484 million, accounting for 9 percent of total imports. The main imported foodstuffs were fish and fish preparations (US$ 4,561 million), fruits (US$ 3,264 million), meat and meat preparations (US$ 2,675 million) and vegetables (US$ 2,509 million).

In 1986, mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials were imported for about US$8,271 million, or three percent of total imports.

China and Japan were the two main suppliers of imports in 1986, supplying 30% and 20% of the total, respectively. China alone supplied 43% of the food imported into Hong Kong. In third place is Taiwan with nine percent of total imports, followed by the United States, Republic of Korea, Singapore, United Kingdom and West Germany. Apparel remained the largest component of domestic exports in 1986, valued at $52,162 million, or 34% of the total. Export of various manufactured products, mainly plastic toys and dolls; Jewelry; Gold, cutlery and artificial flowers were valued at US$25,430 million, accounting for 17% of total domestic exports. Telecommunications equipment and devices and audio recording and playback were valued at $11,681 million (eight percent of the total). Electrical machinery, appliances, and equipment, consisting primarily of transistors, diodes, and household appliances, totaled $11,214 million, or seven percent of the total. Domestic exports of photographic apparatus, equipment, consumables and optical products, wristwatches valued at $13,041 million added another eight percent to the total. Other important export goods were textiles (seven percent) and office machinery and automatic data processing equipment (five percent).

The direction and level of Hong Kong's export trade is heavily influenced by economic conditions and trade policies in major overseas markets. In 1986, 62% of all domestic exports went to the United States and the European Economic Community. The largest market was the United States ($64,219 million, or 42% of the total), followed by China ($18,022 million, or 12%), West Germany ($11,003 million, or seven percent) and the United Kingdom (US$9,918 million). . six percent). Domestic exports to Japan and Canada rose to US$6,212 million and US$4,880 million, respectively, with Japan accounting for 4% and Canada for 3% of total domestic exports. Other important markets were Australia, the Netherlands and Singapore.

Re-exports continued to increase in 1986, accounting for 44% of total domestic exports and re-exports. The main re-exports were textiles ($20,094 million); Apparel and Accessories (US$13,366 million); miscellaneous manufactured items, n and s ($10,343 million); electrical machines and equipment (US$ 9,618 million); Telecommunications and sound recording and reproduction equipment and devices ($6,680 million) and photographic equipment, equipment and supplies, and optical products, clocks and watches ($5,735 million). The main origins of these re-exports were China, Japan, the United States and Taiwan. The largest re-export markets were China, the United States, Japan, Taiwan and the Republic of Korea.


foreign trade relations


Hong Kong believes in free trade. The objectives of Hong Kong's external trade policy are therefore to defend its rights and fulfill its obligations in the pursuit of free trade. The most important of these rights and obligations are contained in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Multiple Fiber Agreement (MFA).


The textile trade is the main sector most affected by the restrictions. Bilateral agreements negotiated under the MFA regulate textile exports from Hong Kong to Austria, Canada, the European Economic Community (EEC), Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United States.

The Hong Kong-EEC Textile Agreement 1983-6, which regulated Hong Kong's exports of textiles made from cotton, wool and synthetic fibers to the EEC's 12 member countries, expired at the end of 1986. After several rounds of intensive consultations with the EEC, a new five-year agreement covering the period 1987-1991 was concluded during the year. It contained some useful, if modest, requirements compared to the previous agreement.

The bilateral Hong Kong-Switzerland Textile Agreement, which provided for an export licensing regime for the export of certain garments from Hong Kong to Switzerland, ended on 1 April. The agreement was first entered into in 1975 and has been renewed annually since then. Termination was secured after bilateral consultations with the Swiss government.

The Hong Kong-Finland Agreement expired in December 1986. Negotiations in September resulted in a new five-year agreement.

The bilateral agreement with Austria expires in January 1987. Negotiations with Austria in November resulted in the agreement being extended for another three years with some improvements.

In February 1986, the United States requested Hong Kong to hold bilateral negotiations on Hong Kong's textile exports to the United States, although the existing agreement did not expire until December 1987. After three rounds of negotiations, the new Textile Agreement states United States/Hong Kong was signed on June 30, 1986. The new agreement, which modifies and extends the 1982-7 bilateral textile agreement, has a six-year term with retroactive effect from January 1, 1986. Key features of the agreement are the extension of the scope to blends of silk and other vegetable fibers and the introduction of a group structure with individual group limits. The agreement further tightens restrictions on textile exports from Hong Kong to the United States.

On December 17, 1985, the US President vetoed the Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Bill (commonly known as the Jenkins Bill), which posed a serious threat not only to Hong Kong but also to trade textiles world after the US House of Representatives failed on August 6, 1986, nearly overruling President Reagan's veto. The law, if enacted, would have reduced Hong Kong's textile exports of cotton, wool and synthetic fibers to the United States by about 13 percent and other textile fiber exports by potentially up to 70 percent. The proximity of the vote showed the strength of protectionist sentiment in the US Congress.

The bilateral textile agreement between Hong Kong and Canada, which lasted five years from 1982, expired at the end of 1986. Four rounds of consultation took place



1986, but no agreement was reached before the end of the year. Further consultations are scheduled for early 1987. In order to avoid trade disruptions, Hong Kong entered into an interim agreement to facilitate textile exports to Canada in 1987 pending the conclusion of an agreement.

The multi-fiber agreement was due to expire at the end of July 1986. After intense negotiations, an extension of the MFA for five years until the end of July 1991 was agreed. Fibers and silk blends are included in the scope of the MFA for the first time. Hong Kong played an active role in the negotiations leading to the conclusion of the protocol and coordinated closely with other emerging exporting members – the least developed countries (LDCs) – of the MFA to protect its commercial interests.

non-textile problems

Volume Restrictions in France: During the year, three products from Hong Kong were subject to unilateral volume restrictions on imports into France - digital quartz watches, toys and radios. Restrictions on these three products are scheduled to be lifted in early 1987.

Generalized Preference Schemes (GSPs): GSPs are operated by most developed countries to encourage exports of goods from developing countries and territories through tax exemption or reduction of import tariffs. Hong Kong benefits from these programs to varying degrees.

In July, the EEC Commission revised the EEC GSP and proposed to exclude 16 Hong Kong products from the benefits of the GSP. Hong Kong submitted a detailed submission to the anti-debarment commission in September. The EWG finally decided in 1987 to exempt only seven Hong Kong products from GSP benefits.

Hong Kong has not been a beneficiary of the New Zealand GSP since 1 July 1986, due to the introduction of New Zealand's new policy in 1985, whereby existing beneficiaries with a per capita GDP of at least 70% of New Zealand's GDP would benefit. lose beneficiary status. However, following bilateral consultations held in Wellington in April 1986, New Zealand agreed to apply preferential tariffs to Hong Kong for over 100 products in which Hong Kong has a special commercial interest. In July 1986, Australia introduced a revised system of tariff preferences for developing countries. Under the new system, all taxable goods imported from developing countries, excluding those subject only to excise duties, benefit from preferential developing country tariffs, five percentage points below normal tariffs.

However, existing regulations for textiles, clothing and footwear will continue to apply until the end of 1988.

The US GSP was extended for 8 years in January 1985 and Hong Kong remains a beneficiary. Under the expanded program, the President of the United States is expected to conduct a general review to determine the extent of preferential treatment accorded to beneficiary countries. Factors to be taken into account in the verification are the level of development of the individual beneficiary, its competitiveness against the GSP items and its business practices.

Any changes made as a result of the review will take effect on 1 July 1987. The Hong Kong government and the private sector actively participated in the review. In 1986, two rounds of revision negotiations were held with the United States.

Harmonized System of Commodity Description and Coding (Harmonized System or HS). HS is expected to be introduced in most major trading entities, including Hong Kong, from 1988 onwards. Hong Kong is consulting with its major trading partners to find a solution



adverse consequences of the introduction of the HS, which should have a neutral impact on tariffs.

New Round of Trade Negotiations: The GATT parties held a ministerial meeting in Uruguay from 15 to 19 September 1986 and launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations to further liberalize world trade and strengthen GATT disciplines. Hong Kong participated in the ministerial meeting as part of the GATT and will continue to participate fully in the new trade round.

Import and export documentation

As a free port, Hong Kong keeps its import and export license requirements to a minimum. Products from a wide range do not require permits to enter or leave Hong Kong. When licenses are required, they serve two main purposes. First, they help Hong Kong meet its international obligations to restrict exports of textile products and monitor the flow of textile products to Hong Kong. Therefore, all imports and exports of these products must be covered by licenses issued by the Director of Commerce. Second, they help Hong Kong to control exports and imports of some types of non-textile products, such as strategic raw materials, medicines, agricultural pesticides and rice for health or safety reasons.

Hong Kong has a certificate of origin system to establish the origin of goods that Hong Kong exports and to meet the requirements of import authorities. The commercial department manages and protects the integrity of this system and issues certificates of origin when necessary. Other government-recognized organizations that issue certificates include the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Federation of Industries, the Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers Association, and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.

commercial department

The Ministry of Commerce is responsible for Hong Kong's trade relations with foreign governments. Implements trade policies and agreements, as well as procedures for import and export licenses and certifications of origin. On matters of trade policy, the Director of Commerce seeks guidance from the Trade Advisory Board and the Textile Advisory Board, both appointed by the Governor and chaired by the Secretary of Commerce and Industry. The department consists of five departments. Three of them deal with bilateral trade relations with Hong Kong's trading partners. His work includes conducting trade negotiations and implementing textile agreements, as well as collecting and disseminating information on developments, particularly related to trade policies in key Hong Kong markets, that may affect Hong Kong. The distribution of work in these three departments is by geographic area. The fourth department deals with multilateral aspects of Hong Kong's foreign trade relations, such as its participation in the GATT and MFA negotiations. The fifth department is responsible for common services, certificates of origin, import and export licenses for goods other than textiles, and a rice control system.

The department's work is supported by Hong Kong government offices in London, Brussels, Geneva, New York, Washington and San Francisco. See Appendix 2 for details. These offices abroad are administered by the Department of Commerce and Industry of the Secretariat of Government. They represent Hong Kong's commercial relations interests on a daily basis and provide information on international developments that may affect Hong Kong.



Customs and Tax Department

The department is made up of two components: the Customs and Excise Service and the Trade Control Group.

The Customs and Excise Service is a disciplined and uniformed force, and its work is described in Chapter 14, Public Order.

The Trade Controls Group is made up of industry official-level officers and is responsible for inspecting factories and shipments related to certificates of origin, import and export licenses, verification of trade declarations and manifests, and control of reserved goods. It also investigates fraud related to imports and exports, enforces the Trade Descriptions Act and designs copyright aspects of the Copyright Act, and handles trade complaints.

During the year, the group performed 66,372 factory and shipment inspections, 1,477 cost controls related to GSP applications (Form “A”), and 89,503 inquiries and reviews related to commercial declarations and manifests. Conducted 6,235 reviews of business statements, which resulted in the collection of $4.1 million in ad valorem fees and administrative fines.

The group also closed 2,347 investigations that resulted in fines totaling $21.2 million and up to 43 months in prison. Under the Trade Descriptions Order and the Copyright Order, assets with a market value of US$44.3 million were seized, of which US$3.1 million was confiscated from the Crown.

Hong Kong Trade Development Board

The Hong Kong Trade Development Council is a statutory body responsible for promoting and developing Hong Kong's foreign trade and publicizing Hong Kong's opportunities and advantages as a trading partner.

The chair is appointed by the governor and the other 19 members include representatives of major trade associations, prominent business and industrialists, and two senior government officials. The Board is funded by net proceeds from an ad valorem tax on all exports and imports other than food and various revenues from sources such as advertising fees and the sale of publications.

Established in 1966, the Board has established a network of 22 offices around the world, in addition to the main office in Hong Kong and local branches in Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong. All offices process trade inquiries, provide up-to-date trade and economic information, and advise businessmen interested in developing trade with Hong Kong. Overseas agents and consultants can put traders in touch with any of the 25,000 Hong Kong manufacturers and exporters registered on the Trade Inquiries Service computer.

The Council's computerized business inquiry service processed more than 150,000 foreign and local business inquiries. The research department continued to publish special market studies and detailed product reports detailing opportunities for Hong Kong's exports in overseas markets.

Council staff implemented a major trade promotion program in 1986 and organized over 80 major international projects. In the US, these included the Winter Consumer Electronics Fair in Las Vegas and the Summer Consumer Electronics Fair in Chicago, the American Toy Fair in New York, the National Hardware Show in Chicago and the New York Premium Show.

In Europe, the Council participated in the Nuremberg International Toy Fair, the International Spring and Autumn Fairs in Frankfurt, the International Spring Fair in Birmingham and Domotechnica in Cologne, and the Swiss Industries Fair in Basel.



In China, the Council held an international expo in Beijing showcasing more than 3,000 Hong Kong-made products to coincide with the opening of the Council's first China office.

A large number of Hong Kong business groups have visited the United States, Europe, China, the Middle East and Japan under the auspices of the Council to enhance old business contacts or establish new ones. The Council has also hosted over 200 foreign missions from over 40 countries, mainly from the United Kingdom, United States, Japan, China, West Germany, Canada and Sweden.

In Hong Kong, the Council hosted the Casual Apparel Show and organized its 12th Hong Kong Toys and Gifts Fair and was involved in the 5th Hong Kong Watches and Watches Fair, Hong Kong Fur Fair and Gifts and Housewares Fair from Hong Kong.

In the highly successful department store promotions, HKTDC partnered with T. Eaton Company Limited in Canada to run a nationwide promotion in February involving 93 stores. In July, the San Francisco Council ran a storewide sale at I. Magnin and Company, one of the city's most popular stores. And in Japan, it led to promotions on seven of the A.I.C. Department store chain in October and November.

To coincide with the Queen's visit in October, the Council held Showcase Hong Kong, an exhibition of over 3,500 products from Hong Kong. The exhibition opened to the public after the royal ceremonies.

The municipality publishes two product magazines, a fashion magazine and a large-circulation newspaper. They are Hong Kong Enterprise, a monthly general product magazine; the annual Hong Kong Toys, launched each October to coincide with the Hong Kong Toys and Gifts Fair; Hong Kong Apparel, a semi-annual fashion magazine, and Hong Kong Trader, a monthly magazine (airmailed) with news and views on the area. The council also publishes three specialist magazines Hong Kong Jewelery and Watches (annual); Hong Kong Electronics and Hong Kong Household (both biennial) - which are distributed at exhibitions around the world. A travel guide, Hong Kong For The Business Visitor, is published annually in seven languages ​​(English, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Japanese).

The Council's Overseas Associations Division administers the Hong Kong-US Economic Cooperation Committee and the Hong Kong-Japan Business Cooperation Committee. In February, Chief Secretary Sir David Akers-Jones led a Hong Kong delegation to the 3rd Plenary Session of the HK-US/US-HK Economic Cooperation Committee in Washington, DC. The committees strongly opposed any form of protection.

In May, the governor accompanied a delegation to Tokyo for the 9th Plenary Session of the HK-Japan/Japan-HK Economic Cooperation Committees, which discussed Japanese tariffs on fur garments, to obtain “prior approval” for imports of silk fabrics. and technology transfer.

This section also oversees the activities of seven foreign federations in Spain, Canada, Austria, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Italy.

In Sweden,

Construction continues on the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, the cornerstone of which was laid by the Queen during her visit in October. The center's support facilities include two five-star hotels - with a total of 1,500 rooms - and two towers with offices, a shopping center and service housing. The government made the 2.96-hectare site on the edge of Wan Chai available through a no-prize private contract. The portion of the development to be retained by the municipality will be approximately 73,000 square meters and will include two 9,100 square meters of exhibition halls, a 2,000 square meter conference/convention room and two auditoriums



700 and 360 seats, as well as a large number of small rooms for events. The center is scheduled to open in October 1988.

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

The Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation (ECIC) is a public corporation established in 1966 to issue insurance contracts protecting exporters and exporters of manufactures from the risk of financial loss arising from the non-payment of their foreign buyers for goods and services supplied on credit. The ECIC is autonomous in its day-to-day work, with wording and policy changes subject to approval by the Minister of Finance. Its capital of US$20 million is provided by the government, which also guarantees the company's underwriting liabilities of up to US$4,200 million. The commercially committed corporation is supported in the management of its business by a 12-person advisory board.

As a member of the International Association of Credit and Investment Insurers (Bern Union), the company has regular access to up-to-date, confidential business and marketing information in all major trading countries.

The company's main mission is to improve the competitiveness of Hong Kong's exports by protecting policyholders from losses arising from risks not normally covered by commercial insurers, namely the commercial risks of a foreign buyer and the political risks of their country. The maximum compensation rate is 90 percent. The protection offered by the company's policies helps policyholders obtain trade finance and export discounts from their bankers.

The company also assists policyholders in resolving payment difficulties and providing political and economic information about foreign markets, as well as providing credit information about individual foreign buyers.

Operations involving documents against payment, documents against acceptances and current accounts completed in short-term deposits (maximum 180 days) are normally covered by comprehensive insurance, which offers protection from the date of shipment. The coverage can be effective from the date of the sales contract and not from the shipment date to protect the exporter during the manufacturing phase. For the export of capital goods and services that are sold on medium or long-term credit and whose payments are spread over two to five years or more, the company offers other types of insurance policies to meet the individual needs of exporters.

In recent years, Hong Kong exporters and manufacturers who export on the basis of Irrevocable Letters of Credit (ILC) are increasingly exposed to risks at the pre-shipment or manufacturing stage. They often have to start manufacturing before the ILC arrives and therefore run the risk of contract termination during the manufacturing phase. To protect against this risk, as well as the risk of buyer bankruptcy and other political risks, the group introduced a new comprehensive contract policy in early 1986.

Although the company itself does not provide finance, exporters find a “Letter of Authorization” a useful form of collateral when negotiating export finance facilities. For medium and long-term credit exports, the company can, upon request, issue a full and unconditional guarantee directly to the exporter's bank.

Many of the company's business processes have been computerized. This allows the company to quickly process policyholder inquiries for approximately 55,000 foreign buyers and process approximately 10,000 credit limit requests per year.



In 1986, the company insured nearly $6,380 million in goods and services, generating premium income of more than $40.5 million. About 155 claims were paid, totaling $15.2 million.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

The Hong Kong Productivity Council (HKPC), a statutory organization established in 1967, is responsible for promoting the improvement of industrial productivity in Hong Kong. The board comprises a chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the governor, who represent the interests of management, workers, the scientific and professional community, and government departments closely related to productivity. It is funded by an annual government subsidy and fees for its services.

The Board has over 280 staff covering a wide range of disciplines. A strength of the HKPC is its ability to mix and match skills for a variety of management and industry consulting services and technology support. It conducts a variety of training programs in industrial technology, management techniques and computer-related subjects. It organizes industrial exhibitions and study trips abroad and operates a technical information service. It also undertakes development work in priority areas with diverse potential applications, so that newly developed productivity-enhancing systems can benefit as many users as possible upon successful completion. The 1985 amendment provided for an expansion of the Council's powers and functions to enable it to meet the changing needs of Hong Kong's industrial development with greater flexibility and effectiveness.

Council facilities include five training centers in Central District, Mong Kok, Tsim Sha Tsui, To Kwa Wan and Tai Kok Tsui – Electronic Data Processing Facility, Microprocessor Applications Laboratory, Industrial Automation Unit, Industrial Chemistry Laboratory , Metal Refining Laboratory, Heat Treatment Unit, Die Casting Unit, Environmental Control Laboratory, Technical Reference Library, Online Information Retrieval Service, and the newly created CAD/CAM Center and Workshop.

During the year, the Board's implementation plan for a “one size fits all approach” to industry support services was approved by the government. It included the expansion of relevant technical branches to provide an integrated industrial automation support service and a limited expansion of its metals development facilities with a particular focus on improving precision tooling capability. With the HKPC's growing size and diversity, a committee was appointed to advise on its long-term housing.

On behalf of the Department of Industry, the Board assisted SRI International with a techno-economic study of the plastics processing industry. She has also conducted industry-specific studies for trade associations in collaboration with external consulting firms.

There has been a continuing demand for the Council's industrial management and consulting services from local and foreign companies in building new factories and expanding and streamlining their operations. The Board carried out 260 consultancy projects, including feasibility studies, production management, new plant designs, staff recruitment, marketing and technical support services. In Metals Technology, 2,900 heat treatment and metal finishing jobs were carried out for client companies to improve the quality of their production tools and increase the productivity of their operations.

The Microprocessor Applications Laboratory provides consultancy and training services and the development of systems to increase productivity.



Work was being done on a computer-aided design system for making clothing markers. Previous systems developed by the board, including the pattern evaluation system, automated coating line control and computerized data entry and employee monitoring system, have proven to be cost-effective tools for improving quality and productivity. In electronic data processing, a comprehensive information management system, a joint venture project developed for the garment industry, made good progress. The council also developed a low-cost computer-aided design system for the knitting industry. In the area of ​​environmental management, 109 projects were carried out, covering the control of atmospheric pollution, wastewater treatment, sound protection, waste management and the use and recycling of resources and waste.

The Council maintains close links with industry through its Industry Liaison Scheme. Seminars, forums and presentations were held for various district associations and business associations. In education, the Board has organized 480 courses for more than 8,800 people, covering managerial and supervisory skills, advanced programming and validation of electronic data processing, as well as a wide range of technology programs for various sectors. It also organized exhibitions on the garment industry, Chinese computers and software technologies. Seventeen field trips and overseas visits were organized to observe the latest technologies in various fields, including CAD/CAM, quality control, electroplating, electroforming, human resource development, metallurgy and electrical engineering.

As a member of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO), the Board handles all APO matters on behalf of the government. During the year, the Council held two seminars on surface technology and food processing under the auspices of the APO, which were attended by delegates from most Asian countries.

Other commercial and industrial organizations

Established in 1861, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the territory's oldest and largest trade and industrial association. It includes more than 2,700 companies from all economic and industrial sectors. The Chamber is actively involved in promoting trade in Hong Kong and attracting new industries. It is a member of the International Chamber of Commerce and authorized by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific to arbitrate commercial disputes. The chamber offers a wide range of services to its members and over 8,000 non-member companies. This includes issuing certificates of origin or booklets of origin for goods, notarizing invoices and processing commercial and industrial inquiries. The Government regularly consults the Chamber on important issues affecting trade, industry and social development issues.

The Hong Kong Trade Facilitation Council was established in 1981 as an independent body to promote, encourage and support the facilitation of international trade processes and the associated documentation and information flows. Its members are formed by representatives of the government and of commercial and industrial associations. In recent years, the focus of trade facilitation work has shifted from paper to the transmission of essential business data by sophisticated electronic means. In line with this trend, the Council is developing a project called "Hotline", which is a proposal for a comprehensive electronic system for the transmission of data between interested parties. To keep abreast of developments elsewhere, the Board works closely with other international bodies and, from time to time, sends representatives to United Nations-sponsored meetings and other international meetings.



The Hong Kong Federation of Industries was established by law in 1960 to promote and protect the interests of Hong Kong industry and create a strong central organization to which all Hong Kong manufacturing industries can belong. It advises the government on all matters affecting Hong Kong industry and effectively reflects industry views to the government. The association is broadly representative of all industries. The association offers a wide range of services to members and non-members alike, including certificates of origin, business and joint venture inquiries, translation services and specialist research tailored to specific needs. Through its Design and Packaging Center, which is the executive arm of the Hong Kong Design Council, the association provides design and packaging warehouse and consulting services. It organizes the annual Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design Competition. It operates the Q-Mark program under the supervision of the Hong Kong Q-Mark Council, which licenses products that meet internationally recognized standards and are manufactured under an appropriate quality control system. The association also oversees the Hong Kong Toys Council, which is open to all companies and manufacturers interested in the toy industry in Hong Kong. It publishes a monthly magazine, Hong Kong Industrial News, and a membership directory. It sponsors exhibitions and fairs and organizes seminars and conferences on various industry topics.

The Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers Association was founded in 1934. More than 3,600 industrial and commercial enterprises belong to it. As a member of the International Chamber of Commerce, the CMA has played an important role in Hong Kong's industrial development and is widely consulted by the government regarding the formulation and implementation of public policy. It is authorized by the government to issue certificates of origin. It operates a trade consultation department and sponsors trade fairs to support trade promotion, promotes product development and hosts the annual Hong Kong New Product Competition. It also provides services to introduce new technologies, encourage investment and promote trade. CMA's Testing and Certification Laboratories offer a variety of services, including product testing, certification, pre-shipment and production inspection, and technical consulting. The association promotes occupational safety and personnel development in the industry and operates two vocational schools that provide technical training to more than 2,000 students.

Founded in 1900, the Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce is an association of Chinese companies and entrepreneurs based in Hong Kong. It has over 5,000 members. In addition to the traditional activities of a chamber of commerce, it maintains close contact with trade organizations in China and actively seeks to promote mutual China-Hong Kong trade. This is underscored by the fact that since 1957 the Chamber has been authorized by the China Export Commodity Fair authorities to issue invitations to Chinese companies headquartered in Hong Kong on its behalf. It is also one of five commercial and industrial organizations authorized by the government to issue Hong Kong certificates of origin. In 1985, it became a functional constituency of the Legislative Council, along with the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Federation of Industries and the Chinese Association of Manufacturers.

The Hong Kong Management Association is a body established in 1960 with the aim of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of management in Hong Kong. The total number of institutional and individual members exceeds 7,000. The association runs a number of professional clubs under its auspices, offering like-minded groups the opportunity to share and develop their expertise. She regularly offers management consulting and knowledge/skills based courses. More than 1000 programs are



offered annually and is aimed at more than 30,000 executives. A highlight of the association's activities is its annual conference, which provides a platform for distinguished speakers to share their knowledge, experiences and new thinking on the practice of management. Other management services offered by the association include publication of the Hong Kong Manager, a bilingual management journal, library and information services, seminars and forums, business competitions and translation services. A Business Enterprise Management Center works with the association to develop best management practices in small and medium-sized enterprises, and several Chinese language books on management have been compiled and published.

consumer advice

Created in 1974, the Consumer Council is responsible for protecting and promoting the interests of consumers of goods and services. It is composed of a president and up to 15 members appointed by the governor. The board has 94 employees and is financed primarily through an annual government subsidy.

Offers a comprehensive consumer protection service that includes consumer advocacy and law, advice and complaints, research and testing, information and education. He works closely with the government and sits on many committees to provide expert advice on a wide range of consumer concerns.

The Board's work in 1986 was marked by achievements on a number of long-standing issues affecting consumers. With the support of relevant professional bodies and government agencies, the council was able to pass a resolution on a standard land survey method that will allow buyers to accurately estimate the area and therefore the unit price of housing units previously offered for sale by developers. after completion . The agreement standardized a confusing set of physical space descriptions that led to many consumer complaints. Another issue concerned the prices of petroleum derivatives. When world crude oil prices began to fall, the Council, which has been monitoring oil prices since 1975, quickly submitted a detailed report on the situation to a Council Working Group on Legislation.

The Board's crackdown on retailer misconduct received a significant boost when an amendment to the Defamation Regulations came into effect. This allowed the media to publish the Council's reports on unscrupulous or dishonest traders, including the names of those involved, without fear of libel suits against them. An amendment to the Small Claims Court Ordinance was also enacted that year, significantly enhancing the protection of consumers, particularly tourists, and the Travel Agents Ordinance. In the course of its regular work, the Board processed 9,324 complaints and 160,092 requests for advice. A new consumer advice center was also opened, bringing the total to 15 in Hong Kong. In order to fulfill its mission of collecting and disseminating independent and unbiased advice and information to consumers, the Council continued its extensive program of research and comparative product testing. In the same year, the council also launched a testing program that included expensive household items such as air conditioners, washing machines and refrigerators.

In the area of ​​consumer education, a product safety campaign was launched in March with various activities, including the creation of a hotline for complaints about dangerous products and an exhibition that attracted around 500,000 visitors. Awareness has been raised among consumers as well as manufacturers and retailers. The launch of the new “Choice”, the municipal administration's monthly magazine, proved to be a resounding success with an average circulation of 40,000 copies per year. To ensure that the



In order to ensure that the consumer message reached a wide audience, the Council worked with the media and other interested bodies, mainly schools, on extracurricular activities such as competitions and a program for 'Young Consumer Education Ambassadors'.

The Consumer Council is a board member of the International Organization of Consumers Union (IOCU) and maintains close ties with its counterparts abroad, including those in China.

trade in endangered species

The possession, import and export of endangered species of fauna and flora, including parts and derivatives, to and from Hong Kong is strictly regulated by the Fauna and Flora (Protection of Endangered Species) Regulations, which is the Convention on International Trade in Species Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) comes into force. Although the licensing policy allows for legal trade in proposed specimens, import licenses may not be granted in certain cases to support the survival of a species. For example, since 1979, the importation of rhino horns of all Rhinocerotidae species into Hong Kong has been completely prohibited. Hong Kong maintains its place as an important center for the legal trade in African ivory.

The regulation is administered by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and enforced by officials from the Department and the Department of Customs and Excise. The Department of Commerce is authorized to issue certificates for carved ivory items in Hong Kong. Illegal trade will be investigated and prosecuted if there is evidence of violation of the regulation. In 1986, there were 420 arrests and 200 prosecutions under the decree.


In the area of ​​metrics, the government's objective is to facilitate the gradual adoption of the International System of Units (SI) in the areas under its responsibility and positively encourage the use of metric (SI) units by the private sector . The Metrication Ordinance, enacted in 1976, provides for the eventual replacement of non-metric units by SI units in all Hong Kong law. Most government agencies now exclusively use metric units.

A Metrology Committee, made up of representatives from industry, commerce, administration and consumer affairs, and government officials appointed by the Governor, is the central liaison point for all matters related to metrology. It advises and encourages the commercial and industrial sectors in the preparation of their metrics programs. Due in part to the Committee's efforts, public awareness of the metric has increased and considerable progress has been made in the adoption of metric units in the private sector.

As of January 1, 1986, public weather services became fully metric, and the new units used were kilometers for horizontal distance, kilometers per hour for wind speed, and hectopascals for atmospheric pressure. Other key developments during the year included the production of posters and conversion cards to promote metrics in fashion retail and the graphics industry, respectively.

Trademarks and Patents

The Trademark Registration, which is a subdivision of the Division of Commerce of the Department of General Registration, is an original registration register. Trademarks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which has similar provisions to UK trademark law. The procedure for applying for registration is defined in the Trademark Rules and the necessary forms are freely available at



Registration of Trademarks, Office of the Chancellor General. Any trademark, even if already registered in the UK or any other country, must meet all the requirements of the Trademark Ordinance before being accepted for registration. In 1986, 7,686 applications were received and 4,184, including many from previous years, were accepted and admitted to the competition. A total of 3,120 trademarks were registered in 1986, against 2,780 in 1985. The main countries of origin were: Hong Kong, 803; United States, 666; Japan, 345; West Germany, 230; France, 228; United Kingdom, 214; Switzerland, 106; Italy, 102; Holland, 97; Taiwan, 47. The total number of trademarks registered as of December 31, 1986 was 46,453.

Unlike the Register of Trademarks, the Register of Patents, which is another subdivision of the Commerce Division of the General Registry Department, is not a record of the original registration. The Patent Registration Regulations provide that any beneficiary of a British patent or a European (UK) patent may apply for the patent to be registered in Hong Kong within five years of the date of grant.

A total of 1,010 patents were registered in this way during the year, up from 1,030 in 1985. Registration of a British or European (UK) patent in Hong Kong entitles the beneficiary to the same privileges and rights as a patent granted in the United Kingdom extending to Hong Kong. The privileges and rights apply from the commencement of the UK patent term and continue for as long as the patent remains in force there.

commercial register

The Commercial Register of the General Registration Department maintains records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong and all foreign companies headquartered in Hong Kong.


Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which was originally based largely on the Companies Act 1929, formerly in force in Great Britain but now superseded by various laws culminating in the Companies Act 1985. However, following the recommendations of the Companies Act Revision Committee (June 1971 and April 1973), various parts of the Companies Act - particularly those dealing with prospectuses, accounts and auditing - were amended to include most of the relevant provisions of the Companies Acts 1948 and 1948 1967. Most of the remaining recommendations in the Committee's second report are implemented in the lengthy Companies Ordinance (Amendment) 1984, which was enacted in January and entered into force on August 31, 1984. The regulation is under constant review and improvement based on the recommendations of the Permanent Commission for the Reform of the Law of Commercial Companies, instituted in 1984. The main task of the It is to ensure that Hong Kong's corporate law meets the most up-to-date government and business requirements.

Upon incorporation, a corporation pays a registration fee of $600 plus $6 per $1,000 worth of common stock. In 1986, 16,743 new companies were incorporated - 1,722 less than in 1985. The total nominal capital of the newly incorporated companies was US$ 3,356 million. Of the new companies, 97 had nominal capital of $5 million or more. During the year, 5,425 companies increased their nominal capital by a total of US$17,079 million, paying fees at the same rate of US$6 per US$1,000. At the end of 1986, 161,986 local commercial establishments were registered, against 147,636 in 1985.

Companies incorporated abroad are required to register certain documents with the Commercial Register within one month of establishing a place of business in Hong Kong.



In these cases, there is a $500 filing fee and some small filing fees. During the year, 288 of these companies were registered and 142 were deactivated. At the end of the year, 2,238 companies from 64 countries were registered, 551 from the United States, 328 from Great Britain and 267 from Japan.

The commercial registry also handles the formation of trustees under the Trustee Formation Ordinance and the registration of limited partnerships.

insurance Department

The Insurance Companies Regulation (Chapter 41), which came into force on 30 June 1983, restricts the handling of all types of insurance business in or from Hong Kong to a company authorized by the Insurance Authority, Lloyd's of London , and to a company approved by the Governor in Council approved association of underwriters.

The Registrar General, who was appointed the insurance authority for the purposes of the Regulations, must ensure that certain conditions are met before a company can be registered.

These include the suitability of the Company's officers and controllers; a minimum capital requirement of $5 million ($10 million for companies engaged in general, long-term business or statutory business, the latter meaning legal insurance coverage); and a solvency margin requirement of US$2 million (US$4 million or US$6 million in various cases, depending on whether long-term and general trading is involved and statutory trading is included).

There are 288 insurance companies, including 128 local companies, authorized to conduct insurance business in Hong Kong.

The 13th General Conference of the East Asian Insurance Congress was held in Hong Kong in September. The Congress is an association established in 1962 to develop international insurance cooperation among members from East Asian countries; This conference was attended by 1,020 insurance professionals from 29 countries.

bankruptcies and liquidations

During the year, there were 469 bankruptcy filings and 397 foreclosure filings. The court issued 385 injunctions, six administrative injunctions, and 304 liquidation injunctions, a slight decrease of 0.57 percent from the number of cases in 1985. As in previous years, the receiver was appointed administrator or liquidator in most cases. The net worth realized by the receiver in 1986 was $255 million. In addition to these compulsory liquidations, 1,625 companies went into voluntary liquidation – 1,512 through voluntary liquidation of shareholders and 113 through voluntary liquidation of creditors.


Under the Money Lending Ordinance, which came into effect in December 1980, anyone wishing to work as a money lender must apply for a license from a licensing court, consisting of a magistrate and two lay assessors. In the first instance, the application is filed with the Registrar General as Registrar of Money Lenders and a copy is sent to the Commissioner of Police, who can appeal the application.

The application is announced and every interested public has the right to object. During the year, 399 applications were received and 402 licenses were granted. At the end of the year there were 417 licensed lenders.



The regulation provides for severe penalties for a range of violations of the law, such as engaging in an unlicensed money-lending business. It also provides that a loan made by an unlicensed moneylender cannot be recovered through court proceedings. Any person, whether a licensed moneylender or not, who lends or offers money at an interest rate in excess of 60 percent per annum commits a criminal offense and consents that repayment of such loan or any security given in connection with such loan is unenforceable.





HONG KONG has about 2.64 million resourceful and energetic workers, of which 64% are men and 36% are women. This estimate is based on the results of the general household survey from July to September 1986. They are employed mainly in: manufacturing, 35.8 percent; Wholesale and retail trade, gastronomy and hotels 22.7 percent; community, social and personal services 17.1%; transport, storage and communication 8.4%; construction, 7.5%; and financial, insurance, real estate and business services 6.1 percent.

According to a September 1986 survey of establishments on employment, vacancies and payroll in industry, 869,753 persons were employed in 48,623 establishments. The survey included owners and associates, salaried workers, and unpaid family workers affiliated with business organizations, but not homeworkers. Around 379 600 people - most of those employed in manufacturing - worked in the textile and clothing industry. The electrical industry and the plastics industry were the next two largest employers. Details of the distribution of production facilities and the number of people employed therein are provided in Annexes 13 and 14.

Most of the production workforce is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the satellite cities of the New Territories. Industrial development in the New Territories is increasing and 35% of the manufacturing workforce now works there.

Employment law

In 1986, eight labor laws were enacted to create better safety, health and social standards for the workforce. This brings the total number of labor laws enacted over the past 10 years to 136, as part of the overall policy to achieve a level of safety, health and welfare legislation broadly comparable to Hong Kong's neighboring countries at a similar stage of development. economic. development matches. The main labor regulations that came into force during the year were the jubilee service regulations under the Labor Regulations, the 1st Special Regulations for Companies (Asbestos), the Regulations for Factories and Industrial Companies (Safety Officers and Safety Supervisors ). These and other legal provisions are described in more detail below.

As a dependent territory of the United Kingdom, Hong Kong is not a member of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and is not required to ratify international labor conventions that set international labor standards. However, the UK government is making statements on behalf of Hong Kong in relation to the



application of the conventions it has ratified. This comes after extensive consultations with the Hong Kong government. As of December 1986, Hong Kong has implemented 29 conventions in full and 19 with amendments, making 48 in all. This compares favorably with most member states in the region.

During the year, there were 3,589 criminal cases for violating Ministry of Labor regulations. Fines totaling $6,568,500 were imposed. Since April 1, 1986, law enforcement measures under the Air Pollution Control Ordinance and its regulations have been carried out by the Department of Environmental Protection.

wages and working conditions

There is no legal minimum wage in Hong Kong. The prevailing wage level is essentially the result of an interaction of the economic forces of supply and demand.

Payout rates are usually calculated on a time basis, e.g. B. hourly, daily or monthly, or on an incentivized basis, depending on the volume of work performed. The salary period is usually 15 days for daily and piece bets and one month for monthly bets. Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in manufacturing are paid by the piece, although day wages are also common. Industrial monthly workers are generally employed in craft jobs or in technical, managerial, commercial and secretarial jobs. On the other hand, monthly wages are more common for non-manufacturing workers. Men and women are paid more or less the same wages for piecework. Women are paid less, on average, when working part-time, but there may not be strict comparability of work.

Industrial workers' wages continued to rise in monetary terms during the year. In the 12 months to September 1986, real wages increased by 4.1 percent, taking into account consumer price inflation. The pace of wage increases was faster than the previous year, while unemployment and underemployment remained stable at low levels due to the continued expansion of the service sectors of the economy.

In September 1986, 75 percent of workers employed in manufacturing earned daily wages (including fringe benefits) of $87 or more (men $102 and women $83); and 25 percent received $126 or more (men $149 and women $115). Median daily earnings totaled $108 (men $128 and women $99).

In addition to granting days off, public holidays, paid annual leave and other rights under the Labor Regulations, some manufacturing employers provide workers with subsidized meals or daily allowances, stipends and medical treatment free of charge. Some establishments also offer free or subsidized transportation. Many workers are entitled to a New Year's bonus of a month's salary or more as part of their employment contracts. More and more employers are introducing provident funds to provide additional social benefits for their employees.

Child labor regulations enacted under the Labor Regulations prohibit the employment of children under the age of 15 in industrial enterprises. Children who are 13 years of age and who have completed Form 3 training may be employed in non-commercial settings, subject to strict conditions designed to ensure at least nine years of education and to protect their health, safety and well-being.

Under the Women and Youth (Industry) Decree, 15- to 17-year-olds and women can work eight hours a day, six days a week in industry. Women and 16- and 17-year-olds must have a break of at least 30 minutes




after five hours of continuous work. For youth aged 15 and over, the break should not be less than one hour. Overtime for women is limited to two hours a day and 200 hours a year, while under 18s cannot work overtime. As a rule, women cannot work between 8 pm and midnight. and 6:00 am, while minors under 18 are prohibited from working between 7:00 pm and 7:00 pm. and 7:00 am The Commissioner of Labor gave permission to some large factories, chiefly those involved in cotton spinning, to employ women in the evenings under certain strict conditions. Women and young people cannot work more than six days a week. Regulations also prohibit women and youth from working underground or in hazardous occupations.


The Department of Labor is also responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Workers' Compensation Ordinance. This regulation obliges all employers to take out insurance for their workers that covers compensation for injuries or death resulting from accidents occurring during and during work. Employers are also required to post notices in the workplace with details of the insurance policy.

In 1986, the Labor Inspectorate of the Ministry of Labor carried out 251,167 day and night inspections in industrial and non-industrial establishments. Three special campaigns against the employment of children and illegal immigrants were carried out in 19,274 companies. During the year, 84 child labor cases involving 84 children were brought to court.

Illegal Employment Controls

Under the Immigration Regulations, employers are prohibited from employing people without valid identification documents and Vietnamese refugees who are not allowed to obtain employment. The regulation also requires all employees to provide proof of identity for inspections and that employers keep up-to-date records of their employees. These legal requirements, intended to stop the flow of illegal immigrants to Hong Kong, are enforced by the Department of Labour.

seniority payment

The Employment Regulations were amended to provide that, from 1 January 1986, a seniority allowance may be paid by the employer in certain circumstances. An employee who has worked continuously for the same employer for a specified number of years, ranging from five to ten years, depending on the employee's age, and who has been terminated by means other than summary dismissal or redundancy for operational reasons, is entitled to a seniority payment equal to two-thirds of a month's salary for each year of service.

The amount of payment may also vary depending on the age of the worker. A worker age 40 and older is entitled to the full pay calculated above, while younger workers are entitled to only 50% or 75% of what they would otherwise receive, depending on their age. In the first year after its introduction, 438 disputes relating to the Seniority Pay Act were reported to the Department of Labor's Industrial Relations Service.


Trade unions in Hong Kong must be registered in accordance with the Trade Union Regulations administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions. Once registered, they are corporations and enjoy immunity from certain civil actions.



18 new unions were registered during the year. At the end of the year there were 448 trade unions, of which 403 workers' unions had around 371,100 members, three employers' organizations had around 3,070 members and 15 mixed workers' and employers' organizations had around 22,880 members.

Most blue-collar unions are affiliated with one or the other of the two local associations registered under the Societies Ordinance – the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions and the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council.

The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions has 71 affiliated unions with approximately 167,940 members. Its affiliates are concentrated in shipyards, textile factories, public transport, utilities, and the printing and carpentry trades.

The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council is made up of 68 unions with around 34,930 members. These unions operate mainly in the food and construction sectors.

The remaining 264 workers' unions have around 168,230 members, mainly from civil servants and teachers.

employment administration and services

The Ministry of Labor has 1 623 branches. Branches in metropolitan areas and in the New Territories handle employment law issues raised by local employers and workers. The Commissioner of Labor is the government's main adviser on labor matters. He is also the Commissioner of Mines.

The department initiates labor legislation and ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under international labor conventions are met. It comprises 15 departments: Administration, Development, Information and Public Relations, Workmen's Compensation, Employment Service, Work Inspection, Industrial Relations, Mining, Workplace Medicine, Pressure Equipment, Public Ministry, Selective Placement, Training and Development of Personnel, Women and Youth, Youth Career Counseling and International Employment Service.

work relationships

The Labor Relations Regulation provides for special arbitration mechanisms, voluntary arbitration and commissions of inquiry to resolve commercial disputes that cannot be resolved by ordinary arbitration. An Industrial Relations Committee was created by the Labor Council in 1986 to promote good relations between employees and employers.

In 1986, the Department of Labor's Industrial Relations Service resolved 205 business disputes, which resulted in nine stoppages with a loss of 4,907 workdays, compared to 1,160 workdays lost in three stoppages in 1985. The service also handled 19,211 requests for severance pay, severance pay, birthday gratuities, overdue wages, vacations, holidays, year-end and others.

The Labor Relations Promotion Unit is responsible for promoting harmonious relations between workers and employers. During the year, employees at the unit made 240 advisory visits to employers, trade unions and employers' associations. Other support activities included eight certified courses with 68 half-day sessions on industrial relations and two conferences on industrial relations in the hospitality and electrical industries. 1,191 directors, union leaders and employee representatives participated in the activities. The Unit also produced posters and calendars to publicize its activities. A quarterly newsletter was also published and a mini-exhibition was organised, which attracted 9,000 visitors. The unit also organized a seminar and festival on industrial relations for residents in cooperation with two district committees.


Wage protection in the event of employer insolvency


Employees who receive wages owed by their employer can apply to the wage security insolvency fund for a goodwill payment. Established by the Bankruptcy Wage Protection Act enacted on April 19, 1985, the fund is funded by an annual fee of $100 on each business register. Previously, most employees of insolvent companies had to wait until the liquidation or bankruptcy process was completed before receiving their wages. Even then, they may receive only a small part of their entitlement, depending on the value of the insolvent employer's liquidated assets. With the creation of the fund, an employee can now receive immediate payments from this fund covering up to a maximum of $8,000 in wages owed to him for services rendered in a four-month period prior to the application date. This amount corresponds to the amount to which the employee is entitled in the event of liquidation or bankruptcy. Upon payment, the employee's rights pass to the fund, which can recover all or part of the money paid to the employee from any assets of the employer realized after the completion of liquidation or bankruptcy.

In most cases, filing a liquidation or bankruptcy application is a prerequisite for payment. However, in certain cases, the Commissioner of Labor may, at its discretion, make payments without a request being made.

During the year, 7,584 requests were received and 7,131 were approved, totaling $18.3 million in payments.

In order to better protect employees of insolvent employers, consideration is being given to extending the scope of the fund to severance pay. For the extension to take effect, additional changes to the Wage Protection Insolvency Ordinance are required.

Labor Court

The Labor Court, which forms part of the Judiciary, offers a quick, inexpensive and informal method of resolving certain types of disputes between employees and employers with a minimum of formality. Whenever possible, the arbitral tribunal will deal with legal claims in the language of the parties.

In 1986, the arbitral tribunal heard 4,687 cases involving employee claims and another 227 cases involving employer claims. More than $21 million has been awarded by presidents. 95.8 percent of cases handled by arbitration were referred by the Industrial Relations Service after unsuccessful attempts at arbitration.

find job

The Department of Labor's local employment service offers a free placement service to help employers recruit suitable employees and job seekers to find a suitable job. It works from 15 offices interconnected by a fax system for the quick exchange of information on vacancies reported by employers. The Central Recruitment Unit, which works closely with the local employment service, is a central point for all government agencies to recruit non-pensionable personnel such as artisans, drivers and handymen. It also coordinates job placement services offered to large private sector employers with nationwide recruitment needs. During the year, 36,857 people were successfully placed on the job market, including 3,491 who found public service jobs.

The Higher Education Employment Office (formerly known as the Special Registry) serves job seekers who hold a college, technical school, or



Secondary or professional qualification. During the year, 388 people found employment through this service.

The Division of Selective Placement provides free counseling and job placement services to physically disabled, mentally retarded and formerly mentally ill persons seeking employment. The service operates from three offices in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories.

The placement of socially maladjusted job applicants is still the responsibility of the Hong Kong Social Service Board and other voluntary organizations. During the year, the Selective Placement Unit launched a series of activities to publicize its work and promote the employability of people with disabilities. In 1986, nearly 1,000 disabled people were put to work.

career counseling

The Department of Labor's Youth Employment Counseling Service provides career counseling to young people through a variety of programs and activities. In 1986, service officials conducted 469 career interviews in 231 schools and six volunteer organizations with an audience of 78,787. Vocational Congresses and Vocational Projects were jointly organized with the Hong Kong Professional Teachers and Guiding Association and the Vocational Training Council. The 15th annual careers exhibition organized by the service attracted 96,000 visitors. Additionally, a work orientation program was organised, which included 28 visits to various private and public institutions and involved the participation of around 700 students.

In order to promote vocational training, the service organizes continuing education programs for teachers from vocational schools in cooperation with the department of education. It also produces a number of career publications that are distributed free of charge to schools, youth centers and other interested parties.

The service currently operates three careers information centers, each equipped with a reference library and audio-visual records of information on employment and training opportunities. In 1986, some 39,195 students and youth visited the centers and used their facilities.

non-foreign employment

The Overseas Employment Contracts Ordinance was renamed the Outside Hong Kong Employment Contracts Ordinance in July 1985. It governs contracts made in Hong Kong between employers or their authorized representatives and workers who are required to work outside Hong Kong . These contracts must be authenticated by the Commissioner of Labor before workers leave Hong Kong. An employer or his representative who fails to comply with the provision will be subject to a fine of $50,000. During the year, 256 contracts were certified against 440 in 1985.

foreign domestic help

The working conditions of foreign domestic workers, most of whom are from the Philippines, are regulated by the official requirement that their employment contracts must be certified by the Ministry of Labor.

During the year, 28,586 contracts of this type were certified. The department is also responsible for resolving disputes arising from the employment of these domestic workers. In 1986, 382 requests, 673 inquiries and 43,755 inquiries were processed.


employment agencies


According to the Employment Ordinance, an employment agency must obtain authorization before starting work. During the year, the Department of Labor issued 238 licenses to employment agencies dealing with local jobs and 58 licenses to those dealing with jobs outside Hong Kong.

operational security

The Department of Labor's Labor Inspectorate is responsible for enforcing the Ordinance on Factories and Industrial Establishments and its subsidiary ordinances. These regulations serve to ensure the safety and health of employees in factories, on construction sites in construction and civil engineering and in other industrial enterprises. Management is advised and supported in protecting hazardous machine parts, adopting safe work practices and designing new plants for a better working environment. The supervisory authority also investigates accidents at work and dangerous incidents.

The Special Regulations for Factories and Industrial Establishments (Asbestos) of 1986, which came into force in August, prohibit the use of certain types of asbestos in industrial establishments and all processes involving the spraying of asbestos. They also control the use of other types of asbestos in industrial enterprises.

Regulations for factories and industrial enterprises (safety officers and safety supervisors) were enacted at the end of the year. The regulations provide for the mandatory employment of safety officers and safety supervisors on construction sites above a certain size, the establishment of an advisory board of safety officers, and the registration of safety officers. In December, the regulation on the constitution of the Safety Officers Consultative Commission and the registration of Safety Officers came into force; the rest will come into force in December 1987.

The Regulation on Factories and Industrial Enterprises (Carcinogenic Substances) was also enacted during the year. The regulations aim to prohibit or control the use of certain known carcinogenic substances in industrial companies. They came into effect in November.

The Labor Inspectorate, in cooperation with the Department of Information Services, continued its publicity program to promote safety in the workplace through extensive use of the media and other means. A series of eight documentaries or drama episodes aired between July and September as part of the popular television program Enjoy Yourself Tonight.

From 1980 to 1985, subcommittees for the industries of civil construction, textiles, plastics, shipbuilding and ship repair, metallic products and electrical were established as part of the work safety and accident prevention commission of the labor advisory council. These subcommittees are composed of representatives of employers, workers and government, in line with ILO recommendations; Its objective is to promote work safety in various sectors.

The Occupational Health and Safety and Accident Prevention Committee organized, in December, a workplace health and safety forum aimed at managers and workers with the aim of raising awareness of safety at work. Various other promotional activities were also conducted by industry safety subcommittees. These activities included developing safe practice codes and brochures for relevant industries, organizing safety quiz competitions, and organizing promotional factory tours. For the fourth time, a Safety Awards program was organized by the Construction Industry Subcommittee.

Throughout the year, the Factory Inspectorate's Occupational Safety Training Center provided safety training for supervisors and workers from various sectors. At the



In cooperation with the Hong Kong Polytechnic, the center also organized two evening courses and a part-time course leading to a certificate of occupational safety. In order to meet the growing demands of the sector, two advanced courses were started throughout the year, which led to the attribution of a certificate of competence in advanced work safety. For the third year since 1984, the department supported the Construction Industry Training Authority in conducting training courses for construction safety officers.

The Pressure Equipment Division implements the Pressure Vessels and Boilers Ordinance and the Gas Vessels Inspection Ordinance. The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Regulations require boilers, steam vessels, steam vessels, air tanks and cement tanks mounted on trucks or trailers to be approved and registered with the department and regularly inspected by qualified private sector engineers acting as inspectors. nominated.

The department conducts tests for boiler attendants to issue certificates of competence. Comprehensive training courses for electrically heated boiler attendants are organized in cooperation with the Haking Wong Technical Institute. The department also organizes a short course for people who want to acquire an interim certificate of competence. Brochures on legal, technical and safety aspects of printing equipment are distributed to equipment owners and caretakers.

The department also accepts the design of gas tanks and carries out tests during production, as well as subsequent annual tests in accordance with the gas tank test regulation. Provides technical assistance to firefighters in securing certain types of category 2 dangerous goods containers.

The department randomly monitors the operation of pressure equipment for compliance with legal regulations and conducts investigations of accidents involving pressure equipment.

occupational medicine and hygiene

The Occupational Health and Safety Division of the Department of Labor advises the government and the public on issues of worker health and hygiene in the workplace and complements the Factory Inspection Division in overseeing health standards and practices in industry. It serves to maintain and improve the physical and mental well-being of employees and to protect them against health risks resulting from their employment. During the year, the department participated in several seminars and exhibitions to promote health in the workplace and also published several booklets and codes of practice to prevent occupational hazards.

One of the main attributions of the department is the monitoring of occupational diseases and potential health risks communicated by the Labor Inspectorate and the definition of preventive measures. Surveys are being carried out in various sectors and an epidemiological study was completed during the year on sanitary and hygienic conditions in the quarries and worksites. Similar epidemiological studies of health risks in glass factories and iron foundries are ongoing. A large-scale monitoring program for factories with potential lead exposure was also launched.

The department conducts medical examinations of personnel exposed to ionizing radiation and government officials employed in compressed air, diving, pest control and fluoridation work. He also deals with cases of silicosis under the Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) Regulation. The department's nurses take care of the medical certificate for the employees' indemnity processes, and the company's doctors are appointed as members of the special examination



Plates and prostheses and plates for surgical appliances pursuant to the Employee Compensation Ordinance.

The Occupational Health Division laboratory performs analytical tests on biological samples from workers and other environmental samples collected during on-site visits.

Workers Compensation

The Workers' Compensation Department of the Department of Labor administers the Workers' Compensation Ordinance and the Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) Ordinance. The department ensures that injured workers and survivors of deceased workers covered under the Workers' Compensation Regulations receive prompt compensation from their employers for injuries or death caused by accidents arising out of and during employment or occupational illnesses. It also ensures that people covered by the Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) Regulation receive compensation as soon as possible from the Pneumoconiosis Compensation Fund, which is funded by a fee levied on the construction and quarry industries.

Under the Employee Compensation Assessment Board's two-tier system, employees with work-related injuries that could result in permanent disability are assessed by assessment panels at eight major hospitals in Hong Kong. In 1986, the regular review committees convened 482 meetings and completed the review of 15,616 cases submitted to them by the Commissioner of Labor and 1,032 review cases. The Special Audit Committees called seven meetings and concluded the evaluation of seven cases presented by the Ordinary Audit Committees and one review case.

Compensation rates under the Ordinance on Accidents at Work and the Ordinance on Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) were increased by approximately 23 percent effective January 1, 1986, to reflect the evolution of the wage level since its last revision in 1983. Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) Ordinance was also amended to provide greater flexibility in paying compensation to pneumoconiosis family members who died from causes other than pneumoconiosis.

As the number and scope of claims from the pneumoconiosis compensation fund have gradually declined in recent years, the fund's contribution income has been significantly reduced. Effective June 1, 1985, the value of taxable civil works and quarry products increased from $0.25 million to $1 million and the rate was reduced from 0.2% to 0.15% from January 6, 1986.




primary production

HONG KONG has a very small agricultural base, only about nine percent of the total land area is suitable for agriculture. Only about two percent of the workforce is involved in primary production - farming and fishing - but the people of Hong Kong are among the world's biggest consumers of protein, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The population consumes around 1,000 tonnes of rice, 1,300 tonnes of vegetables, 10,000 pigs, 510 head of cattle, 280 tonnes of poultry, 420 tonnes of fish and 1,100 tonnes of fruit daily. Much of that is imported, but Hong Kong farmers help meet some of the demand. In terms of quantity, local farmers produce around 35 percent of fresh vegetables, 45 percent of live poultry, 18 percent of live pigs and 12 percent of freshwater fish, while the fishing fleet of around 4,700 Vessels supply about 86 percent of all fresh marine fish consumed. Locally produced food is generally of a higher quality than the same types of imported food and therefore fetches higher prices in markets.

Food accounts for about 14% of Hong Kong's imports from China. Local production, which complements and does not compete with imports, aims to maintain a certain degree of self-sufficiency in perishable foods. Local production mainly consists of quality food, and consumers' preference for fresh food as opposed to frozen or refrigerated food is fully exploited.

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries promotes the productive use of agricultural land in rural areas. It helps in the development of agriculture, especially in the form of irrigation projects. New concepts, techniques and inputs for agriculture and fisheries are evaluated and actively promoted. Controls are in place to prevent the introduction and spread of crop and livestock pests and diseases.

Research programs of the Department of Soil Crops, Pest Control, Livestock and Fisheries. Experiments are being conducted on government farms to improve the quality and yield of vegetables, flowers and fruits. The department advises livestock farmers on modern animal husbandry methods, provides high-quality seeds and breeding stock for pigs and poultry, and offers an artificial insemination service for pigs.

Fisheries research addresses marine resources, aquaculture and the environmental impact of fisheries development activities. For marine resources, the focus is on optimizing the production of fisheries resources exploited by the local fishing fleet and studying the development potential of underexploited resources.

Aquaculture studies are concerned with developing more efficient farming systems for fish and shellfish and improved methods for producing marine fish fry. Hydrographic surveys are designed to provide environmental information for a



Selection of biological programs. The research also aims to assess the impact of pollution, including red tides, on fishing, mainly on mariculture, to minimize production losses.

The Department administers soft loans to help farmers and fishers finance their long-term operational or investment needs. The department also organizes and finances professional and technical training for those directly and indirectly involved in primary production. In addition, it is responsible for registering and supervising cooperatives and credit unions. The department manages large areas of open landscape and is responsible for soil and water conservation, forest maintenance and landscape restoration, as well as firefighting and recreational development in landscaped parks.


Consumer demand and local primary production are monitored to allow for proper development planning. Statistics on production factors and food stocks, including imports, are collected and analyzed to help formulate local production and marketing policies. The business efficiency of different sectors within the core industry is studied to define and update productivity standards and identify areas for improvement.

Development of agriculture and fisheries

Due to the shortage of agricultural workers in Hong Kong and rising costs, the most important development in the agricultural industry in recent years has been the introduction of labor-saving equipment. Farmers use pre-emergence herbicides for weed control in commercial gardens and there is widespread use of small farm machinery and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of the year, 2,650 rotary cultivators and 2,375 sprinkler systems were in use on the vegetable farms.

Integrated Pest Management, a safe method of controlling pests in vegetables without the use of toxic pesticides, is the subject of an active development program by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. The use of a safe microbial organism to control the diamondback moth, a major pest of green leafy vegetables, was adopted by local farmers. Seminars and demonstrations are also organized to publicize and promote integrated pest management and the safe use of pesticides.

Technical assistance, agricultural loans and related services were made available to farmers to encourage better agricultural outcomes.

Growing edible mushrooms has grown in popularity in recent years, and by the end of 1986 there were 60 mushroom farms. Locally produced mushroom accounts for about 70% of the local market.

Teams of agricultural advisors are deployed by the department throughout the New Territories to deal with agricultural issues and liaise with cooperatives and rural associations.

Credit facilities and technical advice are available to farmers, and agricultural development officers also assist them in land development and rehabilitation.

Under the Rural Development Program, more than 680 farmers participated in discussion groups led by professionals and technicians from the ministry during the year, and officials made 85,576 visits to farmers and cooperatives. Tours were also arranged for farmers to see government experimental farms and agricultural projects.

Fisheries development work includes modernizing fishing vessels and introducing more efficient fishing equipment and navigational aids. Consulting services are offered to anglers on hull design and deck layout, while experiments and demonstrations are conducted to test the suitability of new fishing equipment. Training courses in navigation and economics



In the main fishing centers, administration is organized for helmsmen, engineers and radiotelephone operators working on fishing boats.

12 schools run by the Fish Marketing Organization educate the children of fishermen. By the end of 1986, over 2,500 children were attending these schools. Another five went to other schools with grants from the organization.

Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through links with producer associations and fishermen's cooperatives. Ten Fish Marketing Organization liaison offices work in major fishing centers to liaise with fishermen.


Credit is available to the agricultural industry through three main funds: the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J.E. Joseph Trust Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. All are administered by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. As of December 31, 1986, inception loans from these three funds totaled $233.4 million. Of this total, US$ 221.6 million were paid.

The $7 million Fisheries Development Loan Fund is administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries specifically for fishing fleet development.

Financing from the World Refugee Year Cooperative Loan Fund, established by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1962, is also available to members of fishermen's cooperatives.

The Fish Marketing Organization Loan Fund, which has operated since January 1, 1983 as a revolving loan fund, transferring funds from the organization's surplus and deficit account, is another important source of credit finance for fishers. At the end of 1986, the fund had $16 million in equity.

The department manages another revolving loan fund specifically for shrimpers, funded by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE).

As of December 31, 1986, inception loans from these four funds totaled $160 million, of which $142 million has been repaid.

Cooperatives operate under a cooperative charter that provides for the appointment of a registrar – the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. Its competences and attributions focus on the registration of cooperatives and their statutes, auditing, inspection and investigation, general operational supervision and matters such as the arbitration of disputes and, if necessary, the dissolution of cooperatives.

At the end of the year, 12,666 farmers and 1,956 fishermen were cooperative members.

There were 70 clubs and two federations in the farming community and 68 clubs and four federations supported by fishermen.

ground use

The total area of ​​Hong Kong is 1 070 square kilometers. Of these, 8.8% are used for agriculture, 74.6% are on the outskirts with different characteristics of the subsoil and the remaining 16.6% are urbanized areas.

The need to found new cities and expand residential areas in the New Territories led to an encroachment of agricultural land. However, the impact of losses on the total area of ​​agricultural land used was partially offset by more intensive management of the remaining land. The Department of Buildings and Land is responsible for land management in Hong Kong.




(i) Developed Urban Land

Approximate area (square kilometers)


percentage of the whole


(ii) Developed rural countries



(iii) Forests



(iv) meadows and thickets



(v) Ödland



(vi) Swamp and mangrove areas


(vii) Agriculture



(viii) Fish ponds




Area of ​​the capital of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and six new cities in the New Territories (Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Fanling, Tai Po and Sha Tin), including the district's open spaces (parks and gardens), but excluding all other underdeveloped lands. Rural market towns and villages and other developed locations in the New Territories such as reservoirs, roads and railways. Natural and established forest areas. Natural grass and scrub, including this one

within landscaped parks.

Shelled gives shell. Bare granite terrain.


Brackish coastal marsh and mangroves. Arable land, including orchards and vegetable gardens, cultivated and fallow.

Fresh and brackish water fish farms, excluding coastal fish farms, but including fallow fish farms.

farming industry

The government's policy is to increase the productivity of the local agricultural industry through greater technical and economic efficiency, greater production stability and maintenance of orderly and efficient marketing. It also seeks to protect the consumer from unnecessarily high food prices by ensuring that local produce is efficiently marketed to acceptable standards and by maintaining a reliable source of fresh primary produce for the community.

Common crops are vegetables, flowers, fruits and other crops. The value of agricultural production increased from US$ 93 million in 1963 to US$ 438 million in 1986. Vegetable production accounts for more than 79% of the total, having increased from US$ 64 million in 1963 to US$ 344 million in 1986 .

The main vegetables are white cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, Chinese cabbage, radish, watercress, mustard greens, chives and chives. They grow all year round, with peak production in the colder months. In summer, water spinach, green beans, Chinese spinach, green cucumber and many varieties of Chinese gourds are produced. A wide variety of exotic seasoned vegetables are grown during the winter, including tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, celery, lettuce, cauliflower and carrots. Straw mushrooms are also made using industrial cotton waste as a growing medium.

Among the common types of flowers, gladioli and chrysanthemums grow year-round; Dahlias, roses, asters, snapdragons and carnations are produced in winter; Ginger lilies and lotus flowers in summer. Commercial nurseries produce a wide variety of ornamental plants, including philodendrons, dieffenbachia, bamboo palms and poinsettias. Peach blossoms and ornamental citrus fruits are grown especially for the Lunar New Year. The vegetable and flower area increased from 910 hectares in 1954 to 4,790 hectares in 1976, but gradually decreased to 2,660 hectares in 1986, mainly as a result of new urban development.

The area devoted to rice cultivation fell from 9,450 hectares in 1954 to less than 10 hectares in 1986. Rice production gave way to intensive vegetable production, which yields much more.



Much of the former rice land around the most remote villages is unused and is now fallow.

Various types of fruits are grown in Hong Kong. The main crops are longan, lychees, wampei, tangerines, local lemons, bananas and guavas. In 1954 the orchard area was 390 hectares, in 1986 it was 540 hectares. Other crops such as yams, yams, yams and sugar cane are grown on a small scale in remote and drier areas where water and transport are inadequate for growing vegetables. About 50 hectares were under rainfed agriculture in 1986, compared to 1,410 hectares in 1954.

As there is not enough land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the staple food. Pigs in Hong Kong are mostly a cross between domestic and exotic animals. The value of locally produced pigs killed in 1986 was $326 million.

The value of poultry production, including chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails, was US$638 million in 1986. Local chicken production was about 17 million birds, accounting for 50% of total consumption.

Friesian cattle are raised by dairies, all of which are located in the New Territories.

Sporadic outbreaks of mild foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, but are being controlled by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry is controlled using Ranikhet and intranasally administered vaccines. At the State Veterinary Laboratory, studies are carried out to determine the occurrence of complications in pigs and poultry.

Strict rabies control measures remained in place throughout the year. This includes comprehensive immunization of dogs and cats against rabies, intensive trapping and culling of stray dogs, and restricting the movement of dogs in and out of the officially designated rabies area. The infected area listed in the Official Gazette included the restricted border area. Additionally, So Kwun Po and its surroundings in Sheung Shui were designated a rabies area in November following the confirmation of an indigenous case of rabies in dogs, the first since August 1984. By the end of 1986, 15,100 dogs had been euthanized humanly, and another 42,000 registered and vaccinated against rabies.

As standard practice, all imported dogs and cats, except those from the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, are quarantined for six months. Any dog ​​that has bitten a person must be held in government kennels for seven days for observation. All cattle and pigs imported for food will be quarantined upon arrival in Hong Kong. Imports for breeding purposes are also subject to strict controls.

whistle industries

Sea fish is one of Hong Kong's most important commodities. More than 150 commercially important fish species populate the waters of the adjacent continental shelf. The most important in terms of landed weight are the bigeye, the goldfinch, the lizardfish, the squid and the hairtail. The estimated total production of the two main sectors - sea catch and farmed fish - was 211,300 tons in 1986, with a wholesale value of $2,040 million. These values ​​represent an increase of 7.8 percent in weight and 12.8 percent in value compared to 1985. Of the total production in weight, 96 percent come from sea fishing and four percent from cultivated fishing. Of the wholesale value, 89 percent comes from sea fishing and 11 percent from farmed fishing.

It is estimated that 24,000 fishermen work in the fleet of around 4,700 vessels, over 83% of which are mechanized. In terms of gear, there are four main types of fishing: trawling, foraging fishing, gill fishing and purse fishing. The most important is the trawl fishery, which landed 73% or 148,000 tons of marine fish in 1986. All catches landed live and fresh marine fish



Fish available for local consumption in 1986 was 109,000 tons with a wholesale value of $963 million. This represented 86% of local consumer demand.

Pond fish farming is one of the most important cultural activities. 1,350 hectares of actively managed fish ponds are located in the New Territories, mainly in Yuen Long District. Traditional pond fish farming is similar to that practiced in China hundreds of years ago. Several different species of carp are raised in the same tank, each drawing its food from a different source, making the best use of the nutrients introduced. Due to the increasing urbanization of the New Territories, the area of ​​land set aside for fish ponds has gradually decreased. During the year, the lagoons provided 5,710 tons or 12% of the local consumption of freshwater fish.

Marine fish farming has developed significantly in the last decade. Juvenile fish caught in their natural environment, as well as imported fish kebabs, are reared in cages suspended from rafts in protected bays in Hong Kong, particularly in the eastern New Territories. Under the Marine Fish Culture Decree, 28 fish culture zones have been designated and all marine fish culture must now be conducted at sites within these zones with permits issued by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. By the end of the year, 1,661 licenses had been issued. The live marine fish shipped from this activity in 1986 was 2,070 tons valued at US$135 million.


Much of the wholesale marketing of primary products - especially fresh foods - is the responsibility of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and the Vegetable and Fish Marketing Organizations. In 1986, 38 percent of all locally produced vegetables and 60 percent of all marine fish landings were sold through the organizations.

The Vegetable Marketing Organization operates in accordance with the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Regulation, which also provides for the establishment of a Marketing Advisory Board to advise the Director of Marketing (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). The organization is responsible for transporting locally produced vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, providing marketing facilities and overseeing sales and financial transactions at the market. Revenue is generated by a 10% sales commission.

The association is non-profit. It seeks to maximize returns to farmers while minimizing marketing costs. It also provides ancillary services such as buying and selling agricultural products for farmers and scholarships for secondary and higher education for children of farmers. During the year, 65,400 tons of local vegetables worth US$137 million were sold by the organization.

The fish marketing organization works within the scope of the sea fish marketing ordinance, which also provides for the creation of a fish marketing advisory board. The regulation provides for the control of landings, wholesale marketing and import and export of marine fish. The organization operates seven wholesale fish markets. Revenue comes from a six percent commission on proceeds from sales. Excess income is funneled back into the industry in the form of various services, such as subsidized loans to fishermen, market improvement, financial support for the 12 schools for fishermen's children, and scholarships for secondary and higher education.

In 1986, wholesale fish markets traded 68,800 tons of marine fish, crustaceans and molluscs, which sold for $493 million. This included 1,900 tonnes of fish imported from the sea sold in these markets.



Facilities in existing wholesale markets are becoming inadequate to handle the ever-increasing volumes of imported fresh vegetables, fruits, poultry, eggs, freshwater fish and crustaceans. Marketing activities spilled over to adjacent public roads, causing delays and traffic congestion. To improve the situation, new wholesale markets are planned to be built in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island to centralize the wholesale marketing of fresh food. Meanwhile, the government has established a series of temporary wholesale markets for imported freshwater fish, poultry and vegetables in Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon and fruit in the Western District of Hong Kong Island.


By the end of 1986, a mining lease and two mining licenses were operating for the recovery of feldspar and kaolin. Details of leases and licenses are published twice a year in the Government Gazette.

The Department of Labor's Mining Division enforces safety laws and regulations related to mining and explosives. It processes mining and prospecting applications, inspects mining and prospecting areas, quarries, blasting sites and explosives storage facilities, and issues blasting certificates to blasting specialists. The department also controls the possession, transport, storage, manufacture and use of explosives in Hong Kong, including the delivery of explosives from government depots to blasting sites. It also manages government explosives depots that provide bulk storage for imported explosives. The Mass Transit Railway Island Line tunnel from Chater to Sheung Wan was completed earlier in the year and explosives were no longer needed, resulting in a large reduction in overall explosives consumption. The total consumption of explosives during the year was 4 594 tonnes.

Storage space for approximately 2.3 tons of fireworks was provided for a Lunar New Year display in February. Space has also been set aside for around 2.7 tonnes of fireworks for a display to mark the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh's visit to Hong Kong in October. In addition, transit storage facilities were provided for explosives imported from the United States and France for use by offshore oil drilling companies in the South China Sea.





WITHIN the Secretariat of Government, responsibility for educational policy rests with the Minister of Education and Human Resources. However, various bodies are involved in the administration and development of the education system in an executive or advisory capacity.

education commission

In light of the recommendations of the November 1982 report of a visiting panel of education experts, an Education Commission was established in April 1984 in light of community needs.

The Education Commission's areas of responsibility are: to define general educational objectives, formulate educational policies and recommend priorities for implementation, taking into account available resources; coordinate and monitor the planning and development of education at all levels; and start educational research.

The purpose of the Commission is to coordinate, but not direct, the work of the Education Committee, the University and College Scholarships Committee, and the Professional Education Council.

The commission is made up of 14 members. Eleven of them, including the President, are non-governmental members appointed to ensure that a wide range of personal and professional backgrounds are brought to the attention of the Commission's affairs. These include ex officio presidents of the Education Commission, the University and Polytechnic Scholarship Commission and the Professional Education Council. The remaining three members are government officials – the Secretary of Education and Human Resources (who is Vice President), the Assistant Secretary to the Treasury, and the Director of Education.

The Commission's first report was published in October 1984. Its second report was submitted to the Executive Council in September 1986. The report contained far-reaching recommendations on the structure of higher education, early childhood education, teacher preparation, open education and financing. of educational offerings. It was later published for public consultation and, by the end of the year, had generated a significant amount of comments.

Board of Education

Established in 1920, the Board of Education is a statutory advisory body established under the Education Ordinance to advise the governor on education matters. Of the 18 members appointed by the governor, 16, including the president, are non-governmental.



The two official members are the Director of Education (Vice President) and the Assistant Secretary for Education and Human Resources. In addition to regular meetings, the Board of Directors also periodically visits schools, educational institutions and centers. The Board of Directors is overseen by the Department of Education.

The Education Act gives the Council general authority rather than a specific mandate. However, the Council plays a key role in formulating educational policy. The composition of its members is designed so that a wide range of interests are represented and that individual members, who are specialized in their own way, contribute a wealth of experience and knowledge. Advice from the Board of Directors is sought on all significant matters involving the formulation of new policies or the modification of existing policies.

Scholarship Committee for Universities and Technical Schools

The University and Polytechnic Scholarships Committee (UPGC) is appointed by the Governor to advise the government on the development of higher education in Hong Kong and the necessary funding, and to administer scholarships to colleges. Currently, there are five institutions under the aegis of the UPGC: the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Polytechnic, the Hong Kong City Polytechnic and the Baptist College of Hong Kong.

Institutions' recurring funding is generally provided through block grants awarded every three years. Capital grants are taken into account annually at the same time as government estimates are prepared.

In addition to directly overseeing the academic development and funding of institutions, the UPGC is responsible for providing advice on a wide range of higher education issues. During the year, the UPGC was consulted on topics such as open education; the provision of university professors; secondary education reform; the creation of a local office for the validation of courses in non-university institutions; the development of strategic research in universities; Student objectives until the year 2000, as well as needs and profile of the third university.

There is no government representation in the UPGC. Membership is twofold: overseas members, who are distinguished senior academics from the UK, Australia and North America, and local members, formerly drawn from the professions, business and commerce, but which have included local academic members since 1986.

The UPGC Secretariat, which is staffed by officials, consists of two distinct parts. The first serves the UPGC. The second, the Student Finance Department, is responsible to the government for administering two means-testing schemes that provide financial assistance to Hong Kong students attending higher education institutions in Hong Kong and the UK.

Professional Education Board

The Professional Training Council was created in 1982 with the Ordinance of the Professional Training Council. The council is composed of 22 members appointed by the governor, four of whom are official members: the Minister of Economic Services, the Director of Education, the Commissioner of Labor and the Director of Technical Education and Industrial Training. The Council's role is to advise the Governor on measures necessary to ensure a comprehensive system of technical education and industrial training to meet Hong Kong's growing needs. Creation, development and operation of training programs for the training of employees, craftsmen, technicians and technologists necessary for maintenance and service, and



improvement of industry, commerce and services in Hong Kong; as well as for the establishment, operation and maintenance of specialized institutes and commercial training facilities.

The board has 19 training committees and seven general committees. Training committees cover the main business areas: accounting; repair and maintenance of motor vehicles; Bank officer; structural and civil engineering; Clothes; electric; Electronics; Hospitality, gastronomy and tourism; Safe; Jewelry; Journalism; machine shop and metallurgy; Marine trader; plastics; Print out; ship building and repair; Textile; transport and physical distribution; and wholesale/retail and import/export trade. The seven main committees dealing with cross-industry training areas deal with business learning and exams; Training in electronic data processing; training in management and supervision; training in precision tools; Technical education; training of technologists; and translation.

Learning Committees assess the future staffing needs of their respective industries or sectors and recommend actions to meet those needs, develop job descriptions, develop training programs and guidelines for professional examinations, and perform other tasks such as: B. a operation and maintenance of training centers. In 1986, training committees conducted personnel surveys in the following 12 industries: accounting; repair and maintenance of motor vehicles; Bank officer; Electronics; shoes; Furniture; machine shop; training in management and supervision; Marine trader; Print out; Shipbuilding and repair, as well as wholesale/retail and import/export trade. During the same period, learning committees created or revised job descriptions, apprenticeship programs, and professional examination guidelines for major professions in their industries. A glossary of common business and service terms has been published.

The board and its committees and training committees are staffed partly by its own staff and partly by staff from the Department of Technical Education and Industrial Education.

education department

The Director of Education, assisted by the Ministry of Education, is responsible for the general supervision of kindergarten, primary and secondary education in Hong Kong, in accordance with the provisions of the Education Decree and the Education Decree. It directly controls all government schools, the Colleges of Education, the Hong Kong Teachers' Technical College, and the Institute of Language in Education. All other schools and nurseries are required to register under the regulation, with minor exceptions, allowing the Department to ensure acceptable standards are met. Schools that receive government financial assistance under the Aid Codes are also subject to the provisions of those codes, which deal primarily with issues such as staff standards and entitlements, salary scales and conditions of service. Institutions registered under the Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance are also overseen by the Director of Education.

In addition to these oversight and control functions, the Ministry of Education is engaged in advising schools on teaching methods, developing curricula, and providing educational television and other services through its advisory board of supervisors. Educational planning and development, school building program, allocation of school places and educational research are also important tasks of the department.

The department maintains a network of 15 local offices, each headed by a senior education officer, divided into three regions covering Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. The role of Senior Education Officers is to oversee the administration of schools in their districts and to provide schools, teachers,



Parents and students and a communication channel between them and the department. Senior education officials also attend district council meetings by invitation to help discuss educational matters.


Annual expenditure estimates for the fiscal year beginning April 1986 included $986 million in capital expenditures for educational projects and $7,755 million in recurrent expenditures, representing 18% of the total budget.


As of September, there were 825 kindergartens in Hong Kong, providing preschool education for 231,610 children aged three to five. These are predominantly private, with an increasing number of kindergartens run by non-profit organizations in the recently completed public housing developments. In addition to allocating rooms to non-profit kindergartens in public housing complexes, other state aid at this level of education is the reimbursement of fees and rents to non-profit kindergartens, as well as support for tuition fees for needy parents.

Department of Education officials are responsible for overseeing kindergartens and also providing professional advice to school administrators, teachers, parents and the general public. Continuing education for teachers is provided through seminars, workshops, exhibitions and training courses, including a two-year part-time course run by Grantham College of Education and a 12-week part-time course held twice a year by Advisory Board of the Department of Education with an annual intake of 240 or 360 teachers. During the year, the Kindergarten Department of the Consultative Inspection also organized a series of workshops to promote citizenship education.

Three senior kindergarten teachers were released from teaching, courtesy of their employers, to serve as members of the Department of Education's Kindergarten Curriculum Development Team to help create instructional materials.

primary education

Since September 1971, elementary education has been free in all public schools and in almost all subsidized schools. In the few subsidized primary schools that charge fees, fees can be waived in cases of real hardship. To further help needy parents, an annual grant of up to $215 per student is also available for a maximum of 25% of students enrolled in state and subsidized elementary schools. A minority of parents continue to send their children to the 84 private primary schools, although there are places in the public sector.

A total of 531,993 elementary school students were enrolled in September, compared to 534,903 the previous year. The total number of enrollments in adult night primary education was 2,743. In the year, 16 elementary schools were concluded, offering 30,720 places in elementary education. 13 of these schools were located in new cities to meet the needs of the growing population.

Of the 79,929 children who enrolled in the fourth cycle of the Single Admission System (POA), 45,294, or 56.7%, got places in schools chosen by their parents. The rest were allocated to other schools in their district, again taking into account parental preference.



Primary school 6 graduates receive secondary school places in the public sector through the Secondary School Placement Allocation (SSPA) system. The system is based on internal school assessments, graded by a centrally administered study aptitude test, allocation taking into account parental choice. In July, 89,282 grade 6 students enrolled in SSPA received Class 1 places in public schools, scholarship-funded schools, non-profit private schools with per capita scholarships, and charter private schools through the Bought Place program.

A review of the SSPA system has been completed and, in light of this review, a number of improvements to the allocation method, feeder and named school systems, networking systems, advisory mechanism and method of filling vacancies are planned for implementation. in 1988.

The Student Guidance Program offers a school social assistance service to 796 elementary school classes and covers a student population of 410,032.

secondary education

Secondary education provision continued to expand during the year to meet approved policy targets. A secondary school with 1,160 places was completed during the year. Progress has been made on other secondary school projects within the school building program.

There are four main types of secondary schools in Hong Kong: Anglo-Chinese secondary schools, Chinese secondary schools, technical schools and vocational schools. Anglo-Chinese secondary schools registered a total of 372,422 enrollments, up from 370,615 in 1985. They offer a five-year secondary course in a wide range of academic and cultural subjects, leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), the means of instruction is main English. Students with satisfactory HKCEE results can enroll in a two-year sixth-grade course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination for admission to the University of Hong Kong and other post-secondary programs. Many also take the UK General Certificate of Education exam at Common and Advanced levels. Some Anglo-Chinese schools also offer a one-year advanced course that prepares their students for the Hong Kong Higher Level Examination for admission to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

In 1986, there were 58 Chinese secondary schools with 35,585 students, compared to 59 and 35,295 respectively in 1985. Students who attend these schools also take courses leading to the HKCEE. Classes are mainly in Chinese, with English being taught as a second language. Most Chinese secondary schools also offer a one-year Middle 6 course leading to the Hong Kong Higher Level Examination.

Mid-level technical courses are offered to 22,244 students in 22 schools. Ten of these schools are government-run and eleven are government-supported. Higher technical schools prepare their students for the HKCEE with a focus on technical and business subjects. Suitably qualified candidates can continue their studies on Form 6 or at technical institutes, Hong Kong Polytechnic, City Polytechnic of Hong Kong or Hong Kong Technical Teachers' College.

Polytechnic schools are government-sponsored secondary schools that provide students with a general education and an introduction to a wide range of technical skills on which later professional training can build. The syllabus of classes 1 to 3 are made up of technical and general education subjects in approximately equal parts. Technical content is reduced to around 30% in grades 4 and 5. After completing class 3, students can enter recognized manual trades with the associated extra-professional courses



in technical institutes. Credit points are awarded by institutes for technical subjects that were studied in depth at school. In addition, direct entry into the second year of a recognized trade apprenticeship may be given.

There are currently 15 polytechnics with 12,048 places. Another 13 such schools are included in the Secondary School Construction Program.

The Junior Secondary Education Assessment (JSEA) system, which selects Grade 3 graduates and assigns them to Grade 4 vacancies in the public sector, completed its sixth cycle in July. Of the 73,136 students submitted for evaluation, 55,463 or 75.8 percent received sponsored placements on Form 4 or full-time one-year craft courses. Of those who received places in Class 4, over 85 percent received a place at their own school. The working group created to review the operation of the JSEA system and develop a new placement method for post-1991 Class 3 graduates submitted its report to the Director of Education in February. As recommended by the Board of Education, public opinion was sought before a final decision was taken on the recommendations contained in the Working Group's report.

With a view to promoting the practical technical training of secondary school students in secondary education, in line with the Government's objectives defined in the 1978 White Paper on the Development of Secondary and Higher Education, the first practical training center was inaugurated in September. This center is managed and maintained by the government. Courses offered include design and technology (wood, metal and plastic work), home economics (cooking, crafts) and art and design (painting, ceramics and 3D work). Students from neighboring schools that lack the facilities or trained personnel to teach the courses are encouraged to participate in the program and attend courses at the center free of charge. Initially, such courses are offered to students from 1st to 3rd grades and in the first year of operation, only 1st grade students are admitted. These courses can be expanded to Form 4 and Form 5 levels at a later date. The center's maximum total weekly enrollment is 9,600.

As a further step towards strengthening sex education in secondary schools, a "Guide to Sex Education in Secondary Schools" was published in May and distributed to all secondary schools. The guidelines aim to establish some guiding principles for the implementation of sexuality education and suggest ways of achieving this through a cross-curricular approach in secondary schools.

The Ministry of Education's Department of Vocational Education promotes the development of vocational education and study guidance in secondary schools. Throughout the year, it continued to work closely with the Department of Labor and the Vocation Department of the Hong Kong Association of Professional Masters and Mentors to provide comprehensive service to young people. The Section also works with the Association's Counseling Department and school social workers to provide counseling services to secondary school students.

special education

Special education provision has continued to evolve in line with the goals of the 1977 White Paper on Rehabilitation and subsequent annual revisions of the rehabilitation program plan. In 1986, 13,846 special places were made available for disabled children.

A total of 8,476 places for people with severe disabilities were available in 71 special schools. These schools provide special education for the blind, the deaf, the physically handicapped, the mentally handicapped, the socially disadvantaged and disadvantaged, and slow learners. A total of 741 places were offered at the boarding school



Departments of 14 special schools. In addition, there were 352 special education classes in regular schools with 5,370 places for the visually impaired, hearing impaired and children with learning difficulties. A two-year pilot project for the medical care of children with mild disabilities in non-profit kindergartens was launched during the year. The special education department of the secretary of education also offered intensive support to children in regular classes with learning difficulties and adjustment problems. These services included out-of-school remedial support in instructional resource centers and accommodation units, a mobile instructional service in mainstream schools during school hours, and school counseling services.

Screening and assessment services are provided to identify special educational needs in school age children so that corrective action can be taken as early as possible. Primary school students are screened as part of the Combined Screening Program with auditory and visual screening tests. This program also provides checklists and guides for teachers to identify children with language and learning difficulties. Students who need additional assessment receive an audiological, language, or psychological evaluation, while those who need support services, such as speech and listening training, speech therapy, and counseling, receive these services at Special Education Service Centers.

In late 1986, a centralized Braille production facility was established. This center, operated by the Hong Kong Society for the Blind with government subsidy, will produce braille reading materials and conduct research to improve braille production in both English and Chinese. With the implementation of this centralized braille production service, the braille printing unit of the Ministry of Education ended its activities.

The Sir Robert Black College of Education offers two-year in-service courses for teachers of children with special educational needs. Short courses, seminars, workshops and refresher courses are also organized by the special education department to increase the staff's experience in the field of special education.

post secondary education

There are two accredited post-secondary colleges - Hong Kong Shue Yan College and Lingnan College - registered under the Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance. Hong Kong Shue Yan College, registered in 1976, has three faculties of Arts, Social Sciences and Economics with 13 departments offering day and evening classes, with a total enrollment of 3,905 students. It runs a four-year diploma program with no financial support from the government. Incorporated in October 1978, Lingnan College has three faculties - arts, business and social sciences - and 1,348 students enrolled. It offers two-year Form 6 courses and a two-year Post Form 6 Higher Diploma course, for which it receives government funding. It also offers a fifth year course leading to an honors degree for students who successfully complete the higher diploma course.

Students on two-year Post Form 6 courses at Lingnan College are eligible for scholarships and loans, the maximum amounts of which have been revised to $3,500 and $4,200 per year for the 1986-87 academic year, respectively. Loans of up to US$7,700 per year were available for students in the five-year program at Lingnan College and students in the four-year program at Shue Yan College.

University education

There are five higher education institutions financed through the Commission for University and Polytechnic Scholarships.


university of hong kong


In its 75 years of existence, the University of Hong Kong has grown from humble beginnings to its current enrollment of 8,000 students. It has faculties of art, architecture, dentistry, education, engineering, law, medicine, science and social sciences. The university's central campus is located on the northwest slopes of Hong Kong Island. The Faculty of Medicine is adjacent to Queen Mary Hospital, the University's teaching hospital, and the Faculty of Dentistry is located at Prince Philip Dental Hospital in the Western District.

With the exception of the College of Education, which currently only serves graduate students, all colleges teach both undergraduate and graduate courses. Most undergraduate courses last for three years, with the exception of the Bachelor of Architecture, Bachelor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery courses, which last five years, and Bachelor of Surveying, which last four years. All courses lead to honors degrees and are taught primarily in English.

At the postgraduate level, the university offers facilities for masters and doctorate degrees. Master's degrees through courses are available in a variety of subjects and the Master of Philosophy degree is awarded based on research at the Master's level. Doctorates are awarded based on research. By 1986, over 1,000 students were pursuing advanced degrees.

Close links with other universities exist through the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Association of Southeast Asian Institutes of Higher Education. The university's degree structure and governance are based primarily on the British system and leading academics, usually from Great Britain and the United States, visit the university as external examiners in each subject area at least once every three years and moderate annual theses.

Competition for places at the university is intense, and in August 1986, there were ten times as many applications from qualified applicants as there were places available. Scientific staff is recruited through international competitions.

The university is in the midst of an extensive building program. The Hsu Long Sing Amenity Center recently opened, bringing the number of such centers to three. Accommodation is provided for 25 percent of undergraduate students. A number of postgraduate students and academic visitors can be accommodated at Robert Black College.

In order to help students who are unable to secure a place in a dormitory and do not have adequate study opportunities at home, the university has increased its focus on providing general amenities in recent years. The centers offer study and relaxation rooms, games and music rooms, and restaurant facilities.

Adjacent to the new center and part of the same complex is the Simon K. Y. Lee Residence, which accommodates 300 students. The complex also houses new facilities for the Student Union and part of the Faculty of Engineering.

The Kadoorie Agricultural Research Center in the New Territories opened in June 1986. The center provides facilities and accommodation for undergraduate and graduate study and research, including agriculture, botany, meteorology, and zoology, among others. It is also available to other universities and research institutions.

Construction of the 20-story KK Leung Academic Building began last year. Upon completion in 1988, the building will house the faculties of law and legal professional education, as well as the faculties of economics, business administration, social work and sociology.



The current development program has also led to the renovation of the university's laboratories. This led to a significant modernization of the faculties of natural sciences and technology and the consistent use of the most modern teaching materials.

Work is also underway on expanding the core library. The university has one of the best-stocked libraries in Southeast Asia. With over 800 reading spaces, the main library contains over 650,000 volumes, including the Fung Ping Shan Library's priceless collection of Chinese works. Other specialist libraries form an important part of the faculties of dentistry, education, law, medicine and music. The university also has its own publishing house and bookbinding.

The Department of External Studies offers a wide range of courses of vocational, vocational, general and cultural interest, enrolling almost 25,000 students annually.

Research projects continue across the university's various departments, the Language Center, the Center for Asian Studies - which serves as a focal point for multidisciplinary research in China, Hong Kong, East and Southeast Asia - and the Center for Urban Studies and Urban Planning .

Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Chinese University of Hong Kong opened in 1963 as a federal university and an autonomous body that derives its revenue mainly from government subsidies. The campus covers over 110 hectares of land near Sha Tin.

The university consists of three colleges - New Asia College (founded in 1949), Chung Chi College (founded in 1951) and United College (founded in 1956). A fourth college, Shaw College, named after its founder Sir Run Run Shaw, is scheduled to open in 1988 on the north side of campus.

Since its inception, the university has adopted a curriculum structure based on a combination of the credit unit system and the final examination system. Students admitted to undergraduate studies after six years of high school receive a bachelor's degree after completing a series of courses and passing a final exam assessed by external examiners from home and abroad.

The university initiated a major curricular overhaul in 1983, which led to the adoption of a new curricular structure for its undergraduate studies based exclusively on the system of credit units. The new curriculum applies to students admitted in 1986-7 and beyond. Under this new structure, general education is strengthened, language standards are emphasized, the secondary subject becomes optional, and the final exam is replaced by course exams, while the external examiner system is maintained.

In 1986-7, the university offered full-time students 32 majors and 34 minors in its 47 departments grouped into five faculties, namely Arts, Business, Science, Social Sciences, and Medicine. The first four faculties offer four-year courses leading to a bachelor's degree.

The medical school, which produced its first graduates during the year, has a five-year program of two years of preclinical study followed by three years of clinical work. Clinical classes are mainly held at the university's teaching hospital – the Prince of Wales Hospital in Sha Tin. The university values ​​bilingualism; Most courses are taught in Chinese, but English is also widely spoken.

At the graduate level, there are 53 academic and professional programs leading to Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Social Work, Master of Divinity, Master of Science,



Master of Arts and Master of Arts in Education, as well as Diplomas in Education and Social Work.

Part-time study programs with degrees of Bachelor (Bachelor of Business Administration; Bachelor of Chinese and English, Music; and Bachelor of Social Science in Social Work) and Master of Translation, Business Administration and Social Work, as well as degrees professionals in education as well as social work are offered to working adults.

New graduate programs introduced in 1986-7 included the MBA program specializing in organizational and policy studies and master's in clinical biochemistry and in biotechnology and psychology. Expansion in the areas of education, medicine, electronics and computer science can be expected in the coming years. The creation of engineering courses is also planned for the near future.

The university is heavily involved in research and other academic activities. In addition to the research work carried out in the teaching departments, six research centers operate within the scope of the Sinology, Science and Technology and Social Studies research institutes.

Competition for university places is intense. More than 30,000 applicants passed the various civil service examinations in 1986 and 1,325 were admitted to freshman studies. In September 1986, there were a total of 7,203 students enrolled, including 5,389 full-time and 518 part-time and 400 full-time and 896 part-time. Almost all students are locals, and about half of them get a place in a dorm.

In 1986-7, the Department of Extracurricular Studies offered over 1,300 courses with a total enrollment of over 42,000. In addition to general and diploma and certificate courses, the department also offered correspondence, radio, and newspaper courses, as well as self-paced courses in the form of tapes, programmed texts, and support materials.

Construction projects completed during the year included refurbishing the weather-resistant surfacing on several athletics tracks and an expansion of the medical student dormitory at the university hospital. An integral building for the School of Education, along with a multipurpose hall for Chung Chi College, is in an advanced stage of construction.

The library system consists of the university library, the medical library and three secondary libraries at universities. The total collection in 1986 was 893,800 volumes.

The university participates in the affairs of regional and international university associations and has launched cooperation projects with foreign governments and individual institutions from time to time.

É membro da Association of Commonwealth Universities, da International Association of Universities, do Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas e da Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning.

Polytechnikum Hong Kong

Hong Kong Polytechnic was established in 1972, occupying the campus of the former Hong Kong Technical College, which served as the base for the Polytechnic's early development.

Since then, the number of students and staff has increased markedly. At the start of the 1986/87 school year, there were 7,860 full-time students, 1,350 sandwich, 590 mixed, 3,280 part-time and 12,580 part-time evening students. There were also 180 students in a new self-study program. As of June 30, the number of staff was 2,448, including 908 teachers, 244 senior administrative staff and 1,296 technical, administrative and auxiliary staff.

School Holidays ·



Tai Chi Exercises



baby care







'Stay Home' for Expo '86

with postcards



The polytechnic has 22 academic units organized into departments and institutes. The Department of Applied Sciences integrates the Departments of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, Nautical Sciences, the Faculty of Social Work and the Center for Environmental Sciences. The Department of Commerce and Design includes the Departments of Accounting, Business Administration, Computer Science, Institutional Management and Catering Studies, Languages ​​and the Swire School of Design. The department of construction and land use includes the departments of construction and surveying, technical equipment of construction, construction and structural engineering, as well as the center of state surveying and engineering. The faculty of engineering includes the departments of electrical engineering, electrical engineering, machine and ship technology, production and economic engineering, as well as the industrial center. The two institutes are the Institute of Medicine and Health Care and the Institute of Textiles and Clothing.

The University of Applied Sciences offers a wide range of courses for the requirements of business, industry and society. Courses are offered in various face-to-face modalities, namely full-time, double, extra-occupational days off, extra-occupational nights and mixed courses. Successful completion of these courses confers a Degree, Associate, Professional Diploma, Higher Diploma, Diploma, Post-Registration Certificate/Diploma, Endorsement Certificate, Higher Certificate, Certificate and Certificate of Competence.

The degrees offered during the year were: BA (Hons) in Business Administration; BA(Hons) Computer Science; BA in Design; BA(Hons) Textile and Apparel Marketing; BEng(Hons) in Civil Engineering; BEng(Hons) in Electrical Engineering; BEng (Hons) in Electrical Engineering; BEng(Hons) in Manufacturing Engineering; BEng (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering; BEng construction technology; BSc (Hons) in Combined Studies in Mathematics and Science and BA in Social Work.

Since 1981, the Polytechnic has implemented a phased plan to phase out most of its diploma and certificate work as related courses are offered by the technical institutes. This staggering of the timetable reflects the polytechnic's evolution towards a greater proportion of higher-level academic work.

The Polytechnic also offers full-time short-term and extension courses to meet the needs of the community. In 1985/86, 633 students were enrolled in full-time short courses and 9,624 students in postgraduate courses.

Research activity continued to increase significantly, with research funding nearly tripling in 1985-6 over the previous year. Key research areas have included environmental studies, immunoassay techniques, offshore engineering, CAD/CAM, electrical power systems, industrial automation, textile technology, VLSI manufacturing techniques along with applied biology and chemistry.

The polytechnic also continued to place high priority on staff development. Funding for personal development programs increased 42% in 1985-6 over the previous year. He also continued to make new contacts and maintain close ties with academic, research and professional institutions in China and abroad.

The Polytechnic Library has a capacity for 1,600 seats, as well as special facilities for people with disabilities. His book collection grew to 360,000 volumes.

The campus covers nearly nine hectares and is located in Hung Hom, Kowloon. Construction on the planned Phase IIIA development began later in the year to provide a new administrative building, additional accommodation for faculty and staff, a small theater and an improved main entrance.

The sports hall under construction and the outdoor sports facilities under construction will be ready for occupancy during the school year.


Hong Kong Municipal Polytechnic


Hong Kong City Polytechnic, which opened its doors to undergraduate students in October 1984, presented awards to its first graduates in November 1986. Graduates were: 20 Graduates in Business Studies, 74 Graduates in Social Work and 21 part-time students who have obtained the Higher Certificate in Translation and Interpreting. At the end of the year, most graduates were already employed.

Another important development during the year was the introduction of degree programs - the Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Business Administration and in Public and Social Administration. Both courses have been evaluated by external community consultants and representatives of the UK Council for National Scholars Awards. Two other new Information Technology courses were also launched, totaling 20 courses offered by the eight academic departments: Accounting, Building and Construction, Economics and Management, Information Technology, Electrical Engineering, Languages, Mathematics and Science, and Social Administration. These courses, offered in full-time, part-time, sandwich and mixed modes, represent different levels of study, namely Advanced Certificate, Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Vocational Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma and Undergraduate.

The admission of about 2,000 new full-time and part-time students in October 1986 brought the total enrollment to about 4,500.

Polytechnic degree programs are designed to provide a wide range of general and specific areas of knowledge, made possible by the use of a modular system. This allows students from different departments to take parts of courses together so that they can assess the broader applicability of their own studies. It also allows full-time and part-time students who attend the same programs to study courses with similar content and ultimately earn the same awards. Practical case studies or internships are also emphasized to better prepare students to start a career immediately after graduation.

City Polytechnic takes a centralized approach to providing academic support services, which significantly reduces duplication of manpower and equipment. Its library has a collection of 50,000 volumes, 1,800 magazine and periodical titles and 1,750 non-print materials. A new catalog production system using compact laserdiscs was recently installed. A polytechnic-wide computer network has been created by the data center, and various computer-based packages, intelligent workplaces, and computer literacy programs are being developed. The Educational Technology Center provides audiovisual facilities for all classrooms and other dedicated classrooms such as language and video labs. A video distribution system allows video programs to be played from a central source in each classroom. Centralized labs and workshops serve the laboratory needs of academic departments that need such support, and the labs are designed around activities common to departments. Contacts with international universities, mainly in China, were intensified throughout the year. In March 1986, a formal academic exchange agreement was signed with Zhongshan University.

The polytechnic's research base was consolidated through a $1 million grant from the UPGC for 1986-7. This allowed other projects to be supported. Furthermore, some research projects have been supported by large international companies.

The polytechnic is currently operated from its interim campus at Argyle Center Tower II in Mong Kok. The base contract for the permanent campus on a 12.2 hectare site on Tat Chee Avenue in Kowloon Tong was awarded in April 1986. works



The project started in June and the first phase of the development is expected to be ready for occupancy in October 1988.

Baptist College in Hong Kong


Hong Kong Baptist College celebrated two important events during the year – the 30th anniversary of its founding and its recognition as an undergraduate institution in September. The college is fully autonomous and governed by its own regulations. Its statutory governing bodies, the Board of Governors and the Council, are composed of members independently appointed by the government and members appointed by the Hong Kong Baptist Convention, which established the college.

The College's goal is to educate students to be balanced in academic achievement, professional competence, and character development. Courses are offered by departments grouped into four faculties. These faculties are: Arts (Departments of Chinese Language and Literature, English Language and Literature, Music and Fine Arts, Religion and Philosophy); Economics (accounting, business administration, national economy, secretarial management); natural sciences (faculties of biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics); and social sciences (departments of communication, geography, history, social work, sociology). In addition, the Language Center, the Center for Computer Studies and Services and the Sports Department offer teaching services to students of all courses.

All students are full-time students and are admitted based on the results of the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKAL). All courses offered last three years and lead to a bachelor's degree or degree. In the 1986/87 academic year, there were two Bachelor's degrees BSc (Hons) in Combined Science and BSW in Social Work, along with 11 honors degrees in other subjects. To ensure academic standards, external examiners are used for all courses. Each course is broad in scope and includes two main components: Liberal Education and Career Preparation. As a provider of these courses, the college plays a special role within the local university spectrum.

Courses are academically validated by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) in the UK. In 1986, the UPGC agreed that proposals for two degrees, Management and Communication Studies, both starting in September 1987, could be submitted for validation by the CNAA. Other course proposals discussed with the UPGC during the year were the BA(Hons) in Music and the BA in Education.

At the end of the 1985-86 academic year, 651 students graduated with the Honors Diploma Award. In 1986-7, applications continued to outnumber available places, and the average applicant-to-place ratio was 9:1. In October 1986, a total of 2,267 students enrolled full-time, distributed as follows: Arts 411, Economics 644, Science 442, and Social Sciences 770. In addition, 66 students were enrolled in a special two-year course preparing them to study the HKAL in the music exam. There were 188 professors, most with postgraduate degrees from foreign institutions. Senior academic and administrative staff are recruited through international competitions.

Reconstruction of the North Kowloon university campus, begun in 1985, continued as planned. The redevelopment program, which includes the construction of five new buildings and the renovation of existing buildings, will increase available space by 80% and will be implemented as the student population grows to 3,000 in 1989-90.



The College's main library has a unique integrated computer system that covers all major library services. This system became fully operational in October. The total number of books increased to 159,446 during the year. There is also a secondary library which houses a collection of rare research materials on contemporary China.

The Educational Development Center supports staff in educational technology, educational software production, and audiovisual services.

The team's research and consultancy, as well as academic exchanges with institutions in China, multiplied during the year. Close relations have been maintained with the community, namely through the various course monitoring commissions, as well as with local and foreign institutions. The Department of Continuing Education interacts with the community in a different way, offering a wide range of courses for professionals. Financially self-sustainable, the department offered 1,100 courses during the year, representing a total of 34,500 enrollments. Part-time courses, some of which lead to professional qualifications, are mostly held in the evenings on campus and in non-university centres.

technical education

With the completion of Tuen Mun and Sha Tin Technical Institutes in August 1986, the number of Technical Institutes in Hong Kong increased to seven. They offer technical and technical level courses with full-time, block, part-day and part-time evening visits. In addition, numerous short courses are offered, which serve mainly to update the knowledge and skills of workers.

The main disciplines covered by the institutes include: Apparel, Economics, Computer Science, Civil Engineering, Design, Electrical Engineering, General Studies, Hospitality and Tourism, Industrial Engineering, Marine and Manufacturing Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Printing and Textiles. Most of the technical level courses have been validated by the UK Business and Technical Education Council and students taking these courses are eligible for the council's awards.

The demand for study places remained high in most courses. A total of 8,200 full-time, 13,000 part-time day, and 27,800 part-time evening students were enrolled in the 1986/87 academic year. In September, the number of full-time professors at the technical institutes was 640, including about 560 assistants.

Each technical institute has an average of 55 workstations with terminals connected to micro and medium computers. This allows the study of computer appreciation and applications to be included in most courses.

The annual job survey of full-time graduates once again showed that they hardly had any difficulties finding a job in their respective fields after completing their studies.

To meet the growing demand for courses, a new technical institute is being built in Chai Wan, due for completion in mid-1987. There were plans to provide additional accommodation at the Kwai Chung and Kwun Tong Technical Institutes and to rebuild the Morrison Technical Institute annexe Hill.

industrial training

The Vocational Training Council's nine-story Kowloon Bay Training Center Complex houses six training centers for the electronics, hospitality, machinery and metallurgy, plastics, precision tooling and printing industries. The 10-story Kwai Chung Training Center Complex also features six training centers in the fields of automotive, electrical, electronics, gas,



Mechanical and metalworking workshop (including welding) and textile industry. During the year, electronic data processing and insurance training centers were set up and a bank training center was planned.

These training centers have the capacity to offer around 9,000 trainees per year basic extra-work training, from business administration to specialized level.

Little Sai Wan Temporary Seafarers' Training Center provides 30-day training programs for seafarers in Hong Kong to obtain the certification required by the International Maritime Organization Convention on Standards for Training, Competency and Watchkeeping of Seafarers 1978, training 1,920 seafarers per year at the end. A permanent seafarer training center at Tai Lam Chung was under construction.

The Graduate Engineering Training Scheme was established by the Council in February 1983 to provide 18 months of practical training to enable engineering graduates to become qualified professional engineers. In 1986, 90 companies and 265 future engineers participated in the program.

The Management Development Center of Hong Kong started operations in October 1984 with the primary objective of improving management in Hong Kong and ensuring that it is able to meet ever-changing demands in both the short and long term. The center has four main functions: research, development, coordination and promotion.

In addition to commercial training, commercial training was also introduced in the areas of accounting and insurance. The grant program for training courses has proved popular; This was carried out by the accounting, banking, journalism, transport and physical distribution, wholesale/retail and import/export boards.

training authorities

The Apparel Industry Training Council and the Construction Industry Training Council are statutory bodies established in 1975 to establish and operate training centers for these specific industries. The first is funded by a training fee based on the export value of clothing, while the second is funded by a fee based on the value of construction work in excess of US$1 million. Two training centers for the construction industry are in operation and a third is under construction, as well as two training centers for the clothing industry.


Apprenticeship regulations create a legal framework for the training of artisans and technicians. It obliges the employer to conclude an apprenticeship contract when hiring a person between the ages of 14 and 18 in one of the 42 professions specified in the regulation, unless this person has already completed an apprenticeship in this profession. The contract must be registered with the Board of Technical Education and Industrial Training. Contracts for apprentices in non-intended occupations or for apprentices aged 18 or over in specific occupations may also be registered with the Director on a voluntary basis.

The learning department of the technical and business education department is responsible for implementing the ordinance. Responsibilities include advising and assisting employers in training and hiring apprentices, ensuring that apprenticeships are conducted properly, assisting in the resolution of registered contractual disputes, and collaborating with educational institutions to ensure that apprentices have the necessary professional skills and receive an education. Apprenticeship courses, usually on a part-time basis, are offered at Hong Kong Polytechnic and Technical Institutes.



In 1986, a total of 4,500 apprenticeship contracts were registered, 900 of which were in the liberal professions. These contracts include 3,800 manual trainees and 700 technicians. By the end of the year, 9,400 apprentices had been trained.

Vocational training for the disabled

The range of vocational training for the disabled continued to expand during the year as more places were offered with the completion of the conversion project for the new Pinehill Village Advanced Training Center in Tai Po. This increased the total number of places in state and subsidized centers to about 720. At the same time, the number of places in subsidized centers increased to 214 interns with intellectual disabilities. In addition, more than 120 students with disabilities have completed a variety of courses at the technical and technical levels at the technical institutes. They received support services during their studies.

During the year, 300 people underwent a job evaluation at the job evaluation center and more than 40 special tools and machine adaptations were manufactured by the tool center at the request of students with disabilities, interns and employees.

An employment survey conducted earlier this year among graduates with disabilities from competence centers and technical schools revealed that 73 percent of the survey group found employment in the public, industrial or commercial sector.

teacher preparation

General teacher training is offered at the three Colleges of Education – Grantham, Northcote and Sir Robert Black – and at the Hong Kong Technical Teachers' College. All four colleges are administered by the Department of Education.

The three general teacher training schools offer a two-year full-time ITE course for students who have the required qualifications for the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination and a three-year full-time course for students with the Certificate of Hong Kong qualifications required for the education exam. Teacher training colleges also offer in-service training courses, including a one-year full-time in-service training course for practical and cultural teachers, seven- to eight-week in-service training courses for primary and secondary school teachers and two- to three-year part-time courses for kindergarten teachers, primary and secondary schools, and teachers of students with special educational needs. As of September, there were 1,336 students in three years of full-time study, 981 students in two years of full-time study, 91 students in postgraduate education and a total of 2,071 students in continuing education and retraining.

Technical teacher training is provided by the Hong Kong Technical Teachers' College for prospective teachers of technical subjects in secondary and vocational schools. A full-time one-year course is available for older students who are well-skilled in a technical field and wish to pursue a career as a technical teacher. Scholarships are offered to recruit suitable junior staff. A three-year full-time course is open to high school graduates with a technical or business background. The college also offers in-service courses for teachers and a variety of short courses for instructors working with the disabled, as well as supervisors and instructors in industry. In September, there were 165 students in full-time courses and 137 students in part-time and short-term courses.



Financial support in the form of interest-free loans and stipends is provided by the government to students enrolled in full-time courses at the four faculties.

Basic education management training for public sector school leaders is provided by the Education Department of the Ministry of Education. During the year, a total of 120 primary school principals in six groups participated in a ten-day management course, 18 secondary school principals in a nine-day course and 98 secondary school principals in five groups in a development workshop. four-day human resources event. For the first time, a six-day management course was held for 20 kindergarten managers. In addition, several seminars/short courses were offered for career officers, as well as induction and basic training for newcomers to the department.

adult education

The Department of Education's Adult Education Department provides formal and non-formal education for adults through a wide range of courses and activities.

For the academic year beginning in September, more than 20,000 people have enrolled in formal education courses, from undergraduate to undergraduate and post-secondary studies at 84 centers. At the primary level, the adult education (general education) course in Chinese, English, mathematics, and social studies provided a catch-up education for those who had previously missed out on formal primary education. Some of these classes functioned in conjunction with the Department of Penitentiary Services, the Department of Social Welfare, and the Department of Municipal Services. English courses were also offered. At the secondary level, the Secondary Education Course and State Adult Secondary Education Course offered a complete secondary education course and prepared students from the English and Chinese sections for the Hong Kong Education Certificate Examination. English language courses were conducted at secondary and GCE levels, preparing adult learners to take the English Language Paper (Syllabus B) of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education exam and the GCE 'O' Level exam. At the post-secondary level, teacher training courses were offered, providing refresher courses for teachers in a variety of academic and cultural disciplines. For the public, the Evening School of Chinese Higher Studies offered short courses in Chinese language, classical literature, and culture.

Non-formal educational opportunities continued to enjoy great popularity. Adult education courses (practical training) were offered in 28 centres, teaching skills such as sewing, knitting, cooking and woodworking. Around 5,000 students participated in these courses during the year. The number of adult education and recreation centers, which organized a variety of educational, cultural, social and recreational activities to stimulate individual and social awareness, cultivate creative abilities and develop individual talents, increased to 18. Various activities were organized with others. government departments and organizations such as the Independent Commission Against Corruption, the Consumer Council and St. John Ambulance Brigade. During the year, more than 17 thousand people participated in the courses. Microcomputer courses were introduced for members of adult education centers. More than 400 Members participated in these courses during the year.

Various voluntary agencies continued to run subsidized courses that supplemented and complemented the department's adult education services in various fields. In 1986-7, a total of 159 projects from 50 organizations received government grants.

language in education

The language research projects mentioned in Education Commission Report #1 were completed during the year, reinforcing the belief that other things


Reference LYDIAIS



If equal, teaching and learning would generally be more effective if the medium of instruction were Chinese. In this context, from September 1988, the policy of "positive discrimination" recommended by the Commission in favor of secondary schools with Chinese as the language of instruction will be implemented. In accordance with this policy, additional English teachers and additional resources will be provided to strengthen English teaching to prevent a consequent decline in English proficiency as a result of reduced exposure. In order to support secondary schools in deciding how to teach the language, various linguistic media templates have been distributed to schools for testing and planning.

In June, a Chinese Textbook Committee was established, tasked with assessing the demand for such textbooks in light of the policy to encourage schools to adopt Chinese as the language of instruction and ensure timely availability for the 1989 school year. /90. supplying Chinese language textbooks of good quality and reasonable standard. The committee is made up of government officials and community members and is overseen by the Ministry of Education.

Established as a training and research institute with the aim of improving language learning and teaching in Hong Kong, the Institute of Language in Education offers full-time refresher courses and occasional seminars and workshops for teachers of English and Chinese in schools. primary and secondary. It conducts research on language teaching and learning, provides consulting services to teachers and language teaching professionals, and designs and develops teaching and language learning materials for use in schools. The institute is recognized by the Examinations Board of the Royal Society of Arts as a center for courses leading to the Diploma for Overseas Teachers of English.

During the year, the institute organized refresher courses for 1,113 primary and secondary teachers in English and Chinese, a seminar for primary teachers in Hong Kong diocesan schools, two seminars for primary school leaders, and a three-day international language conference. in-service teacher training. Three teacher's guides were written and distributed to schools, and a book on future directions in language teacher education was published. The second volume of the institute's journal (ILEJ) was published in September and made available to teachers and language specialists in Hong Kong and abroad. The Institute's research activities are carried out in four directions: (a) Studies on theory and practice of language learning and teaching in Hong Kong, (b) Studies on specific problems in teaching Chinese and English at primary and secondary levels in Hong Kong Kong, (c) assessment studies, including situation, needs, and task analyses, and (d) linguistic and sociocultural studies of contemporary forms of Chinese and English. Specific completed or ongoing projects focus on the standardization of common Chinese characters, needs assessments of English teachers in polytechnics and institute participants, and an extensive reading program. A computer-assisted language learning project is in the planning stages. Two exhibitions of language learning and teaching materials were organized during the year.

educational research

The Education Research Center of the Ministry of Education conducts research on a wide range of educational topics. The annual monitoring of academic standards in Primary 1 and Primary 4-6 took place in May. Manuals for standardized Chinese and English test for elementary grades 4-6 were compiled and made available to schools throughout the year. Screening tests (Chinese and English) for Form 1 and two other versions of



the aptitude test for selecting students for polytechnic schools. Standardized Chinese and English tests at grade 2-3 levels and math tests at grade 1-3 levels have been developed.

Other research projects developed during the year, in addition to those related to the teaching environment, included the evaluation of the activity approach in primary schools, the construction of proficiency tests for professional guidance and the evaluation of the remedial education programme.

advisory inspection

The main task of the Consultative Inspection of the Ministry of Education is to promote the quality of education. This includes frequent visits by subject inspectors to schools to advise on curriculum issues, teaching methods and use of resources, as well as providing in-service training, seminars and workshops for teachers. The Inspectorate is also responsible for curriculum development, production of educational television programs and evaluation of textbooks and teaching materials.

The Curriculum Development Committee and its various technical committees continued to deliberate on curriculum innovations and revisions at the pre-primary, primary and secondary levels. In 1986, new curricula were issued for fashion and apparel and catering services at the secondary level and government and public relations at the upper secondary level, as well as revised curricula for physical education at the primary level, math at the secondary level, and science at the secondary level. lower and geography at upper secondary level. Resource centers were created to support the implementation of guidelines on moral education, civic education and sex education. The activity approach, a more child-centred and less formal approach to learning in primary schools, was developed. At the upper secondary level, the Informatics Studies Program entered its fourth phase of development in September. As in previous years, the Textbook Commission advised schools on the selection of textbooks, publishing lists of recommended books and also maintained close contact with publishers of teaching materials.

Teaching and Resource Centers

The Advisory Board operates six instruction centers dedicated to teaching Chinese, English, math, science, social studies, and cultural crafts, and three resource centers related to civics, religious/ethical/moral education, and sex education. A Field Study Center is open to high school students and teachers.

During the year, the Chinese Language Teaching Center held 60 refresher courses, workshops and seminars for 1,700 middle and high school Chinese teachers. Two contests were organised, one for a recorded game and the other for writing at secondary school level, with 250 students taking part in the contests. Three small exhibitions on specific topics were organized which attracted around 1 500 teachers. Both primary and secondary schools benefited from the Centre's free dubbing service and over 2,100 instructional cassettes were produced during the year. In order to prepare teachers for the introduction of putonghua as a subject in primary schools from September, 10 courses/seminars on teaching putonghua were held for 900 teachers. An exhibition of teaching materials in Puntonghua was also organized in July.

The English Language Teaching Center organized a total of 70 seminars, workshops and lectures for over 2,000 participants. In addition to providing free audio recording to schools



As a service, the center had a tape library with 950 tapes in English available for teachers to listen to. The Centre's library, open to teachers, contains over 8,780 books and a variety of English language and linguistics teaching journals.

The Mathematics Teaching Center serves as a continuing education venue and resource center for mathematics teachers. 26 seminars, courses and workshops were held for elementary and high school mathematics teachers. More than 1,320 teachers visited the In-Service Training Center, saw the exhibition of pedagogical materials and got to know the support materials.

The Science Teaching Center has been widely used to carry out refresher courses, seminars, workshops and teacher meetings, as well as to display equipment and support materials for science teaching. More than 3,500 elementary and high school science teachers and laboratory technicians visited the center. The science lab provided facilities for experimenting with science experiments related to curriculum development projects, prototyping devices, and doing hands-on work during science workshops.

The Social Affairs Teaching Center continued to be a training venue and resource center for teachers of various social subjects, such as economics, economics and public affairs, geography, health education, history, Chinese history and social studies at primary and secondary levels. secondary. In the center, 13 courses/seminars were held with more than 1,200 participants from primary and secondary schools. More than 700 visitors used the available resources.

In addition to coordinating activities to promote practical/technical disciplines, the Centro Cultural de Artesanato offered teachers of arts and design, arts and crafts and home economics the opportunity for professional updating. Resource materials such as handouts, slides, and videotapes have also been created for teacher use. In 1986, around 2,000 teachers participated in various recycling programs and around 25,000 visitors were attracted to the exhibitions organized by the centre.

A Civic Education Resource Center and a Religious/Ethical/Moral Education Resource Center are also housed in the Consultation Inspection Education Centers on Pak Fuk Road. These provide reference work, information and counseling services on civics and religious/ethical/moral education issues in schools and are very popular with teachers.

A sex education resource center opened in November, located at the Counseling Inspectorate Education Centers on Pak Fuk Road. This center supports primary and secondary school teachers in implementing sex education in their schools. A variety of resource materials such as books, magazines, graphics, models, audiovisual teaching materials and school projects will be on display. More than 500 visitors came in the first month of opening.

The field study center at Sai Kung was well attended by high school students and high school teachers of ecological and geographic studies. Thirty-one residential ecology and geography courses were organized for a total of 1,500 high school students from 99 high schools.

Several training courses and seminars were held for 450 teachers of biology and geography, in order to familiarize them with the methods and techniques of field studies. The center has also been used by several teaching institutions as a place to carry out activities related to fieldwork and environmental education for students and trainee teachers.


visual education


The Department of Visual Education makes available a wide range of audiovisual resources for free loan to schools through its Library of Audiovisual Resources. Inventory includes 16mm film, VCRs, film strips, slides and slides, film loops, educational packs and cassettes. The Section's Media Production Services Facility on Canton Road is open seven days a week to assist teachers in the production of educational materials. The facility's facilities include photographic, reprographic, graphics, modeling, tape duplicating, booklet binding, image preservation and screen printing equipment, as well as a microcomputer system. During the year, 7,000 teachers used the Unit's facilities and more than 150 courses and workshops on the production of audiovisual materials were organized, involving a total of more than 3,500 teachers.


The Sports Section is responsible for improving the teaching of physical education in schools and promoting school sports, outdoor camping and dancing. In 1986, around 52 physical education courses and seminars were held for more than 2,707 teachers.

In January, the 22nd School Dance Festival had 3,623 participants from 252 secondary, elementary and special schools. In April and May, winners' presentations were held at City Hall, Tsuen Wan Town Hall and Lut Sau Hall, Yuen Long. In July and August, the Hong Kong Schools dance team participated in the Cantonigros International Music Festival in Spain and the Aberdeen International Youth Festival in Scotland. He also performed at the opening of the new Hong Kong Exhibition at the Commonwealth Institute in London.

During the year, 371 courses and 10 competitions were organized in different modalities for students. In addition, 122 Duke of Edinburgh Awards Scheme courses were run for 158 member schools.

The Section continued to administer the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Fund for the Summer Youth Program for Schools, which benefited 175,813 pupils from 532 primary and secondary schools.

The Department of Physical Education also played an active role in promoting school sports through the Hong Kong School Sports Council. Training programs in badminton, basketball and soccer were implemented to develop the potential of young athletes in schools. Jing Ying competitions in various sports were held at the elementary and secondary levels. Port competitions in nine different sports were organized between Hong Kong, Macau and Guangdong. Two school soccer teams also participated in international school tournaments in Brunei and South Korea during the summer.

musical education

In 1986, a total of 13 training courses and seminars were organized for over 1,300 music teachers in primary and secondary schools. The focus of this year's training program was to improve the pedagogical skills of teachers in rural primary schools.

The Centralized Music Education Program, which offers opportunities for further musical education at the upper secondary level in courses leading to higher and advanced music examinations, has reached its final phase of expansion.



More than 55,000 students participated in the 38th Annual Hong Kong School Music Festival, organized by the Hong Kong School Music and Speech Association. The festival ended with a series of concerts by eight award winners.

Technical and commercial training

During the year, the teaching of technical subjects as part of the general curriculum in secondary schools was further expanded in grades 4 and 5. Two new technical subjects, Fashion and Clothing and Accommodation and Catering Services, developed in Levels 4-5 of the Polytechnic Schools, were introduced at Level 4 in September.

As in previous years, a series of in-service courses were organized for specialist teachers, including a seminar to present the new technical drawing curriculum.

As part of this year's programme, assistance was again provided to promote the Hong Kong Young Designer of the Year Awards, sponsored by the Hong Kong Federation of Industries and the Design Council.

The Commercial Affairs Section organized the fourth Commercial Design Competition with the Chinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society. The aim of the competition was to encourage high school students to be interested in various business activities in Hong Kong and to encourage a more lively approach to business education. 'Commerce and Civic Education' was chosen as the theme for the 1986 projects and around 1,400 pupils took part in the competition. The section also helped promote citizenship education by organizing seminars and producing reference materials for management teachers.

computer education

The computer science program, introduced in 1982, has been expanded to include an additional 55 high schools, bringing the total number of public sector schools teaching the subject to 265. The ultimate goal of the program is to include all public schools.

community youth club

Founded in 1977, the Community Youth Club has remained committed to building a strong community spirit and promoting citizenship among students. Its 170,000 members have contributed significantly to various public campaigns. With the addition of another new district at the end of the year, there are now 19 district committees that coordinate club activities.

Thousands of members have received awards under the Merit Awards Scheme, which obliges them to set an example of good citizenship by providing service to the community. Ten distinguished program members were selected for an Expo '86 education tour of Canada in July.

educational television

Programs produced by the Educational Television Service (ETV) are recognized as the most useful audio-visual supplement to classroom teaching, and the regular showing of educational television programs has become a normal part of school life in Hong Kong. In 1985/86, the total audience for ETV programs was estimated at 354,000 primary school students and 254,000 high school students.



The programs are jointly produced by the Department of Education and Hong Kong Radio Television and broadcast to schools by the two commercial television stations. They are based on curricula used in primary and secondary schools. ETV programs for secondary schools cover Chinese, English, math, social studies and science in grades 1 to 3, while those for primary schools cover elementary schools 3 to 6 in the same five subjects and health education. Teacher notes are provided in conjunction with ETV programs that provide suggestions for preparation and follow-up activities.

To facilitate the reception and use of ETV programs in schools, television sets, including color television receivers and VCRs, will be provided and installed in all state and subsidized schools and private high schools with 'purchased places'. During the fiscal year ending March 1986, approximately $3.7 million was spent on equipping these schools.

school library services

School library services expanded with the training of more librarians in secondary schools. In elementary schools, the class library program was fully implemented in grades 1 through 6 in all state and subsidized elementary schools. Each class received an initial grant of $500 for bookshelves and $10 per student per year for library books. In addition, a one-time grant of $300 was awarded to elementary classes of 20 students or less to purchase essential library supplies.

Hong Kong Examinations Commission

The Hong Kong Examinations Authority, an independent public body, has administered the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination since 1978, the Hong Kong Higher Level Examination since 1979, and the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination since 1980. 156,519 candidates 9,219 applied for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, 9,219 for the Hong Kong Higher Level Exam and 21,200 for the Hong Kong Advanced Level Exam. In the Higher Level Examination, the drop in enrollments was very significant, from 12,585 in 1985 to 9,219 in 1986. This was mainly due to the introduction of the Provisional Acceptance Scheme by the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

The Authority also assumes responsibility for carrying out a large number of examinations abroad on behalf of various examination authorities in the UK and elsewhere. These exams include the General Certificate of Education, the Test of English as a Foreign Language, the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations and many others that enable students to gain academic and professional qualifications.

Non-UK Hong Kong students

The Student Department of the Hong Kong Government Office in London is responsible for the welfare of Hong Kong students and student nurses in the UK. The department works with the Department of Education in relation to the admission of Hong Kong students to institutions in the UK and issues encountered by students currently studying there. It also works closely with the Secretariat of the University and Polytechnic Scholarships Committee and assists in the administration of the UK-Hong Kong Joint Funding Scheme.

More generally, the department oversees the evolution of education in the UK and establishes and maintains facilities to promote the interests of Hong Kong students.



close links with universities, polytechnics and colleges, UK government departments, local education authorities, the British Council, charities and, in the case of prospective nurses, medical authorities.

In addition to providing advice and support to individual students, it maintained close contact with the Hong Kong student community through university student associations. The Hong Kong Student Center in London closed in July due to declining use of its facilities.

Non-foreign Hong Kong students

The Department of Education's International Students and Scholarships Department provides advice to students wishing to continue their studies abroad and information about educational institutions in the UK and elsewhere. A total of 4,518 students went to the UK during the year, while 2,953 went to Canada, 1,872 to the US and 564 to Australia.

Financing of studies

Full-time students at local colleges are eligible for scholarships to cover their tuition fees, student union tuition and fees, and interest-free loans to cover their living expenses. During the year, 8,725 students received scholarships totaling $37.5 million and 9,860 students received loans totaling $78.1 million. This program is administered by the Committee on University and Polytechnic Scholarships.

Also administered by the UPGC is a Joint Funding Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Hong Kong under the terms of which scholarships are awarded to full-time students pursuing first degree or higher national degree programs in the United Kingdom to meet the difference between foreign tuition fees. During the year, grants totaling £3.8 million were awarded to 116 institutions on behalf of 1,360 students.

british council

The aim of the British Council in Hong Kong is to strengthen and develop educational and cultural links with Great Britain. Perhaps the Council's best-known activity in Hong Kong is teaching English, with 85 qualified teachers. During the year, 25,000 students enrolled in 12-week courses, three hours a week, and around 500 primary and secondary school teachers participated in in-service training funded by the Ministry of Education. Special courses have also been designed for private sector organizations, including a 12-month full-time course for 25 middle managers.

The Educational Advice Service advises students on educational opportunities in the UK and is growing in popularity. In addition, two large missions of British scholars visited Hong Kong during the year to advise students and discuss possible areas of collaboration with their Hong Kong colleagues.

British experts visited Hong Kong mainly from the fields of education and English language teaching. The British Council also sponsored a specialist in deaf education and Dr. J.R. Moss of the Independent Broadcasting Authority to deliver lectures and seminars on educational technology to leading audiovisual units in educational institutions in Hong Kong. Fellowships have been awarded in many disciplines, from stage management and lighting to robotics and automated systems.



The main sponsored art event was the "Henry Moore Art Exhibition", which was displayed in three main locations: the City Hall Complex, the Art Center and the Tsim Sha Tsui Promenade. This was one of the largest exhibitions of Henry Moore's work ever presented and generated enormous interest.

The parish offices, classroom, library and hall were refurbished and renovated. The library has 14,000 members and provides access to a wide selection of books, periodicals, supplementary note readers, and self-access audio and videotapes. Book exhibits included one on "Computers and Their Applications" and a

"Old Books for Children".




To meet the growing demand for medical services, the Department of Health and Medicine has embarked on a comprehensive medical development program that includes building at least four major hospitals and an additional 22 clinics and polyclinics over the next decade.

Construction of Tuen Mun Hospital, which will have 1,600 beds, is nearing completion and the hospital's groundbreaking ceremony was completed in August by Chief Secretary Sir David Akers-Jones.

When completed in 1988, the hospital will enhance medical care in the New Northwest Territories. It is another example of government policy to expand medical facilities in the New Territories to keep up with population growth in those areas, which is particularly evident in the new cities.

Construction has begun on the long-awaited 1,600-bed East District Hospital on Hong Kong Island. The hospital, which will be completed in 1991/92, will offer a full range of specialist care facilities, including a 24-hour accident and emergency response service and a training school for psychiatric nurses.

Construction on Queen Mary Hospital's Stage II expansion is scheduled for completion in 1989. The hospital will offer two multi-storey blocks with an additional 844 beds and some new psychiatric and pediatric facilities.

The government also approved funds for a major renovation of the 280-bed Ruttonjee Sanatorium in Wan Chai to convert it from a facility for tuberculosis and chest patients into a 462-bed general hospital.

The most significant event of the year in the field of medicine and health was the publication, at the end of March 1986, of a consultant's report on the provision of medical services in public hospitals.

The report was the result of a 10-month review of the "delivery of medical services in Hong Kong" carried out in February 1985 by an Australian government consultancy.

While the Government welcomes the report, it has decided that before making a decision on the recommendations, it is necessary to seek the opinion of the public and, in particular, those involved in the health system.

Copies of the English and Chinese language texts of the full report, together with an executive summary, were distributed to interested professional bodies, employee organizations and the general public. The public was invited to send their comments on the report to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare before the end of August.

Another major development in the medical field, with far-reaching implications, was the establishment of a working group on postgraduate medical education and training.



The working group was established on the advice of the Medical Development Advisory Committee for the purpose of examining and making recommendations on various aspects of postgraduate medical education in Hong Kong.

The working group chaired by Dr. K.E. Halnan, a British physician with extensive knowledge of postgraduate medical training, started work in October.

It will be:



Monitor training needs in postgraduate medical specialties and continuing education for the medical profession in Hong Kong;

advice on the organization of postgraduate medical education and training programs with reference to the responsibilities of universities, medical professionals, hospital authorities and government;

set the standards within each graduate program, consider the need for local testing and standards certification, and advise on the need for an agency to accredit graduate medical education and training programs. The working group is composed of 14 other members from local universities, medical professional associations, government and subsidized hospitals, medical and health administration, and the University and Polytechnic Scholarship Committee. It is expected to present its findings and recommendations to the government within two years.

For the 1986-87 fiscal year, the Department of Health and Medical's estimated expenditure is $2,646 million. In addition, grants totaling approximately $1,270 million will be awarded to many non-governmental medical institutions or organizations. Capital expenditures for hospitals and other buildings, including equipment and furniture, total approximately $249 million.

community health

The general health of the population remains good, mainly due to epidemic and disease surveillance measures, developments in preventive and personal health services, and high standards of living. This progress is also reflected in very satisfactory health indices and in the general decrease in the incidence of the main communicable diseases.

The leading causes of death today are various forms of cancer, heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. The low infant mortality rate is attributed to the provision of comprehensive health services for families and newborns, as well as improvements in environmental and socioeconomic conditions.

Three confirmed but isolated cases of cholera were reported in May, June and July. Two of them were imported cases. A local outbreak occurred in late July and early August and Hong Kong was declared a cholera contagious area under the International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization.

As of 20 August, a total of 22 cases of cholera have been reported. The epidemiological investigation found that there was a clustering of cases in the East Kowloon area, where 14 patients living or working in Kwun Tong said they had eaten food prepared by street vendors in the Kwun Tong area before the onset of symptoms. A common source has been suggested as responsible for this outbreak.

The other cases occurred in Sha Tin, Tsim Sha Tsui, Tsz Wan Shan, Mong Kok, Sham Shui Po, Kwai Chung and Yuen Long. These were treated as isolated cases.

Public health and prevention measures were immediately intensified, with an ad hoc inter-ministerial Commission for the coordination of cholera control being created to advise and coordinate the various prevention, control and dissemination measures.



The concerted efforts of the various departments involved in enforcing and enforcing the various strict food hygiene measures went a long way in raising public awareness of the cholera problem, and as of 6 August, no further local cases have been reported. As a result, Hong Kong was declared cholera-free on 19 August.

Four more imported cases and one local case of cholera were confirmed in the second half of the year.

Two cases of human rabies were reported during the year. Both were people who were bitten by dogs in China and developed symptoms after returning to Hong Kong. In these two cases, a 68-year-old woman died in March and a 37-year-old man died in August. The only indigenous case of animal rabies was reported in November.

A total of 143 cases of malaria were reported during the year, most of them imported cases, with probable outbreaks of infection in China, Pakistan, Vietnam and India. Eight indigenous cases were identified during the same period. These cases occurred in Sai Kung, Yuen Long, North New Territories and Ping Chau (Mirs Bay) districts.

All reported cases of malaria were thoroughly investigated and followed up by regional health professionals. This active surveillance program was undertaken to minimize the possibility of increased parasite density in the local community and to ensure that all viable prevention and treatment programs were effectively implemented. With the establishment of the Central Malaria Reference Laboratory, all positive slides and 10 percent of negative slides were routinely checked for the presence of the parasite.

Malaria control in the area focuses on early case detection and reporting, vector control, and health education.

Health talks, film screenings, posters, brochures, press releases, radio and television interviews will be used to remind the general public to eliminate mosquito breeding grounds and encourage picnickers and international travelers to protect themselves from mosquitoes. mosquito bites.

Tuberculosis remains a major disease in Hong Kong. Despite continued surveillance and a dynamic disease control program, the total number of reports in 1986 was 7,432, a rate of 134.33 per 100,000. The local BCG vaccination program effectively covered about 99% of cases in newborns. Booster shots were also given to elementary school children and newly immigrant children after the first Mantoux test. Tuberculosis deaths continued to fall from 409 in 1985 to 407 in 1986 and the death rate from 7.5 to 7.36 per 100,000.

Measles and rubella vaccination programs were conducted in family clinics and schools. One-year-old babies were vaccinated against measles and 6th-grade girls against rubella. Coverage was in the range of 80 percent and 97 percent.

To increase the protection of the risk group, namely women of reproductive age, vaccines against rubella were made available to nurses, teachers and social workers who are in constant contact with children. These vaccines are also given to eligible women who attend the various Family Health Service clinics.

Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B viruses continue to be widespread in the Community, with 1 424 cases reported and 18 deaths recorded during the year. Due to the public health impact of hepatitis, which often leads to long-term liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer, a hepatitis B vaccination program has been established to prevent the disease.

Based on the recommendation of the World Health Organization, the current strategy is to provide immunization against hepatitis B to certain high-risk groups in the community. The first group includes babies born to mothers with the disease. The



The second group includes medical personnel who frequently come into contact with blood and blood products or tissue fluids.

The Department of Medicine and Health continued to conduct a combined newborn screening program for Glucose-6-Phosphatase Dehydrogenosis Deficiency and Congenital Hypothyroidism to facilitate early detection and treatment of infants who might otherwise develop disabilities or intellectual disabilities. The program managed to cover all babies born in government and subsidized hospitals. Based on the results of the screening program to date, the prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency in native male infants is 4.5%, while the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is 1 in 3200 live births. Follow-up and corrective measures were initiated immediately, thus preventing the development of permanent disabilities in these children. In 1986, the program was expanded to also include babies born in private hospitals.

In November 1984, an AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Advisory Committee, composed of medical experts from the Departments of Medicine and Health and the two universities, was established to oversee the worldwide development of this disease. The committee, in light of the available scientific data and evidence and in accordance with the recommendations of the United States Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization, prepared guidelines for medical, nursing, and laboratory personnel to diagnose and treat AIDS. cases. Laboratory facilities and clinical expertise for screening, diagnosis, counseling and treatment of the disease have also been established.

To prevent possible transmission of the disease through blood transfusions, the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service instituted a blood screening program in August 1985. All blood and blood products in the blood transfusion service were tested for the presence of antibodies to the AIDS virus before use.

Health education activities on this topic have been stepped up to educate the public on the facts of the disease and dispel any misunderstandings and excessive fears. The Ministry's Central Health Education Unit distributed special booklets on the subject and a 24-hour telephone service was implemented for anyone who wants to know more about the subject. It was important to target the special risk group in the community. A dedicated AIDS Counseling Service and Counseling Clinic was also established in November 1985.

An active surveillance program was established in 1985 to monitor the likely occurrence of the disease in many high-risk groups. So far, only three confirmed cases of AIDS have been identified. Follow-up investigations revealed previous contacts with risk factors and carriers during their stay abroad. All three cases died by the end of 1985.

hospitals and development programs

There are three types of hospitals in Hong Kong - government, assisted and private - with a total of 24,550 beds, equivalent to 4.4 beds per thousand of the population. Throughout the year, the service was pressured on all fronts. This was reflected in the increase in outpatient visits and the number of hospitalizations.

As mentioned earlier, the Ministry of Medicine and Health's general plan for the decade calls for the construction of at least four more state hospitals: a 1,600-bed hospital in Tuen Mun, a 1,600-bed hospital in Chai Wan, a 1,500-bed hospital in of beds in East Kowloon and a 1,430-bed hospital in Tai Po. There are also plans to provide expansion blocks for the first three regional hospitals: Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Princess Margaret Hospitals.



Other ongoing projects include further expansions at Caritas Medical Center, United Christian Hospital, Yan Chai Hospital and Pok Oi Hospital, and the conversion of Ruttonjee Sanatorium into a 462-bed general hospital. Further focus has been placed on providing beds for the elderly, infirm and disabled, and a total of 2,400 beds are planned over the next decade.

In 1986, a total of 1,134,000 people attended state and state accident and emergency departments, an average of 3,107 visits per day. More than 644,000 patients were treated at 14 state hospitals and 20 state-sponsored hospitals.


General outpatient services are an essential part of the health care system. The government now operates 65 public general outpatient clinics, as well as polyclinics and specialist clinics. As part of the general measures to meet the growing demand for outpatient care, night care was maintained on Sundays and holidays in outpatient clinics in metropolitan areas. The medical development program includes 22 clinical and polyclinic projects throughout the territory.

Mobile pharmacies and floating clinics are bringing medical services to remote islands and more remote areas of the New Territories. Other inaccessible areas are regularly visited by the Flying Doctor service with the support of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.

At the end of 1986, 321 clinics were registered with the Doctors Ordinance. Of these, 95 clinics were registered under the direction of a general practitioner and 226 under the exemption of certain clinics. Registered doctors - members of the Gutsärzteverband - set up clinics in housing estates to offer residents a cost-effective service.

The total number of visits to state clinics was 16 million in 1986, 4.8% more than in the previous year.

family health

The Department of Medicine and Health's Family Health Services operates 44 maternal and child health centers and provides a comprehensive health program for women of reproductive age and children up to age five. Family planning is an important part of Family Health Services. Prenatal and postnatal health consultations are held for mothers. Vaccination programs are carried out against tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, measles and rubella. During the year, around 93 percent of newborns were screened by family health services


The comprehensive observational scheme for the detection and assessment of early developmental disorders and, if necessary, for follow-up treatment is now available in 44 family health centers. Children who attend these centers may be referred to child assessment centers or various specialist agencies for further evaluation if their condition so requires. The system allows rehabilitation processes to start as early as possible.

Two child assessment centers are operational and six more regional multidisciplinary child assessment centers will be established over the next decade.

In large public hospitals, health education is being extended to pregnant women, with a particular focus on promoting breastfeeding. A telephone service is available for public inquiries. The government-subsidised Hong Kong Family Planning Association operates 30 birth control clinics.



It offers services in areas such as premarital counseling, contraception, sterilization, vasectomy and subfertility. The association placed more emphasis on health promotion work in the areas of family planning and sex education.

school health

The School Medical Service Scheme is operated by an independent School Medical Service Board. Participation is voluntary and for a nominal fee of US$10 per year, children in Primary 1 through Grade 3 can receive free medical care from a GP of the school's choice. The government contributes US$65 per year for each enrolled student and also covers administrative costs. The overall response to the program has been good: more than 349,000 students from 879 schools have participated – representing about 44 percent of the eligible school population – and more than 360 general practitioners have applied.

The School Health Service, subordinated to the government, takes care of environmental health and hygiene on school premises and the control of communicable diseases. School health officials, health visitors and health inspectors often carry out school inspections to provide advice on children's health and organize health education activities and vaccination campaigns.

Mental health

The Department's Mental Health Service, along with other local academic and voluntary organizations, provides a comprehensive mental health service for the mentally ill in Hong Kong. The service is organized on a non-regional basis, taking into account the global needs of the area as a whole. The offer is made up of a network of psychiatric clinics (3,107 beds), psychiatry departments in general hospitals (592 beds), psychiatric clinics and psychiatric day centers that cover inpatient, outpatient and outpatient needs, supported by various post-care services. -treatment . In line with the general trend of developing smaller psychiatric departments within general hospitals, another 2,286 beds are planned for future medical projects.

Particular emphasis is placed on accompanying mentally ill patients who are released upon their reintegration into society. The Community Psychiatric Nursing Service (CPNS) continued monitoring programs for patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals and patients referred from psychiatric centers. In addition to the main centers in major psychiatric hospitals, three new district CPNS centers were established in Hong Kong and Kowloon to serve patients residing in these areas. A new center is established in 1987 in the Hong Kong region. Other complementary rehabilitation support services include aftercare social services, placement services, transitional housing, long-term care homes, and social clubs organized by various voluntary organizations.

The 200-bed Siu Lam Hospital and the 300-bed Caritas Medical Center cater for people with severe mental disabilities who require intensive nursing care and medical treatment. An additional 700 beds in this category are planned over the next decade to meet current demand.

dental services

The School Dental Service provides regular dental examination and treatment services for elementary school children. Essentially focused on prevention, the service has proven to be an adequate and economical way to promote oral health in schools.



Kids. The response from parents and school authorities was very encouraging; about 298,700 children, 67.3 percent of students in primary schools 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, participated in 1986-7, compared to 64.4 percent in 1985-6. Five school dental clinics have been set up and another four are planned for the next four years. Oral health education programs with lectures and exhibitions are held to promote oral health awareness among children and adults.

The State Dental Service provides dental care for all monthly paid public servants and their dependents, as well as basic dental care for prison inmates and specialist care for patients in public hospitals. Emergency treatment is also available to the public at several county dental clinics.

harbor health

The Port Health Service carries out inspections at Hong Kong International Airport and in the territory's waters to prevent the introduction of quarantineable diseases and performs other measures required by international health standards.

The service offers facilities for vaccination and issuance of international vaccination cards. It also oversees and monitors the eradication of rats on ships on international voyages. It provides medical assistance to ships in port, imparts medical advice to ships at sea, operates a 24-hour medical service for all incoming ships, and provides radio practice to ships.

Health professionals also closely monitor food service on international airlines to ensure that food and water in in-flight kitchens is clean and safe. Epidemiological information is regularly exchanged with the World Health Organization in Geneva and its Western Pacific regional office in Manila, as well as with neighboring countries.

Special Services

The Pathology Service provides public health and clinical laboratory services to government hospitals and clinics, as well as a government-supported industry advisory service. It also manages hospital cadavers and blood banks.

The Institute of Immunology manufactures vaccines and other biological products for use by local health services. The Virus Unit provides a central laboratory service for the diagnosis and monitoring of viral infections and valuable screening, evaluation and guidance services for immunization programs against viral infections.

A central newborn screening laboratory was temporarily established at Kwong Wah Hospital in 1984. The main function of this unit is to coordinate the laboratory activities of the national newborn screening program for congenital hypothyroidism and glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenosis deficiency.

In 1985, AIDS screening and diagnostic facilities were integrated into the Queen Mary Hospital virus laboratory and Yan Oi Pathology Institute's immunological laboratory.

The Forensic Pathology Service, through its forensic laboratory, works closely with the Royal Hong Kong Police Force in the medical aspects of criminology and other medico-legal work. It also manages public morgues.

The Institute of Radiology and Oncology was reorganized into two major departments: the Department of Diagnostic Radiology with the Department of Nuclear Medicine and the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology with the Department of Medical Physics.



The Department of Diagnostic Radiology provides diagnostic organ imaging services to government institutes and a government-subsidized hospital, Nam Long Hospital. A counseling service is available to all government-subsidized hospitals and general practitioners for a fee. The main tasks of the nuclear medicine department are the coordination and improvement of the various nuclear medicine procedures and the training of medical personnel in the field.

The Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology offers comprehensive radiotherapy programs and a chemotherapy service. The department also manages a national cancer registry. The Medical Physics department is responsible for the maintenance and operation of the radiation and mold physics laboratories, the radiological workshop and the department's photography department.

The pharmaceutical service is made up of two main departments. The first is the Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy Service, which has 750 employees, 54 of which are pharmacists. The second department is the Pharmaceutical Inspection Service, with 17 pharmacists supported by several clerks. Other actions against the illegal sale and distribution of poisons and antibiotics were carried out during the year, resulting in 103 lawsuits.

Community Nursing Service

The Community Nursing Service extends care to patients discharged from hospital after an acute illness, providing medical care and support to the sick, disabled and elderly in their own homes.

Care is provided by trained community nurses. Jointly operated by eight agencies, including the Department of Medicine and Health, it is largely hospital-based, with in-home services provided through a network of 40 subcentres. During the year, 10,200 new patients were seen by community nurses and more than 213,000 home visits were performed.

healthy education

The Central Health Education Unit of the Department of Medicine and Health is responsible for organizing, coordinating and promoting health education activities. In response to the WHO World Health Day theme for 1986, "Living healthy, everyone wins", the Central Health Education Unit adopted the theme for a large-scale health education campaign in 1986. celebrated a carnival in Victoria Park, bringing the public to their own health responsibility.

During the year, the Health Education Center was also involved in other health education campaigns. The anti-smoking advertising campaign deserves special mention. In addition to providing resources and expert advice, the unit also participated in the Kowloon Park rally in September. And from the same month, anti-smoking workshops were organized for high school students at the Yung Fung Shee Health Education Center.

An organ donation campaign was launched in September, calling on the public to donate their kidneys and eyes after death.

Other health education campaigns included the Home Safety Campaign and the Mental Health Education Campaign. Health education on malaria, foodborne illness and other medical issues was also provided.

The community's growing interest in health was reflected in the popularity of the resource service, which provided free audiovisual materials to schools and volunteer organizations. In addition, more and more people visit the three audiovisual centers to learn about health issues.



Other ongoing unit programs continued to enjoy great popularity. These include the health education hotline, slide and video presentations at health education centers and outpatient clinics, the loan of audiovisual material to schools and voluntary organizations, and the weekly health column in newspapers.

medical fees

In August, the price of a consultation at a general clinic increased from US$9 to US$10. The fee for a consultation at a specialist clinic also increased from US$12 to US$13. laboratory. Fees for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and child assessment have increased to $13 per visit. Fees for injections and dressings remained at US$3, while fees for visiting family planning clinics and methadone clinics remained at US$1. be reduced or dispensed with in cases of shortage attested by a social doctor.

As of August, patients in third-class beds at state hospitals were charging $20 a day, up from $2. This fee is all-inclusive and covers diet, x-rays, lab tests, medications, surgery and any other forms of special treatment necessary. The fee for home visits by community nurses remained at $18. These fees may also be waived when justified. Despite the increase, hospital fees barely cover the cost of patient meals. Large public hospitals provide a limited number of private beds with higher maintenance and treatment fees.

Free medical services continued to be provided at maternal and child health centres, tuberculosis and breast clinics, social hygiene clinics, emergency rooms, floating clinics and through the Flying Doctor programme.

training of health professionals

Basic medical training is provided by the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Graduates of both medical schools receive degrees recognized by the General Medical Council of Great Britain. Student intake at the University of Hong Kong remains at 150 per year. During the year, the Chinese University of Hong Kong graduated its first class of 51 doctors, who will be ready for full registration in 1987.

Both the government and the two universities maintain a comprehensive postgraduate medical education program that provides physicians with the opportunity to study abroad, take advanced professional examinations, gain advanced qualifications, and attend professional conferences, seminars, and workshops. In 1986, around 150 physicians went abroad for professional improvement with state funding or with the aid of scholarships.

In 1986, 65 externally trained physicians passed the local licensing exam as part of the licensing system.

The Prince Philip Dental Hospital produced a group of 72 dentists in 1986. Dental therapists are trained at the Tang Shiu Kin Dental Therapist Training School.

Basic training to become a Registered General Nurse is conducted at state, state-subsidized, and private hospitals. There are now eight such training centers with an average annual training capacity of around 1,070 seats. Three more nursing schools are planned over the next ten years. The annual training capacity of general education nurses increases from 560 to 570.



Training for Registered Psychiatric Nurses is provided at Kwai Chung Hospital and Castle Peak Hospital and for Psychiatric Nurses at Castle Peak Hospital. The average enrollment capacity for psychiatric nurses and registered nurses is 160 and 60, respectively. Three more schools of psychiatric nursing are planned over the next decade to meet the continued demand for mental health services.

The need for continuous education and training for the nursing team is recognized. The Nursing Training Unit Secondary School offers regular post-enrollment courses in midwifery, health care, and community health care. Part-time training as an orthopedic technician and mold construction technician is carried out by the respective departments of the medical and health authorities.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic Institute of Health and Medical Care provides training for paramedical and dental personnel, including radiologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical laboratory technicians, dental technicians and dental surgery assistants. There are training opportunities abroad in specialized areas for nursing, paramedical and paradentist personnel. The Department of Technical Education and Industrial Training at the Shatin Technical Institute provides training for dispensers, which is complemented by the department's in-service training courses.

government laboratory

The government laboratory carries out analytical, advisory and investigative work in chemistry and related sciences and provides scientific support for the implementation of government health policies. Throughout the year, the laboratory provided government departments and public agencies with comprehensive and unbiased scientific advice.

Chemical analyzes of air, water and waste samples, performed primarily for the Department of Environmental Protection, have increased significantly. Analytical support was also provided to the Royal Observatory for Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network and a radiochemical unit set up to determine background radiation levels prior to operation of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in China.

The laboratory also carried out measurements of industrial emissions and factory atmospheres on behalf of the Ministry of Labor. A 24-hour assistance service was provided to assist emergency services in chemical product spills, fires with dangerous goods and indoor gas accidents.

Close liaison was maintained with the Department of Medicine and Health to ensure that pharmaceuticals sold and used locally meet registration and labeling requirements. Herbal medicines were checked for synthetic drug content and their toxic metal content.

Foods were checked for compliance with the provisions of the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance. Special attention was paid to detecting hormone residues in the meat to ensure that it was not contaminated by the illegal use of hormones in livestock farming.

Other aspects of the laboratory's work included classifying hazardous products, testing the quality of government purchases and certain export commodities, analyzing pesticide formulations and residues, and identifying a variety of counterfeit consumer products. Taxable items were analyzed for revenue purposes, and two more semi-annual tables showing cigarette brands ranked by tar and nicotine content were released to support the government's anti-smoking efforts.

The laboratory also provided a urine testing service to support the government's methadone maintenance program in the treatment of drug addiction.




Substance abuse is a long-standing problem in Hong Kong, with serious social, economic, legal, medical and psychological consequences. The government's stated policy is to prevent illicit drug trafficking into and through Hong Kong, to develop a comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation program for drug addicts, and to discourage Hong Kong people, especially young people, from experimenting with drugs. to eliminate drug abuse in the community.

The exact number of addicts in Hong Kong is not known. However, results from the government's computerized Central Drug Abuse Registry and other related indicators show that, at the end of 1986, the number of known and active addicts was approximately 38,000.

Data collected by the registry, based on 320,000 reports from 56,000 people, show that 92 percent are men and 8 percent are women. In terms of age distribution, at the end of 1986, 74 percent were over 30, 22 percent were between 21 and 30, and four percent were under 21. The main drug of abuse in Hong Kong is heroin, used by 97% of addicts who reported to the register in 1986. The remaining 3% used other drugs, including mandrax, opium and marijuana. The most common method of ingesting heroin was by injection followed by steam inhalation, commonly known as "dragon hunting".

Typical addicts are adult males over the age of 21 in the low-income bracket, usually employed as casual, unskilled or semi-skilled workers and living in overcrowded conditions. They usually have no more than six years of formal education and are single or, if married, usually separated from their families.

The government's overall strategy to combat drug abuse consists of four main elements: law enforcement, treatment and rehabilitation, preventive education and outreach, and international cooperation. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Narcotics Bureau and each district formation of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and the Customs and Excise Bureau. Treatment and rehabilitation is provided by the Department of Health and Medicine, the Department of Penitentiary Services and various voluntary organizations, the largest of which is the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Users (SARDA), which is subsidized by the government. Preventive education and outreach is primarily the responsibility of the Department of Government's Drugs Division, the Information Services Division, and various state county offices involved in community building efforts. International cooperation is everyone's responsibility.

Work in each of these four areas is interrelated. Effective law enforcement action raises the price of illegal drugs and reduces their supply, encouraging addicts to voluntarily seek treatment. Addicts who want to break free of their drug addictions are offered a wide range of treatment programs that are effective in reducing the demand for illicit drugs. At the same time, preventive education and public relations work prevents others, especially young people, from experimenting with drugs. Cooperation at the international level increases the effectiveness of efforts in these three areas through the exchange of information and experiences.

All of these efforts are coordinated by the Narcotics Action Committee (ACAN), a non-statutory body composed of a president, eight government officials and eight community members. Created in 1965 and reconstituted in 1974, the Committee is the only government advisory body for all anti-drug policies and actions, whether internal or external, linked to government agencies or voluntary organizations. It is overseen by the Narcotics Unit, headed by the Narcotics Officer.



Effective law enforcement action by police and customs led to 12,600 drug-related criminal cases in 1986. Sadly, this year saw another bumper crop in the "Golden Triangle", resulting in a steady flow of illicit drugs into Hong Kong, despite the relentless police action. Drug prices therefore remained low and relatively stable throughout the year.

The methadone treatment program, which provides maintenance and detoxification services on an outpatient basis, serves most addicts who volunteer for treatment. Methadone maintenance is a long-term treatment approach designed to prevent an addict from returning to illicit heroin or other forms of drug abuse, while detoxification is a short-term treatment approach designed to eliminate physical dependence on narcotics. There are currently 24 methadone clinics operated by the Division of Narcotics and Drug Administration in the Department of Medicine and Health.

The largest voluntary hospital treatment program is run by SARDA. The Society operates two treatment centers, one for men and one for women. The Men's Center in Shek Kwu Chau Island has a capacity of 500 patients, while the Women's Treatment Center in Wan Chai and Sha Tin can accommodate 39 patients. Attached to these centers are three inpatient stations, five regional social services offices, six halfway houses, an employment agency, and a clinic that provides entry screening and methadone treatment, urinalysis, and follow-up care.

A mandatory treatment program is implemented by the correctional facility pursuant to the Drug Addiction Treatment Centers Ordinance. The regulation provides for the conviction of a drug addict convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment until placement in a drug addiction treatment centre. The department now operates two addiction treatment centers on Hei Ling Chau Island, one for adult males and one for youths under 21. The first has capacity for 938 and the second for 136. For the treatment of female addicts, a section The Tai Lam Center for Women is designed for a maximum of 76 inmates. These treatment programs last from two to 12 months, and all discharged individuals receive one year of mandatory follow-up.

In 1986, the correctional facility's two voluntary treatment programs and the mandatory treatment program admitted 15,300 addicts. On average, 15,500 addicts and former addicts receive some form of treatment, rehabilitation, and aftercare each day.

Preventive education and public relations play an important role in Hong Kong's fight against drug abuse. Work in these areas focuses on raising public awareness of the dangers of substance abuse, encouraging community participation in solving the problem, discouraging young people from experimenting with drugs or engaging in drug-related crime, and addicts encourage them. to present for treatment. The objectives of the advertising campaign in 1986 were to publicize available treatment and rehabilitation facilities and to encourage addicts to seek treatment.

Four district campaigns were carried out with municipal participation. Events organized to drive the anti-drug message home have included carnivals, concerts, variety shows, telematch games, soccer tournaments, dances, film screenings and exhibitions.

The main national event of the year was the anti-drug variety show held on June 8 at the Hong Kong Coliseum. Around 7,000 young people from youth centers, schools, social outreach services and boys' and girls' homes took part in the show. The two-hour program highlighted the dangers of substance abuse and the importance of youth participation in the fight against drugs. The program was broadcast live on television and spread the anti-drug message to an audience of three million nationwide.



Founded in 1984, the School Talks team in the Division of Narcotics has continued to deliver drug addiction talks to 12- to 15-year-old students in high schools throughout the area. During the year, a total of 44,625 students in 85 schools attended the lectures.

In October, an All Secondary School Drug Education Pack was distributed to all secondary schools, providing up-to-date educational materials for grades 1 to 5 on the drug problem and substance abuse prevention in Hong Kong. The revised kit replaced the previous one, which had been in use since 1978.

Now in its sixth year, the Youth Against Drugs program has provided encouragement and financial support to young people who want to be directly involved in the planning and implementation of anti-drug projects. The program helped 17 youth groups carry out 19 promotional actions against drugs. ACAN's 60-member Young Volunteer Group, established in 1981 with the aim of training and encouraging young volunteers to take an active role in drug control, has participated in state and district campaigns and organized various community engagement activities.

The Narcotics Unit also organized seminars for extension workers and school administrators to educate them on drug issues and enlist their active support in the fight against drugs. In addition, lectures, film screenings and visits to mutual aid committees and parent groups were organized.

To support these activities and spread the anti-drug message, radio and television public interest advertisements, films, posters, flyers and an anti-drug theme song were produced. The television call to obtain information about drug trafficking in the neighborhood was particularly successful.

During the year, ACAN's Substance Abuse Helpline received 1,619 inquiries from addicts and non-addicts. Most queries were related to drug addiction treatment facilities.

By 1986, there was some evidence of an increase in the abuse of certain non-opioid psychotropic substances. Although abuse of these drugs is not currently as serious a social problem as heroin addiction, the situation is being carefully monitored by ACAN and steps should be taken to raise public awareness of the dangers of these drugs and the controls and penalties in place for their use. abuse .

The government's determination to tackle the drug problem from all acceptable angles is reflected in a consultation paper on the Hong Kong triad problem, which includes proposals to deprive convicted drug traffickers of their ill-gotten gains.

Externally, Hong Kong continued to play an active and important role in international anti-drug operations, maintaining close ties with the United Nations, intergovernmental organizations such as the Colombo Plan Bureau, Interpol and the Customs Cooperation Council, and the governments of Southeast Asian countries. , Europe and North America. Hong Kong participated in 20 regional and international meetings and seminars on law enforcement, treatment and rehabilitation, and preventive education. Hong Kong also made its 12th annual contribution of $100,000 to the United Nations Drug Abuse Fund in support of its global anti-drug efforts, which include the "Golden Triangle" poppy replacement program at the borders Hong Kong includes Burma, Laos and Thailand, the source of most opiates in Hong Kong.

The techniques and methods that Hong Kong employs in its counter-drug work have made it an important place to train counter-drug personnel abroad. During the year, 182 anti-drug officials from different countries came to Hong Kong to study



Visits and training courses, either through bilateral agreements with their governments or under the auspices of a United Nations body such as the World Health Organization or the Colombo Plan Bureau. Experienced officers from the Narcotics Division, the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and the Customs and Excise Department traveled abroad to serve as lecturers or consultants in training courses related to drug control.

environmental hygiene

The work of the Municipal Services and Regional Services includes street cleaning, collection and disposal of rubbish and debris at night, cleaning of sewers, management of public toilets and changing rooms, pest control and disposal of dead bodies.

In urban areas, around 5,400 regular workers are employed in cleaning jobs. This cleaning force is equipped with a fleet of 397 specialized vehicles, including garbage collection vehicles, street washers, mechanical sweepers, overnight garbage collectors, gutter emptiers and portable toilets. All streets are swept mechanically or manually at least once a day, while the busiest roads are swept four to eight times a day. The roads are also regularly irrigated with hoses. A daily garbage collection service is provided at all locations in the area, and around 2,800 tons of rubbish and rubbish are collected daily. In areas that do not have a water-based sewer system, a free nightly service for removing dirt is also offered.

The Keep Hong Kong Clean campaign committee implemented a six-phase cleanup program covering housing developments, block-by-block cleaning, occupied areas, villages, beaches, fields and highways. A general beautification program was also incorporated into the renovation program. Along with education, public relations, and community involvement, law enforcement remained the primary tactic used to combat litter. During the year, 48,924 people were fined $8,885,547 for garbage violations.

While regular cleaning work at the regional council is mainly carried out by 3,500 employees and a specialized fleet of more than 200 vehicles, street cleaning in Shek Wu Hui and Luen Wo Hui in Northern District is carried out by contract workers. Cleaning of Tolo Highway and Tuen Mun Highway was carried out by the Highway Department contractor in 1986.

The garbage collection service collects an average of 1,300 tons of garbage and rubbish every day. Law enforcement remained the primary tactic used to combat indiscriminate littering, and in 1986, 8,000 people in the Regional Council area were convicted of littering violations.

The control

In maintaining and improving hygiene standards, enforcing the Public Health and Community Services Ordinance and its bylaws, Health Inspectors from the Department of Municipal Services and the Department of Regional Services regularly inspect licensed and approved facilities, common parts of residential buildings and commercial, construction and and vacant lots and occupied areas throughout the area. They also carry out inspections to deal with complaints about hygiene and vermin infestation. City Services Department and Regional Services Department officials also work closely with Department of Medicine and Health officials in investigating and responding to foodborne illness and infectious disease outbreaks.

Pest control personnel continued to employ integrated programs to control rodents, mosquitoes, flies and other public health pests. Preventive measures included environmental improvements and health education. These measures were complemented by the reimbursement



breeding sites, pesticide use and law enforcement. Special attention is also given to the control of malaria vectors, particularly in Sai Kung and border areas.

General health education strategies were applied in environmental hygiene, with special attention to educating the younger generation. The Health Education Division of the Department of Community Services, made up of health inspectors, organized lectures, educational courses, contests and competitions for students and youth groups to promote their awareness and interest in public health issues. Throughout the year, several environmental awareness and food hygiene campaigns were launched. Lectures, seminars and courses on public health were held for food traders, members of non-profit organizations, senior citizens and Vietnamese refugees. Efforts have also been made to teach special groups, including immigrants from China and Filipino domestic workers, primarily via mobile phones. In addition, the Health Education Unit provided an advisory service on health education methods and techniques to the public and disseminated public health information widely through the mass media.


The Health Inspection continued to control food for sale, imported and locally produced, with medical advice and support from laboratory staff to ensure its hygiene and safety for consumption. The increasing number of food establishments and the quantity and variety of foods on sale have increased the importance of law enforcement, including systematic inspections, sampling of food products for laboratory testing and research. At the same time, collaboration with the World Health Organization and other international bodies keeps Hong Kong abreast of international developments in food science and toxicological assessment to protect and benefit local grocers and consumers.

Got that

In the urban areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, the Urban Council operates 58 public markets with more than 7,900 stalls selling a variety of goods, from fresh groceries such as meat, fish, poultry, vegetables and fruits, to general produce, how clothing and household goods vary from goods and other daily necessities. The design of new market complexes, in addition to providing a wide range of products, also includes the standard supply of a ready-made kitchen center.

It is City Council policy to repurpose outdated markets and replace them with multipurpose complexes to serve other community needs, such as galleries, libraries, and performing arts auditoriums and markets. This leads to more efficient and productive use of available space. There are now six such market complexes in the city area.

The Department of Regional Services is responsible for the administration of public markets in the Regional Council area. There are 27 public markets and 13 cooked food markets with a total of 4,468 market stalls and 362 cooked food stalls under its management. A new market, the Hung Shui Kiu Temporary Market, opened in 1986 and offered an additional 224 stalls.

Street vendor

The management and control of street vendors in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon is the responsibility of the Urban Council, with the police assisting in control.



of illegal traders. In 1986, there were approximately 22,000 licensed street vendors in urban areas, a decrease of 1,500 from 1985. This reduction was mainly due to the City Council's continued efforts to move street vendors to newly completed markets and off-street markets. Street vendors' bazaars. The number of unlicensed street vendors tends to fluctuate from year to year, and in 1986 the estimated number was 16,000. Department of Urban Services General Assignment teams are responsible for enforcing City Council policies on the management and control of licensed and unlicensed utilities in cities.

A working group appointed by the City Council to review street vendors and related policies produced a consultation document in December 1985. After extensive consultation with district executives, government agencies, street vendor associations and other interested organizations, the working group prepared a final report to be sent to the city council to consider implementing its recommendations.

The management and control of street vendors in the Regional Council area is the responsibility of the Regional Services Department. In 1986, there were 3,815 licensed street vendors in the Regional Council area, a decrease of 861 from 1985. The number of unlicensed street vendors was estimated at 1,200.

Through the General Duty teams, which have an extension 962, the Regional Department of Services keeps track of the situation of street vendors. While illegal vending activities are increasing with the urbanization of the regional council area, the number of licensed street vendors is gradually decreasing as more and more of them move to new markets to become shopkeepers.


The two government slaughterhouses - in Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island and Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon - continued to supply most of the population with fresh meat. During the year, 2,469,000 hogs, 129,000 cattle and 12,000 goats were slaughtered at these slaughterhouses.

Slaughter services in the regional council area are provided by three licensed private slaughterhouses in Kwai Chung, Yuen Long and Tai Po districts. Processed a total of 1,183,684 hogs, 54,975 head of cattle and 3,668 goats during the year. The slaughterhouse in Kwai Chung, which can slaughter up to 3,000 pigs a day, also helps meet demand in Kowloon. Long-term land in Sheung Shui has been set aside for the construction of a private slaughterhouse with a minimum capacity of 2,000 hogs and 200 cattle, and a small slaughterhouse is planned in Cheung Chau to serve the island's needs.

All animals slaughtered at these slaughterhouses were inspected by qualified health inspectors from the Department of Municipal Services and the Department of Regional Services.

cemeteries and crematoria

It is government policy to encourage cremation over burial to dispose of the dead. More than 60 percent of the dead were cremated during the year. Human remains buried in public cemeteries are exhumed after six years. The exhumed remains are then cremated or taken to an urn cemetery.

The City Council operates two burial vaults, one on Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon, which provide free disposal services for the dead. There are five public cemeteries, two public crematoria and 18 private cemeteries in the city area. There are two military cemeteries under the administration of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.



There are three public crematoria in the Regional Council area in Kwai Chung, Fu Shan and Wo Hop Shek under the direction of the Department of Regional Services. The first two are intended for the cremation of the dead, while the third is intended exclusively for the cremation of exhumed remains. In these areas, niches are provided in the columbaria. The department also manages five public cemeteries, including Wo Hop Shek Cemetery, the largest public cemetery in Hong Kong, and oversees eight private cemeteries in the Regional Council area. To meet the needs of outlying island residents, a public cemetery is planned on Mui Wo to replace the Tai-O Cemetery, which is expected to be full by 1987.



social assistance



The general increase in people's expectations, together with growing community awareness and concern about social services, continued to generate pressure and demands for improvements, both qualitatively and quantitatively. During the year, the Ministry of Social Affairs and the subsidized welfare sector intensified their efforts to provide services to meet these needs.

The provision of social welfare services is based on the policy objectives defined in three White Papers - Integration of the Disabled into the Community: A United Front (1977); welfare in the 1980s (1979); and Primary and Preschool Education Services (1981). Responsibility for implementing government policy relating to social security and welfare rests with the Director of Social Welfare. The government is advised by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee on social welfare policy and the Rehabilitation Development Coordinating Committee on rehabilitation policy and service development. Members of both committees are appointed by the governor, and the committees are chaired by non-official members. In day-to-day planning and service development, the Social Welfare Office works closely with grant-aided charities, which play an important role in providing social services. Most of these agencies are affiliated with the Hong Kong Social Service Board.

Much attention has been paid to providing temporary community housing for the discharged mentally ill. The combined efforts of the Department of Social Services, Commissioner of Rehabilitation, City and New Area Government, and county offices to involve the public in educational programs led to greater community understanding and the establishment of Hemiswise Homes for former mentally ill and the residents' acceptance of it. The exercise provided valuable experience in planning and developing such services.

To meet the needs of the growing number of older people, a range of social services have been developed, including seniors' social centres, daycare centres, nursing homes, residential homes, nursing homes and seniors and domestic help. The demand for residential homes for the sick and elderly has been particularly felt and steps have been taken to increase the supply of these facilities. The housing authority's decision to provide assisted living for elderly people who can support themselves has allowed welfare authorities to focus their efforts on those who need the most personal care.

In early 1987, a pilot community service regulation program will be introduced into offender services. The system, which requires offenders to perform community service as an alternative to incarceration, has won support from charities and government agencies.

Three reviews were undertaken during the year to provide a foundation for future development of services for children and young people. These reviews concerned operations



and development of outreach social work services, school social work services, and residential child care services.

And to accelerate the provision of social services in new public housing developments, an agreement was reached to hand over the furnishing work of 25 initial units of social housing to the housing authority. A three-year rolling program for processing projects in four service areas - kindergartens, children's and youth centres, social centers and old people's homes - was then designed.

With the payment of social security benefits already computerized, the computerization plans for the referral system for disabled preschoolers, the information system for Social Security personnel, the central register of street sleepers, the existing and planned social projects and from the central waiting list for admission to institutions for the elderly.

Over the course of the year, 18 new day care centers, four homes for the elderly and residential homes, eight social and shelter centers for the elderly and five centers for children and young people were built. The delivery of these additional benefits and the increase in social security claims were reflected in the increase in recurring expenses.

Total estimated spending on Social Security and welfare services, which includes recurring Social Security expenses and grants to voluntary charities, was $2,486.8 million in the 1986-87 fiscal year, an increase of more than 8% compared to the previous year's total.

The Community Chest, which organizes and coordinates fundraising for its affiliates, raised $38.1 million in 1985-6, compared to $30.4 million in 1984-5.

social Security

Social security schemes are non-contributory and aim to meet basic subsistence needs as well as the special needs of vulnerable groups in the community who are in need of assistance due to special circumstances. These schemes include the Public Assistance Scheme, Special Needs Allowance Scheme, Criminal and Police Injury Compensation Scheme, Traffic Accident Assistance Scheme and Emergency Assistance.

The resource-based welfare system aims to bring the income of needy individuals and families to a prescribed level. Eligibility is determined by four main criteria: length of residence in Hong Kong, level of income and savings, age and employment. To be eligible, an individual must have lived in Hong Kong for at least one year and demonstrate that they lack sufficient income and other resources to meet their basic needs. In cases of real hardship, the social director is authorized to waive the residency requirement. A healthy unemployed person between the ages of 15 and 59 is only eligible if they are actively looking for work and are registered with the Department of Labor's local employment service.

Subsidy rates are regularly adjusted to cost of living. The current base monthly allowance is $510 for a single individual, $370 for each of the first three eligible members of a family, $315 for each of the next three eligible members, and $245 for each additional eligible member. In addition to the basic allowance, an old-age supplement, an invalidity supplement and a long-term supplement may be granted. An aging allowance of $255 per month is paid to people age 60 and older who do not receive a special needs allowance or disability allowance. A Disability Allowance of $255 per month is awarded to people who are partially disabled, whose earning capacity is reduced by at least 50% and who do not receive old-age or special needs benefits. An annual long term



A supplement of $1,290 for a family or $645 for a single person is payable to those who have received 12 consecutive months of government assistance to help cover the cost of replacing household and durable goods. Separate allowances are also paid to cover the cost of accommodation and other special needs.

To encourage self-help, an individual's earnings of up to $255 per month are not included in the calculation of assistance eligibility.

At the end of 1986, the number of active welfare cases was 63,160, compared to 62,828 in 1985. Spending on welfare in the 1985-86 fiscal year was $625.5 million, an increase of 7. 2% compared to the previous year.

The means-free Special Needs Allowance Scheme provides a flat-rate allowance for the severely disabled and elderly aged 70 and over who have lived in Hong Kong for five consecutive years after the age of 65. Anyone, regardless of age, who has lived continuously in Hong Kong for at least one year before applying for the benefit and is severely disabled is eligible for Disability Benefit. The current disability subsidy rate is $510 and $255 for old age. The number of people receiving these two grants was 291,090 at the end of the year, compared to 272,595 at the end of 1985. Special needs grant expenses for the 1985-86 fiscal year were $909.6 million, 10, 5% more than the previous year.

The Criminal and Police Injury Compensation Scheme provides cash benefits to the injuries and dependents of persons killed in violent crimes or by the actions of police officers in the course of their duties. This free means testing system is administered by the Criminal Injury Compensation Board and the Law Enforcement Injury Compensation Board. Total payments in 1986 were $5.3 million, compared to $4.7 million the previous year.

Assistance for Victims of Traffic Accidents provides immediate financial assistance to victims of traffic accidents or their loved ones in the event of death, regardless of family means or a culpable element in the cause of the accident. However, the accident must be reported to the police and the claim must be submitted within six months of the accident. This regulation only applies to traffic accidents within the meaning of the Decree on Victims of Traffic Accidents (Aid Fund). Payments are made for personal injury or death. Property damage is not insured. In the case of non-fatal injury, a sick leave of at least three days must be proven. The regulation does not affect the claimant's right to claim damages or compensation from other sources. Claimants who subsequently receive damages or other compensation for the same accident must repay the payments they received from the scheme or the amount of damages or compensation, whichever is less. During the year, 5,560 applications were received and 5,080 were approved for $35.8 million in grants.

Emergency help is provided to victims of natural or other disasters, in the form of immediate material assistance, such as hot meals, cutlery and other basic needs. Emergency fund grants are also paid to disaster victims or their families. During the year, emergency assistance was provided 200 times to 8,100 registered victims.

To prevent misuse of the various systems, a specialized team carries out detailed investigations in case of suspected fraud or reimbursement difficulties. During the year, staff completed investigations in 295 cases, some of which were subsequently referred to the Attorney General for legal advice and possible prosecution.

The Social Security Appeals Board is an independent body that reviews the appeals of individuals against decisions of the Department of Social Security concerning the public.



Grants for special needs and grants for victims of road accidents. In total, 92 appeals were processed during the year. Of these, five refer to social assistance, 82 to subsidy for special needs and five to assistance to victims of road accidents.

services for criminals

The social assistance service has several statutory attributions in the field of criminal assistance. These tasks are aimed at complying with court orders regarding the treatment of offenders through social work methods. The overall objective is the reintegration of offenders into society through probation supervision, home investigation service, residential training for juvenile offenders, and aftercare services.

Probation applies to offenders of all ages. It allows offenders to remain in the community under the supervision of probation officers and subject to prescribed rules established by the courts. Volunteers from various walks of life participate in the program through a special program that encourages community participation in the rehabilitation of offenders.

According to the Civil Service Code, courts can order offenders over 14 years of age convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment to perform unpaid community service in lieu of or in addition to another conviction. Offenders who are subject to a charitable order are monitored by probation officers from the Social Action Bureau. To ensure that the system is developed as best suited to the situation in Hong Kong, the Department for Social Welfare has studied how a similar system works in the UK and will test it in early 1987.

Educational, vocational, social and recreational training is provided in detention facilities and residential facilities to help juvenile offenders return to the community as law-abiding citizens.

The Wellness Office maintains seven facilities specializing in this work, each with a slightly different training program to meet the needs of both genders and all ages. After reviewing the educational programs at these institutions, the department plans to introduce major improvements to the curriculum, teaching standards, and facilities for academic instruction and professional training. The Begonia Road Home for Boys and the Ma Tau Wai Home for Girls are combined trial and probation facilities for juvenile and juvenile offenders in need of legal care and protection. The Pui Chi Boys' Home helped reduce overcrowding at the Begonia Road Boys' Probation Unit. Likewise, Pui Yin Youth Home, which has been in operation since February 1986, has contributed to improving conditions in the research departments of Begonia Road Home for Boys and Ma Tau Wai Home for Girls. The Castle Peak Boys' Home serves 14- to 16-year-old boys who need longer post-conviction education, while the O Pui Shan Boys' Home has a similar facility for seven- to 14-year-old offenders.

Kwun Tong Hostel is a parole house for men aged between 16 and 21. There are long-term plans to improve housing facilities through the construction of a new girls' home in Tuen Mun and renovation of the Castle Peak Boys' Home and the Begonia Road Boys' Home.

The welfare office also runs an aftercare center that helps offenders reintegrate into society, preparing them before they leave correctional facilities and providing support after they are released. In addition to the work of social services, a number of welfare organizations also offer services to help young offenders and young people with behavioral problems reintegrate into the community.


family care and childcare


Social Security and various welfare agencies are involved in providing family services, which aim to maintain and strengthen the family unit, helping individuals and families to solve problems and prevent them from arising.

The department operates a network of 22 family service points, of which 23 are subsidized social assistance. Services offered in this program include counseling on personal and family issues; care and protection of young people under 21 years of age; Reception and reception of children up to the age of 21, daycare for children under six; Referrals for education, housing, employment, financial assistance, legal advice, medical care, domestic help, and placement in facilities for the elderly or disabled, where appropriate.

The social welfare office has a number of legal duties that result from the Protection of Women and Youth Act, the Personal Offenses Act, the Marriage Act Act, the Care of Young Persons Act and the Matrimonial Affairs Act. The department provides care and housing for those under 18 whose parents or legal guardians are not properly caring for them, and for youth under 21 who have no parents or legal guardians or who have been adopted without a court order.

Also in 1986, special attention was paid to child care. The Sha Kok Children's Home had been operating effectively for about a year as an extension of the often overcrowded Chuk Yuen Children's Reception Center run by the Department of Temporary Care for Older Children until eight. The Child Protective Services Unit provides services for children who have been physically, psychologically or sexually abused or who are suspected of being abused. The Department of Social Welfare's Adoption Department coordinates adoptions in and out of Hong Kong, the latter with support from the local branch of Social Service International. During the year there were 440 new requests, 525 local adoptions and 91 international adoptions. Through the Central Foster Care Unit, the Department of Social Welfare works closely with three subsidized welfare agencies to promote welfare services in Hong Kong. In 1986, there were a total of 160 subsidized places.

A special working group was created under the auspices of the Department of Health and Welfare to review guidelines for the provision of home care services for vulnerable children.

Nurseries are created for children under six years of age. These facilities must meet the rules of the ordinance of the day care center and are subject to registration and inspection. At the end of the year there were 26,381 vacancies in kindergartens and 795 vacancies in kindergartens. Low-income families with a social need to attend a day care center can apply to the social assistance office for assistance with session fees charged. At the end of the year, a total of 10,923 children received monthly assistance.

The Social Welfare Office operates a hotline service to deal with inquiries from the public on matters relating to the Office's services and to provide prompt telephone advice or advice when required. In 1986, 14,339 calls were received.

Social care services are also provided by medical social workers stationed in 100 medical social service units in government hospitals and clinics. During the year, they handled a total of 94,500 cases.



A wide range of family life education programs are coordinated by the welfare office. The programs aim to improve the quality of family life by promoting interpersonal relationships and social awareness, which can help prevent family crises and consequent social problems. The theme of the 1986 annual advertising campaign was "Honor Your Parents". The aim was to make the younger generation recognize and appreciate their parents' efforts in their education. In addition to the massive advertising campaign, the home education programs are organized by county social workers, with 56 home education workers from 14 subsidized welfare organizations providing the service.

care for the elderly

“Care in and by the community” remains the guiding principle for planning services for the elderly. Subsidized charities are the main providers of a wide range of community services to support seniors, with the aim of encouraging families to care for their elderly members and enabling seniors to lead independent and dignified lives. These services include domestic help, canteen service, community education, child care, and social and recreational activities. By the end of 1986, there were three outdoor recreation buses, 40 home care teams, 84 social centers, 10 multi-benefit centers, and four day care centers for the elderly. Priority is given to social housing for the elderly and families with elderly dependents.

Accommodation is also provided for those who, for health or other reasons, can no longer live alone or with their families. At the end of the year there were 6,933 places in nursing homes/dorms (of which 1,581 were non-subsidized places) and 1,470 places in nursing homes and nursing homes. Future housing provision will be significantly strengthened by the housing authority's decision to equip and operate assisted living facilities for people without disabilities and to provide facilities for the elderly and nursing homes in new public housing complexes. The government is also providing shelter for 595 elderly people who are in good health and able to lead independent lives through the purchase of 103 homes in two separate private housing developments.

Social work among young people

A wide range of services has been developed for young people under 25 years of age. The overall aim is to support and encourage young people to become mature and responsible members of society by developing their personality, character, civic responsibility, social skills and the ability to use their free time wisely.

To achieve these goals, the Social Action Office has organized a variety of programs with a particular focus on developing the potential of young people. Community centers not only provide residents with a venue for community events, but also host a variety of social services, such as: B. Day care for preschoolers and services for the elderly and disabled. After handing over management of the community centers to the municipality and the new government of the area, the department was able to allocate more resources to promote and strengthen group work activities. The children's and youth centers, which are run primarily by independent organizations under the direction of social workers, serve as focal points for a variety of indoor and outdoor character, leadership and soft skills development activities. In 1986, two children's centers and five combined centers for children and young people were opened. At the end of the year, 149 centers for children and 162 for young people were in operation – 100 of which were combined for children and young people.



The Opportunities for Young People program, managed by Social Assistance, aims to encourage young people to investigate and identify community needs and to propose and implement projects that meet those needs. During the year, youth groups received a total of $233,561 to complete approximately 87 community projects. In addition, the government provides financial support to various uniformed youth groups, which run various youth camps and hostels.

By establishing direct contact with young people in places they are accustomed to frequenting, outreach work offers an alternative approach to counseling and guidance for young people who do not normally attend youth centers or participate in organized activities. The future development of this service is being examined.

The school social action service is available to all primary and secondary schools. In elementary schools there are student counselors from the Ministry of Education who guide students and help them solve their personal problems. Social workers from the Social Welfare Office and subsidized charities visit secondary schools on certain days of the week to help students make the most of their educational opportunities and to provide advice on individual problems. During the year, a review of the provision of school social service services was completed, which recommended a number of improvements to the service.


Rehabilitation services in Hong Kong aim to integrate the disabled into society. The services provided by government agencies in this area therefore aim to enable people with disabilities to fully develop their physical, mental and social skills. Rehabilitation services provided by departments and charities are carefully coordinated by the Commissioner of Rehabilitation through an annual review of the rehabilitation program plan. The Department of Social Welfare is responsible for planning and developing a wide range of services for people with disabilities to meet their needs for general care and social rehabilitation, either through the direct provision of services or through subsidies to social assistance institutions. . The Education Unit is responsible for all aspects of education and training for school-aged children with disabilities, as well as boarding and transport services in special schools. The Department of Technical Education and Commercial Education coordinates the professional training of young people and adults with disabilities. The placement of deaf, blind, physically disabled, formerly mentally ill and mentally disabled people is the responsibility of the Selective Placement Service of the Employment Office.

The Department of Social Welfare provides services directly to the disabled, including counselling, social housing, financial assistance, technical and rehabilitation assistance, and day and residential care. It directly operates the facilities, including an integrated program in a day care center, compound club for the disabled, residential and residential homes, work activity centers and sheltered workshops. The services of the 31 subsidized agencies include (in addition to the department's services) preschool care, education and training programs, special children's day care, domestic help, transitional housing for the formerly mentally ill, special transportation systems, sports, social assistance and recreational programs, sign language interpretation services and mobility and guidance programs for the blind.

At the end of the year, the Social Action Office and the Solidarity Institutions created a total of 1,010 jobs and hosted 2,905 workshops. These institutions provide employment for disabled adults who cannot compete in the open job market.



During the year, staffing standards in the sheltered workshops in the subsidized area were raised to a level comparable to that of the departmental sheltered workshops.

Persons with disabilities who cannot be adequately cared for at home or who do not have close relatives to care for them are entitled to residential assistance. At the end of the year there were 1,041 spaces in homes for adults with intellectual disabilities, 355 spaces in homes for the physically disabled and 399 spaces in homes for the blind.

For preschool children with disabilities, subsidized agencies provided 538 places for children with mild intellectual disabilities in integrated daycare programs, 480 places for children with moderate and severe mental disabilities in 11 special day care centers, 380 places for preschool children with disabilities in seven institutions of early childhood education and education. The agencies also made 18 social clubs, two sports clubs and a fleet of 21 rehabilitation buses available for use by people with disabilities in general, while the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company launched a new travel benefits program.

Further efforts were made to improve aftercare and rehabilitation services for the mentally ill who were discharged. By the end of the year, 455 places had been made available in transitional homes. The Committee on Public Education in Rehabilitation continued its efforts to encourage more positive public attitudes toward the formerly mentally ill.

During the year, the Department of Social Welfare conducted a review of existing services for the disabled in light of the recommendations of the Policy Review on Social, Recreational and Sporting Services for the Disabled, with a view to implementing these recommendations where feasible. Both the Ministry and the charities want to increase their efforts to integrate people with disabilities into society.


The training of professional social workers is the responsibility of the two universities, the two technical colleges and the technical colleges. The secretariat of social assistance and the secretariats of social assistance support the offer of field internships for social work students in these institutions. The Department of Social Work, through its Training Department at the Lady Trench Training Centre, offers in-service training programmes, including basic social work training, staff development programmes, initial training and orientation courses for both department as well as for volunteer social workers in the welfare sector.

During the year, the Formation Sector organized a total of 179 courses, programs, seminars and workshops, against 137 in 1985. The Formation Sector also maintains a Nursery which, in addition to the nursery, serves 100 children between the ages of two and five years, between 100 and 200 years as a training center for trainees in childcare.

With the aim of providing its staff with up-to-date and specialized skills in the various areas of social work, the Department of Social Action sponsors experienced staff to attend continuing education courses or international conferences. During the year, 27 employees participated in 18 of these courses and conferences. The social work training fund and other grants also provide funds to promote continuing social work training.

research and evaluation

The research and statistics department supports the department by preparing various estimates and carrying out studies. In 1986, 11 studies were carried out to obtain statistical information for planning and reviewing social security, family and other services systems. The department also operates a standardized statistical system for offenders under the department's care.



The Department's Evaluation Division is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the services provided by subsidized assistance institutions. For this purpose, department employees regularly visit these offices and these, in turn, are required to periodically submit service statistics to the department. When appropriate, results are presented to the Subsidies and Lottery Funds Advisory Committee, which advises on the allocation of subsidies. During the year, the department conducted eight in-depth evaluations of individual grantee agency service programs.

community house

“Community Building” serves to promote a sense of belonging, mutual care and civic responsibility among the people of Hong Kong as society undergoes rapid socio-economic changes. Community building efforts include providing purpose-built facilities for group and community activities, forming civic organizations, and promoting community participation in managing public affairs, solving community problems, promoting social stability, and improvement of the community's quality of life.

Various government agencies and voluntary organizations contribute to the community education program, which is overseen and coordinated by the Community Education Policy Committee. The main responsibilities of this program are the Municipal and New Territories Governments and the Social Action Office. The former implements the specific objectives of community building through a network of district offices and is primarily concerned with promoting mutual care and community spirit through local organizations such as area committees, mutual aid committees, land committees , Kaifong charities, women's organizations and local arts and sports clubs.

Social Security is responsible for various aspects of group and community work, with a view to promoting individual and group development and encouraging a sense of community responsibility. Community centers, operated by the City and New Territories Administration or voluntary organizations, are established throughout the area to serve as community outreach centers.

Central Youth Committee

In May 1986, given the rapid expansion of youth activities in recent years and following the celebration of the International Youth Year in 1985, the Government created a Central Committee for Youth. The committee's objectives include: identifying the needs and aspirations of youth in Hong Kong, publicizing and supporting organizations concerned with promoting youth development and strengthening youth participation in community affairs, and exploring the need for a comprehensive youth policy.

Committee for the Advancement of Civic Education

The importance of promoting civic education in Hong Kong, particularly in light of the development of the government system, was highlighted in the White Paper "The Advancement of Representative Government in Hong Kong" published in 1984 - A departmental committee was created within the government to consider what measures would be taken to promote citizenship education outside the education system, while the department of education was responsible for citizenship education in schools.



In order to create a focus for the promotion of citizenship education outside of schools, the government decided to create a new commission composed of non-official representatives and representatives of different ministries. The Committee to Advance Civic Education, created in May 1986, aims to advise government and community organizations on the goals and scope of civic education and to promote civic education by encouraging community initiatives at large.

As part of its efforts to encourage active community participation, the Committee provided financial support to community organizations to implement large-scale citizenship education projects.




Housing remains a priority for the government, which in 1986 devoted about a third of its total annual capital expenditures to the development of public housing.


Currently, 2.6 million people – or about 47% of the population – live in rented and owner-occupied public housing.

The Housing Authority maintained a high level of production throughout the year and added 37,100 new homes to the public housing stock. This is the seventh consecutive year that the agency's annual production target of 35,000 homes has been exceeded.

The greater emphasis on design has provided tenants with a better living environment, with new developments offering housing in a pleasant garden environment, which also houses schools, shopping centres, social and leisure facilities and good transport infrastructure.

Thousands of other families who have moved or will move into the modern homes with a full range of amenities that were built as part of the agency's redevelopment programs are also benefiting.

The Home Ownership Scheme (HOS) and Private Sector Participation Scheme (PSPS) offer lower-middle-income families the opportunity to buy their own homes at lower prices than comparable units on the open market. During the year, 9,600 units were offered for sale under both programs, totaling 79,400 units.

The Hong Kong Housing Society complements, to a lesser extent, the Housing Authority's contribution to public housing and also implements urban regeneration programmes. The Society began work on its second rural public housing program and implemented a HOS-like home sales program.

In the private sector, 37,140 units were completed in 1986, an increase of 7,140 over 1985 production, representing a welcome addition to the private housing stock.

housing authority

Established under the Housing Ordinance, the Hong Kong Housing Authority is a statutory body responsible for coordinating all aspects of public housing. It advises the governor on all matters of public housing policy and, through its executive arm, the Department of Housing, designs and builds public housing developments for various groups of people designated by the agency with the consent of the governor. He also manages public housing developments, cottage areas, temporary housing areas and transit centers throughout the area, clears land for development, prevents and controls occupations, and plans and coordinates improvements in occupied areas. On behalf of the government, it designs, builds and manages the housing provided under the own housing regime. works like a government



government agent in real estate development and housing construction for the HOS and also nominates buyers for housing built under the PSPS.

The agency meets quarterly, chaired by the Minister of Housing, to review the work of six standing committees responsible for dealing with finance, buildings, property management, home ownership, operations and resources. In addition, there are three special committees responsible for reviewing domestic rent policies and housing subsidies for social housing tenants and ensuring the smooth implementation of the extended refurbishment program. The board is made up of 18 members representing a broad spectrum of the community and six members from government agencies directly involved in housing issues. All members are appointed by the governor. There are also 19 co-opted members who sit on one or more committees. Many of the agency's members also serve the community as legislative councils, city councils, regional councils, or as members of Heung Yee Kuk, district committees, and mutual aid committees. Together they have a wide range of experience and representation and are able to take a critical and conscientious perspective in shaping public housing policy.

The Housing Authority is responsible for its own finances and administration. Equity funding for the public housing program is provided by the government based on a four-year expenditure forecast, which is updated annually. The government subsidizes the program by providing free land for rent and housing projects and loans from the Development Loan Fund to finance the construction of rental communities. The home ownership scheme is funded by the government, which recovers its expenses from the sale of homes.

For the construction of the domestic part of public rental housing developments, the authority receives loans from the Promotional Loan Fund. Loans are repayable over 40 years at an annual interest rate of five percent with a regressive balance. However, to ease the agency's liquidity burden, the government does not require that interest be paid in cash. However, the interest burden must be fully accounted for along with the value of land provided free of charge on the agency's balance sheet as part of the government's contribution to social housing. As of March 31, the government's contribution totaled US$27,210.8 million, including US$23,475.3 million for free land and US$1,843.2 million for lost interest, among other subsidies. Furthermore, the 40-year repayment period for loans means that the state recovers only a fraction of the loans' true value, given the declining value of money over time.

In the 1985-86 fiscal year, recurring expenses for the Housing Authority's domestic rental properties - primarily administrative and maintenance expenses - totaled $2,061.2 million, while income from home rentals was $1,940.8 million , resulting in a deficit of US$120.4 million. This deficit arose because the low rents of the old settlements were not enough to cover administrative costs and the high costs of maintenance and renovation. The agency made up this shortfall with revenue from its commercial properties, which generated $1,097 million versus $540.3 million in expenses for the same period. Surplus funds are used to fund the public housing program.

The agency spent $2,438 million on its capital programs, of which $1,466.5 million was funded by the government (mostly concessional loans) with the remainder of agency funds. In addition, the agency, which represents the government, spent $653.8 million building homes for sale under the home ownership program.




For the seventh straight year, the agency has reached its annual production goal of 35,000 homes. The construction program is now firmly focused on producing 228,400 homes over the next five years, including 171,800 public rental homes, 32,000 condominium homes and 24,600 homes to be built under the private sector participation program.

During the year, 30 construction contracts were awarded totaling US$3,460 million. New housing sites have been identified which, along with sites already allocated for the housing program, will ensure that current levels of housing production are sustained well beyond 1990.

Since the introduction of 'mechanized' construction methods in 1985, construction quality has improved significantly and 'mechanization' is becoming increasingly popular with local contractors. To maintain this momentum, a "Large Slab Formwork Program" was introduced. This allows contractors to continue using equipment purchased under the "Mechanized Build" program. To further improve standards, stricter quality control measures were introduced during the year. This included establishing a materials testing laboratory within the housing department to carry out materials testing on construction sites.

The CADD (Computer Aided Drafting and Design) system installed at Housing Authority headquarters a year ago has improved efficiency in planning housing projects, and efforts to expand the system are underway.

own house scheme

The Home Ownership Scheme (HOS) is managed by the Housing Authority with government funds to provide affordable housing for sale in the private sector to municipal renters and middle-income families. Since the Phase 1 sales exercise began in 1978, a total of 77,175 homes built under the HOS and the associated Private Sector Participation Program (PSPS) have been sold to eligible families. Around 42% of these families were social housing tenants who, while not subject to income or ownership restrictions, had to sell their homes to families with greater social housing needs. Another 2% of these families were potential renters of public housing, residents of shelters and shacks, candidates on waiting lists, families displaced by the release of land for construction and victims of natural disasters.

These families, along with social housing tenants, received “Green Form” priority status for the purchase of HOS housing. Successful applicants in this category must renounce their right of residence. For private sector applicants, the upper household income threshold has been raised from $7,500 to $8,500 per month to keep these households within reach of the target audience.

Enhanced mortgage regulations for prospective HOS homebuyers were also revised during the year. Financial institutions are now prepared to extend the maximum mortgage payment period from 15 to 20 years and the maximum loan amount from 90 to 95% of the fixed rate for Green Form applicants.

During the year, two sales were made for a total of 9,588 apartments. The first sale (phase 8B) took place in May, when 3,718 HOS apartments and 2,180 PSPS apartments were offered. Prices for HOS apartments ranged from $154,600 for a 43 square meter apartment (gross area) in Lung Poon Court, Diamond Hill, to $353,300 for a 58 square meter apartment in Po Lai Court, Sham Shui Po. PSPS apartment prices ranged from $250,100 for a 48 square foot apartment to $443,700 for a 67 square foot apartment, all at Kornhill in Quarry Bay.



The second sale (Phase 8C) took place in September and consisted of 1,680 HOS apartments in Hong Wah Court, Lam Tin and 2,010 PSPS apartments in Chevalier Garden, Ma On Shan. Prices for HOS apartments ranged from $154,400 for a 44-square-foot apartment to $286,800 for a 53-square-foot apartment. Prices for PSPS apartments ranged from $142,300 to $274,200, with sizes ranging from 45 to 63 square meters.

Urban life

On Hong Kong Island, extensive site formation work is taking place in Siu Sai Wan and Kellet Bay. Another site has been identified in Shau Kei Wan and cleanup will take place in stages between 1992 and 1996. Upon completion, these sites will offer 13,000 rental apartments and 2,000 condominiums. Other sites that are being actively considered for inclusion in the public housing program are Lei Yue Mun Barracks and Aldrich Bay.

Work has been completed on Phase I of the Lei Tung Estate at Ap Lei Chau, comprising 4,292 rental apartments, while construction of Phase II, comprising 3,248 rental apartments and 1,960 Yue On Court condominiums, is nearing completion. Pile driving has been completed at Chai Wan and construction work has commenced at the Chai Wan D site.

Site formation work for Lam Tin South is underway in East Kowloon. The land is one of the largest in the metropolitan area and, when completed between 1991 and 1992, will offer 5,880 apartments for lease and 1,400 condominiums.

Another great property in Kowloon is Chuk Yuen. The first three phases of settlement construction were completed during the year, the remaining two phases will be completed in 1987 and 1988. When fully completed, the agreement will offer 12,700 apartments for rent. Near Central Kowloon, two major residential developments were completed during the year, Tin Ma Court in Ma Chai Hang and Phases I and II of Lung Poon Court in Diamond Hill, totaling 6,140 apartments.

Living in new cities and rural communities

In Yuen Long, 3,346 rental apartments have been completed in Phase I of the Long Ping Estate and another 3,164 apartments will soon be completed in Phase II.

In the Tsuen Wan/Tsing Yi area, 1,620 rental apartments in Area 1 of Tsing Yi Phase I and 1,996 rental apartments in Phase V of Cheung Hong Estate have been completed. The Cheung Fat Estate Phase III staking contract was awarded during the year and construction of Cheung On Estate Phase II has begun.

In Sha Tin, Phase I of the Hin Keng Estate containing 3,230 rental units was completed and the remaining phases consisting of 2,640 rental units and 1,680 condominium units will be completed between 1987 and 1988. Upon completion of the Hin Keng Estate, most of new developments in Sha Tin will take place in Ma On Shan. The first housing development in this new area is Heng On. Phase I with 2,670 rental apartments was completed during the year. The construction of the other phases is in full swing. Together with Yiu On Estate, these two settlements will provide 10,700 rental apartments and 2,100 condominiums between 1987 and 1988.

In Tai Po, 2,404 rental apartments have been completed in Phases II and III of the Fu Shin Estate. Construction of the Tai Wo Estate has begun on a site straddling the Kowloon-Canton railway line. This property will be completed between 1988 and 1989 and will provide 9,380 rental homes and a large commercial center for the area.

In Junk Bay, construction work on the Po Lam Estate is well advanced and Phases I and II, totaling 2,488 apartments, will be completed in early 1987.



On the outlying islands, the housing authority has started construction on 420 apartments at Mui Wo on Lantau and has finalized floor plans for the rental community development on Lantau and Cheung Chau. The Housing Society has completed a rural housing development in Tui Min Hoi, Sai Kung and has begun building another across the border in Sha Tau Kok.


From 1954 to 1964, 12 Marcos I/II subdivisions were built, comprising 240 blocks, to house victims of natural disasters and unoccupied squatters in development areas. As these settlements only offered accommodation with basic amenities, a rehabilitation program was launched in 1972 to improve the living environment for some 84,000 families in these settlements. In 1983 the Housing Authority decided to accelerate the redevelopment program with the aim that all families living in the remaining Mark I/II blocks would be resettled in 1990-1. Under this program, 6,000 families would be resettled each year. Families looking to improve their living conditions before the planned renovation will have the opportunity to move into new homes in new cities in the New Territories.

During the year, a further 28 Mark I/II blocks in Lei Cheng Uk, Lower Wong Tai Sin, Tung Tau, Wang Tau Hom and Kwun Tong (Tsui Ping Road) settlements were demolished to make way for construction of new blocks. The remaining 93 blocks will be demolished and rebuilt in 1990-1.

The authority continued its expanded rehabilitation program with an additional 26 settlement blocks where concrete condition was deemed unsatisfactory. Around 15,000 families affected by this program will have to be relocated to new homes in other public housing developments by the end of the decade.

A new department was established to plan, coordinate and oversee the remediation program. Additional sites were identified to allow new homes to be completed in time to accommodate program-affected families. Four of these additional lots were contracted during the year and a total of 4,160 homes will be completed on these lots by the end of 1988. Phase I redevelopment is underway on the Kwai Fong Estate and the 905 new homes in this phase will be completed by mid-1987 A total of 4,850 rental apartments have been completed in Phase 2B of Tung Tau Estate, Phase III of Kwun Tong (Tsui Ping Road) Estate, Phase III of Wan Tsui Estate, Phase VII of Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate, Phase III of Lei Cheng Uk Estate and Phase IVB of Tung Tau Estate, while construction work has commenced on Phase II of Lei Cheng Uk Estate and Phase III of Tai Wo Hau Estate under the normal redevelopment programme.


The Housing Authority has one of the largest public housing stocks in the world, comprising 550,000 rental units in 119 housing developments. These apartments vary in size, amenities and rental levels to meet the diverse needs of families in need of social housing.

During the year, 25,161 new homes and 9,006 vacant units were leased to the various categories of eligible applicants. Candidates on the waiting list made up the largest proportion (36 percent), followed by families affected by the planning permission (15 percent) and tenants involved in the refurbishment and extended refurbishment of the Mark I and II blocks (27 percent). The remaining apartments were occupied by young civil servants, victims of fires and natural disasters, residents of huts and other buildings in dangerous locations, as well as cases of penury recommended by social assistance.




The information on the waiting list and allocation of apartments was supported by EDP. Information on nearly three million applicants and tenants is stored in the Housing Application and Rent Management Information System. Computerization allows the effective execution of housing allocations and double checks, providing useful statistical information for management.

The 12,261 apartments allocated to waiting list candidates during the year were mainly located in Tai Po, Fanling, Sha Tin and Yuen Long. The waiting period ranged from six years for properties in Sha Tin to three years for those in Yuen Long.

Applications from families with two or more members were considered in the order of registration and according to the choice of districts indicated by the applicants. Housing was offered to those deemed eligible based on family income and other reasons. Income thresholds were established taking into account average household expenses plus rent for independent living in the private sector. Currently, income limits range from $4,200 for a family of two to $7,400 for a family of 10 or more. The number of active applications was 165,997 at the end of the year.

Since the establishment of the individual waiting list in 1985, the number of requests from persons alive at the end of the year has been 16,000. The current income limit for them is $2900. The Housing Authority gives priority to elderly couples or single elderly people applying for social housing in groups of two or more within two years. To date, 3,969 apartments have been assigned to this category. In 1982, the agency approved an incentive program whereby families with older members received housing one year before their normal waiting period, and approximately 1,000 families benefited from this program each year. In 1986, the Housing Authority introduced an assisted living program for able-bodied seniors, for whom emergency caregiver service was provided. The first 138 units will be available in March 1987 at Heng On Estate, Ma On Shan, Sha Tin. Allocation is made to applicants who have reached the age of 60 and are eligible for mandatory reassignment categories, as well as eligible applicants from the Single Adult Waiting List and the Seniors System Priority Waiting List.

Lease policy for social housing

Rents for residential space in public housing developments have been kept at a low level despite rising operating and maintenance costs. This was possible thanks to high government subsidies.

Leases are reviewed and adjusted every two years to reflect price increases, maintenance and other costs; Property values ​​in terms of location, facilities and services provided and tenant solvency. On average, social housing tenants pay seven percent of their income as rent. This is extremely low compared to 19% for the private sector. Due to very low rents on old properties, where maintenance and improvement costs are high, there was a significant shortfall in the Housing Authority's property management account for residential properties in 1985-6.

Rents for newer developments are pegged at a more realistic level of $21.2 per square foot for urban developments, with downward adjustments for those in new cities to reflect differences in property values. These rent levels represent about a third of current market rents and are estimated to represent 13 to 15 percent of potential tenants' total household income. In 1985, a committee was created to review the agency's domestic rental policy. Its recommendations were generally consistent with existing agency guidelines adopted since 1977, and no major changes were proposed. The only new suggestion was

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that the average rent-to-income ratio for new public housing developments must not exceed 15 percent by current standards.

Around 637 social rooms in settlements are rented at preferential rents. These include children's and youth centres, kindergartens, social and community facilities, libraries, study halls, wellness clinics, workshops for the disabled, residences and centers for the mentally or physically disabled. Nursing homes are leased to voluntary organizations at normal household rents. During the year, 65 social leases were carried out. In order to maintain a balanced base of tenants in social housing, a total of 489 buildings were leased for educational purposes such as kindergartens, primary and secondary schools. In most cases, office space is provided in apartment blocks for Kaifong and neighborhood associations and mutual aid committees. Doctors' offices and facilities for various government agencies are generally leased under commercial leases.

Commercial real estate rental

The Housing Authority also owns 22,757 commercial establishments, including shops, market stalls, banks and restaurants, on its various properties, and the total rental income generated in 1985-6 was $1,097 million. In March 1986, a new Housing Authority Commercial Property Division was created to deal with all matters relating to the Authority's commercial properties, design research, valuation, marketing and rentals, sales promotion and rental management.

Ordinary stores and market stalls were leased through lease tenders, allowing small operators with limited capital to obtain a lease typically for three years. However, some large stores and chain stores are leased through negotiations, which induces some well-known companies to set up shop in the agency's malls. It is agency policy not to subsidize commercial operators and to maintain rents for commercial space at or near market levels. The level of market rents remained relatively stable throughout the year in most commercial spaces. However, in cases where rent increases for branch premises were significant due to higher market values, the increases were applied every two or three years. There have also been cases where rents have been reduced at the time of contract renewal to reflect prevailing market trends.

Stores covered by the extended refurbishment program receive special attention. Facility leases are reviewed every six months. Premium payments of 15 months' rent are awarded to tenants who need to vacate their business. In addition, tenants have a very wide range of alternative commercial spaces, which they can acquire as subsequent tenants in the context of collective bidding. A three-month lease waiver period is granted for new leases purchased in this way.

The agency also manages 18,130 factory apartments in 35 blocks.


Agency staff continued to maintain close contact with district councils and mutual aid committees, as well as local interest groups, participating in their community meetings and activities. Close contacts were also maintained with tenants through home visits by real estate agents.

To ensure that social housing is offered to the most deserving families, some policy changes have been made, including introducing new criteria to alleviate overcrowding and voluntary movement, and ending the automatic inheritance of a social housing lease.



The Housing Ordinance authorizes the agency to impose road restrictions in settlements and charge fees for impounding and removing vehicles illegally parked in settlements. Owners or drivers of infringing cars can also be prosecuted under the provisions of the Housing (Transit) Act. These arrangements make it possible to keep access roads in residential areas free of illegal parking and traffic obstructions, thus improving the living environment.

The 'door-to-door' rent collection system, which allows for regular face-to-face contact between property staff and tenants or their family members, is recognized by the Authority as a very useful method of promoting good landlord-tenant relations. This method of rent collection is used in all new social housing, where this direct contact helps tenants adapt quickly to a new environment.

The property management team continued to crack down on illegal sales activities in public housing developments. A special team of 100 operations was able to better control the black spots of street vendors, including those on the estates of Wong Tai Sin, Kwai Chung, Kwai Fong, Cheung Hong, Cheung Ching and Kwai Shing East.

temporary accommodation

At the end of the year, 119,236 people lived in 51 Temporary Housing Areas (ATS) with a total capacity of 133,456 people. Around eight new THAs were built, creating 14,000 spaces for those not yet entitled to social housing. These new THAS consist of fully built structures with electrical installations, individual water supply and kitchen/bathrooms. In addition, the development of 21 new temporary residential areas is underway. On the other hand, 16,360 people were lost, mainly due to development evictions from THA sites.

Other improved facilities have been provided in THAS. Since the beginning of 1985, individual housing units for single people have been gradually implemented to replace hostel accommodation for these people. Existing fire extinguishing systems were supplemented with hose reels and safety mats for playground equipment. An individually metered water supply was provided for 25 older THAs and this installation provided greater convenience for tenants, reducing water usage and costs.

During the year, 18,606 THA residents moved into permanent council housing, 5,400 through eviction and 13,208 through drag (an exercise conducted on the basis of voluntary application), waiting lists and applications for HOS housing. Meanwhile, 19,970 people have moved to THAS due to evictions and natural disasters. Small units in existing THAs and some spaces in new THAs have been reserved for overcrowded households. In all, 540 families were benefited during the year.

transit center

There are nine transit centers in the area to provide immediate shelter to people displaced by natural disasters. After a short stay, they are assigned permanent or temporary social housing, depending on their rights. The total capacity of these centers is over 5,100, with the largest center in Tuen Mun accommodating 3,500.

country house areas

During the year, the Chai Wan and Shui Ngau Ling foundry areas were cleared to make way for new developments. As a result, the number of foundry areas has been reduced to eight and its population to 11,758. During the year, a project was completed to introduce an individual water supply with a water meter for all areas of the villas.


invasion control


The Housing Department's Occupancy Control Division operates a system of daily patrols to deter new occupants. Full control of the squat was maintained. Extortion in the form of building huts for sale was effectively suppressed. In 1986, 13,700 illegal buildings or extensions were demolished. The results of a favela occupation survey completed in September 1985 were computerized for planning and control purposes. This survey has now become an additional eligibility criterion for housing occupants. This additional requirement will prevent unscrupulous squatters from queuing up for public housing.

The number of squatters moving into permanent social housing through the general waiting list increased during the year, with 2,400 families successfully obtaining rental housing. Other attackers are encouraged to add their names to the list.

Improvement of occupied areas

Since the establishment of the Occupancy Area Improvement Division in 1982, a total of 38 improvement projects in squatter settlements in the city area have been implemented, including Tsuen Wan, and 17 more are being implemented. Efforts continued throughout 1986 to develop settlements of over 500 residents that remain unoccupied for three years. In addition to the safety and environmental improvements usually made to occupied areas, an intensified program was launched to install 600 light poles in 40 smaller occupied areas. A total of 285 public lighting poles installed in other areas occupied by District Councils were taken over by the Department of Management and Maintenance.

A pilot project to improve occupied areas in the New Territories began. The result will be examined to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of expanding the squatter improvement program into the New Territories.


During the year, 470 hectares of land were cleared for development. This resulted in 19,400 people being accommodated permanently and 17,200 temporarily. About 1,530 industrial, commercial and agricultural companies affected by evictions received goodwill credits. A total of 4,600 people made homeless by fires and landslides were given permanent or temporary accommodation.

Management of Buildings in Private Condominiums Privately owned buildings make up more than half of the territory's housing stock and are home to around half of the population. Most of these buildings are skyscrapers maintained by multiple owners who may or may not be residents of the building.

The nature of ownership of these buildings, along with other factors, has led over the years to a situation where the management of some private properties has deteriorated.

While the management of privately owned buildings is the responsibility of the property owner, the consequences of consistent neglect are of great importance to the government.

The government is therefore taking steps to support private administrators to encourage a more effective self-help process between landlords and tenants. The nature of this support is both legislative and administrative.

Work is underway to amend the Apartment Building Ordinance to facilitate the creation of proprietary companies. These bodies act in the interest of




individual owners of their rights, powers, duties and responsibilities in relation to the jointly owned parts of a building. Although the existence of a community of owners is no guarantee of good management of a building, experience shows that management standards in buildings with communities of owners are generally better than in cases where there is no comparable management body.

There will also be other changes related to management standards and procedures. These clauses more clearly define the powers and responsibilities of the Company's Management Committee.

In addition to the proposed amendments, reciprocal agreements resulting from new non-profit leases granted from February 1986 were to include a series of clauses aimed at improving the management of common areas of a building.

Administrative measures to improve the management of private buildings mainly consist of the creation of building management teams in four districts so far. These teams of professional housing managers and assistants, along with district office liaison officers, advise homeowners' associations, support committees and other building management bodies at district level.

The teams play an important role in promoting the formation of proprietary companies and in advising management committee members. Through seminars and focus groups, they also work to raise public awareness of building management issues.

Private sector rent control

Legal control of rents and rent guarantees in Hong Kong dates back to 1921. The current legislation governing these matters is the Landlord and Tenant Reconciliation Act.

The legislation is constantly being revised to improve its functioning and achieve the goal recommended by a review committee in 1981 and endorsed by the government that rent controls should be removed as soon as circumstances allow.

Currently, statutory controls only apply to residential spaces in the private sector, unless otherwise excluded. Tenants are given control of rent increases and rent security. Unless a tenant voluntarily vacates the premises, the landlord must, for certain reasons, apply for and obtain a Land Court order before regaining possession.

There are severe penalties for harassing a protected tenant with the intent to get them to move out. However, there are provisions to facilitate negotiations whereby the parties can reach an agreement whereby the tenant waives his secured tenancy in exchange for consideration. The Rating and Valuation Department publishes explanatory booklets to help people understand their position on the legislation and offers an advisory and mediation service to resolve the many practical problems that rent control raises. It also operates a program whereby rental agents visit district offices on designated days each week to process escalated cases and answer questions about landlord and tenant issues.

pre-war facilities

Laws to control pre-war rents and secure property were enacted immediately after World War II and enshrined in the Landlords and Tenants Ordinance 1947, which has since been re-enacted as Part I of the Landlords and Tenants Ordinance (Consolidation).


Part I used to apply to both residential and commercial premises, but as of July 1, 1984, it only applied to residential premises. Limits rents with reference to pre-war levels



(regular rent). New or substantially rebuilt buildings are exempt from Part I inspections.

Rent increases have been allowed annually in recent years, most recently in July 1986, when the law was amended to provide allowable rents at 30 times (previously 27 times) the standard rent (i.e., the rent payable for unfurnished premises) in or until December 25, 1941). However, the permitted rent may not, under any circumstances, exceed the normal market rent. The Classification and Appraisal Commissioner has the authority to certify standard rent and market rent.

The legislation provides for the exclusion of land for rehabilitation purposes and the property is generally subject to the payment of compensation to protected tenants. Part I jurisdiction is exercised by the Lands Tribunal, while technical functions are performed by the Commissioner of Classification and Assessment.

post war construction

Comprehensive rent control laws for post-war residential buildings have been in effect in one form or another since 1963 - with the exception of the period between 1966 and 1970 - and are now enshrined in Part II of the Landlord and Tenant Regulations (Consolidation) .

Part II, which provides rent guarantees and governs rent increases, now covers most leases and subleases in postwar residential buildings that were completed or substantially refurbished after August 16, 1945. However, it does not apply leases on buildings first certified for occupancy after June 18, 1981, new leases created on or after June 10, 1983, or leases on premises with a taxable value of $30,000 or more on June 10, 1983.

Under Part II, landlords and tenants are free to agree rent increases, but such agreements must be approved by the Classification and Valuation Commissioner. Except by agreement, increases are allowed only every two years. If no increase is agreed, the landlord can ask the representative for a certificate indicating how much increase in the current rent can be made. As of December 19, 1986, the allowable increase is the lesser of (i) the difference between the applicable market rent and the current rent or (ii) 30% of the current rent. However, if the increase so determined, together with the current rent, results in a rent less than 60 per cent of the current market rent, the permissible increase is an amount necessary to bring the current rent to 60 per cent of the market rent. Both landlord and tenant are free to ask the Commissioner for a review of their certificate and to appeal the Commissioner's review to the Land Court.

For domestic tenancies outside these controls, Part IV of the Landlord and Tenant Regulations (Consolidation Regulations) provides a degree of rent guarantee for a permanent tenant who wishes to renew its lease and is willing to pay market rent upon renewal. However, Part IV does not provide for rent control. Under these provisions, a new lease must be granted, unless the landlord proves to the district court that he needs the property for his own use or intends to renovate the property, or for any of the other reasons provided for by law. The parties are free to agree on the rent and terms of the new contract, but if no agreement is reached, they can appeal to the Land Court for a decision.

The Part IV system is intended to be a permanent structure governing landlord-tenant relationships for nearly all domestic tenancies not subject to Part I or Part II controls. In addition, there are provisions that allow leases to be transferred from the scope of Part II to Part IV under certain legal conditions.


Land, public works and public services

The main objectives of the Government's Land and Works Policy are to ensure an adequate supply of land to meet the needs of the public and private sectors, to optimize land use within the framework of zoning plans and development plans, and to ensure coordinated physical development in infrastructure and buildings.

To better respond to district needs, balance workloads, and streamline the roles and responsibilities of affected departments, a major reorganization of country and departmental operating groups was undertaken during the year.

The main features of the restructuring were:

- Merger of the Property Regulation Office of the Real Estate Development Directorate with the Real Estate Directorate to form the new Buildings and Real Estate Directorate. Real estate and real estate development matters are now grouped under a single department.

The transformation of the architectural office from the building development department into an independent architectural services department in order to meet the growing demand for architectural services.

The merger of the Urban Area Development Organization of the Department of Land and Works of the Secretariat of Government with the New Area Development Department to form a new Area Development Department. This allows for more effective control of the public works program and district planning across the area, as well as more efficient use of human resources.

The conversion of the Department of Highways from the Department of Engineering Development into an independent Department of Highways, reporting to the Secretary of Transport for the implementation of transport policy and the Highway Development Program. The Department of Highways reports to the Secretary of Lands and Works for construction policy, building standards, contracting procedures, and coordination of public works programs.

- The reorganization of the civil engineering department into a new civil engineering department with responsibilities for civil engineering works, geotechnical control and railway development.

Overall responsibility for land policy, public works and private urbanization remains with the Minister of Land and Works, who heads a department that also oversees the performance of the five reorganized departments mentioned above, the Department of Water Supply and the Department of Electric Services. and Mechanics. The Minister of Lands and Works chairs the Urbanism Commission and also the Development Progress Commission, which is responsible, among other things, for



review and approve detailed planning documents and layouts for development areas in accordance with the planning standards established by the Land Development Policy Committee.

The Land Development Policy Committee, chaired by the Chief Secretary, is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the Territory's physical development and for approving, in principle, all major proposals affecting development or proposed land use. The Land and Buildings Advisory Committee, with the President and eight members from the private sector, advises the government on a variety of issues, including the adequacy of the land development program and policies and procedures related to the land, building and construction industry.

The Sino-British Land Commission met regularly in 1986 to discuss issues arising from the implementation of the Land Lease Agreement set out in Appendix III of the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Future of Hong Kong. Important issues considered were updating the average land production cost and creating and monitoring the deforestation program.

Land allocations and leases are now being made in accordance with the terms set out in the Joint Declaration. The total amount of new land to be granted is limited to 50 hectares per year (excluding land to be granted to the Hong Kong Housing Authority for public rental housing), although the Land Commission may increase this limit. Premium income from land transactions will be divided equally between the Hong Kong SAR Government and the future Hong Kong SAR Government, after deducting the average cost of land production.

In 1986-87 public works appropriations totaled $5,425 million - about 14% of total government spending in 1986-87. Most of it, US$ 2,814 million, was allocated to the development of new cities. Approximately $453 million was spent on civil engineering projects, $724 million on highway projects, $515 million on waterworks, and $918 million on buildings. In addition, US$ 1,200 million was allocated for the purchase of leased land for the projects in question.

With a view to strategic planning in a wider territorial context, follow-up work continued in 1986 on the first results of the 1984 Territorial Development Strategy studies. This included feasibility studies for planning and engineering the 'common component' of development areas potential around Victoria Harbor and updating Hong Kong's long-term urban growth strategy. The Port Development Strategy Study was also concluded during the year. The results and recommendations of the above studies will be applied in the detailed feasibility studies of various port rehabilitation projects to create a framework for carrying out the necessary works.

state administration

The State Management Office of the Department of Construction and Land coordinates all aspects of land management across the territory. In addition to its headquarters, the ministry has 12 district offices: two on Hong Kong Island, two in Kowloon and eight in the New Territories. District land officers are responsible for most aspects of land administration and disposition, while headquarters formulate state policy and provide guidance on more complex matters.

land offer

All land in Hong Kong is owned by the government, which sells shares or grants lease rights. Leases initially had terms of 75, 99 or 999 years, later standardized



the urban areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon for a period of 75 years, renewable at a revalued annual rent in accordance with the provisions of the Crown Leases Ordinance. Land leases in the New Territories and New Kowloon were normally sold for the remainder of a term of 99 years minus three days from 1 July 1898.

According to Annex III of the Sino-British Joint Declaration, normal land grants will now be granted throughout the territory for terms expiring until 30 June 2047. They will benefit from a premium and nominal lease until 30 June 2047. 1997, the date from which an annual rent of three percent of the taxable value of the property will apply, subsequently adjusted to the evolution of the taxable value. Leases ending in 1997, with the exception of short-term and special leases, may be extended up to 2,047 without payment of an additional premium, in accordance with the provisions of Annex III of the Joint Declaration. As with the new rents, an annual rent of three percent of the appraised value will be charged.

The first priority in terms of land supply is to make enough land available for government development programs, including the public housing program. Land for the Hong Kong Housing Authority's public rental developments is provided free of charge by the government, as is land for the residential part of the Housing Authority's Home Ownership Scheme. Land for the rental developments being developed by the Hong Kong Housing Society, a not-for-profit organization with similar goals to the Housing Authority, will be provided on preferential terms. Land is also given through private contracts at no premium or nominal to non-profit charities that operate schools, hospitals, and social welfare and other community services in accordance with government policy.

Most of the land available for private sector commercial, industrial or residential development is sold through auctions or public tenders. The formulation of general targets for land production takes place under the leadership of the Consultative Council on Land and Buildings. Regular auctions are held by the government and a preliminary six-month land sales forecast is published. In contrast, in the New Territories, where much of the land needed for development needs to be restored, a large proportion of the land is being auctioned. Since 1984, holders of land exchange permits have been able to bid for New Territories sites by offering to hand over these permits in lieu of cash.

Leases for certain special purposes that have special location requirements or other factors that would make a public auction inappropriate are also publicly offered. These special purposes include capital-intensive industries that introduce high technology that cannot be adequately accommodated in more conventional, multistory, low-rise factory buildings. Such sales will only be initiated upon formal request and may, under certain circumstances, be completed by means of a private contract.

land acquisition

When the private property needed to carry out public works cannot be acquired through negotiation, the use of coercive powers becomes necessary. The property can then be acquired pursuant to the Crown Land Retake Decree, the Land Acquisition Decree (Possessory Title), the Mass Transit Railroad Decree (Land Retake and Related Provisions), or through the Roads Decree (Works, Use and Compensation) Land used for road projects is required. These ordinances provide for the payment of compensation based on the value of the property affected at the time of the recurrence. If agreement cannot be reached on the amount to be paid, either party may submit the claim to the Land Court for determination.



Development in the New Territories is governed by a system of voluntary payments, with increasing rates paid for land within the new urban development areas and progressively reduced rates paid for land outside these areas. In the case of building land, a premium payment is offered in addition to legal compensation.

The need for development land continued to increase, and in 1986 approximately 1.2 million square feet of private land was acquired in the New Territories for the completion of various public works projects. These projects included the gradual development of Junk Bay New Town, the retaking of the land block for Tin Shui Wai development, the reconstruction of the old city center on Tsing Yi Island, the development of Kwai Chung Container Terminal No. the development of rural public housing in Sha Tau Kok. The total land acquisition and clearance costs for these projects were approximately $1,200 million.

About US$10 million was paid in urban areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon in compensation for land and buildings acquired during the year through foreclosure or settlement. Projects involved included the Eastern Harbor Crossing, the Princess Margaret Flyover and the Eastern Corridor Stage III on Hong Kong Island.

state office

The Land Registry Ordinance provides for the registration of all deeds affecting land with the Land Office, a division of the Chancellor General's Department. The inscription is made through a memorial with the essential data of the instrument, which are later placed in a tab related to the property. Tabs are also maintained for individual installations such as apartments, shops, commercial and industrial premises. The tabs therefore provide a complete ownership picture of each property since granting the state lease and are available for the public to search in photocopy form for a small fee. Memorials and a full copy of each recorded instrument are preserved and made available to the public on microfilm, again for a fee.

The regulation of the land register also provides that all documents entered therein have priority after the respective date of entry. This provision will apply unless they are registered within one month of execution, in which case priority will be based on the instrument date. In the case of precatories and judicial pending matters, priority begins on the day following the actual registration. The regulation further provides that unregistered instruments, other than bona fide leases for a lease of three years or less, are null and void with respect to any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for reasonable consideration. Registration is therefore essential for the protection of property, but it does not guarantee it.

Records of transactions involving land in Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon, New Kowloon and certain urban areas of the New Territories are retained at the Land Office, Victoria, while records of transactions involving land in the remainder of the New Territories are retained at the appropriate District Offices of Lands, of which there are eight, in the New Territories. During the year, 292,796 deeds were registered at the Land Registry, against 262,934 in 1985. Detailed statistics can be found in Appendix 29. The register of landowners contained 536,017 landowners at the end of the year, 37,174 more than in the previous year.

Work on computerizing the information on the Territorial Office's cadastral letters with a view to introducing a computerized land registry system continued throughout the year, with the conversion to computer data starting in November. This exercise is expected to be completed by the end of 1988.



The Land Office also provides a transfer service and legal advice to the government for all government land transactions and related matters. It is responsible for issuing, renewing, modifying and terminating government leases, as well as writing, finalizing and recording terms of sale, granting and exchanging state lands, awarding mining leases, registering proprietary corporations, apportioning government rents and awards, and collecting outstanding rents. It also provides brokerage services to the Housing Authority in connection with the sale of homes built under the Home Ownership Scheme and to the Financial Secretary Incorporated in connection with the renewal of non-renewable state leases, mortgages to secure interest-free private school loans, the purchase of land for housing public servants and collective housing for the elderly.

land sale

Major real estate transactions in 1986 included the public sale of 16,150 square meters of land on Hong Kong Island for commercial and/or residential development. This venue is on Supreme Court Road and was part of the former Victoria Barracks. Another 15,320 square meter land on Hong Kong Island, located on Tin Hau Temple Road, was publicly auctioned in November for medium-density residential development. The private sale of 1,935 hectares of land for the Tuen Mun Light Rail Transit System terminal to Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation was completed in April. The comprehensive development above the terminal will offer commercial space on the ground floor, recreational use on the podium level and private residential use above.

In November, a private sale with the Housing Authority of 1.65 hectares of land for the development of the Ma On Shan residential property program was completed. The development will offer 1,050 apartments with a maximum gross construction area of ​​61,394 square meters.

In Kowloon, a 55,760 square meter plot of land in Chuk Yuen West was sold in a public tender in December under the Private Sector Participation Scheme. This development will provide approximately 3,160 homes for sale to buyers within restricted income ranges designated by the Housing Authority. This was followed in October by the sale of land to a private sector equity program in the new Junk Bay urban development, which will also provide around 1,850 homes.

In the New Territories, a 22,810-square-foot lot near Fanling Station was sold in a residential tender in July; bids were restricted to holders of land exchange rights (letter A/B). This was the first significant land sale in the expanding Fanling development area and will provide approximately 100,000 square meters of gross residential area along with approximately 27,500 square meters of associated commercial space.

urban planning

The main objective of urban planning in Hong Kong is to provide the current and future population with a good living and working environment. This applies both to new development areas such as Tuen Mun and Sha Tin, and to older metropolitan areas such as Yau Ma Tei and Western District, where the need for improvement is most evident. City plans can be divided into two groups: statutory plans and departmental plans. Its objective is to control the use of the land and the volume of construction on each plot to meet the demands of the territory's growing population and ensure, as far as possible, adequate provision of community equipment and necessary public services.



Statutory plans for existing and potential urban areas are prepared under the direction of the Urban Planning Committee in accordance with the provisions of the Urban Planning Ordinance. These legal master plans show areas that have been set aside or zoned for residential, commercial, industrial, government, institutional and other uses. They act as important links between the government and the public, providing guidance for public and private investments, indicating future broad land use patterns, including major public works for development areas. Once a statutory plan is made available to the public, it has legal effect. Under the Building Regulations, the Building Authority may refuse approval of a building plan that contradicts an approved design or plan prepared in accordance with the Urban Planning Regulations. In order to avoid piecemeal development or new construction and promote comprehensive urban planning, suitable areas are designated as comprehensive development areas or comprehensive redevelopment areas in the statutory plans. Under these designations, development or redevelopment can only be carried out comprehensively in accordance with urban development plans.

During the year, the Board issued 26 statutory plans, including four new plans for Kennedy Town and Mount Davis, Mid-Level West, Pok Fu Lam and Ngau Tau Kok and Kowloon Bay, and 22 amended plans. He reviewed 54 objections to the published plans and, as a result, some of the plans were amended for further public scrutiny. By the end of the year, 35 of the 42 planning areas in metropolitan regions were covered by statutory plans. There were seven statutory plans in the New Territories, covering Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Tsing Yi, Sha Tin, Tai Po, Tuen Mun and the south coast of Lantau.

The zoning ordinance stipulates that a watch list must be attached to each zoning plan. This plan shows the permitted land uses in a given zone, along with other uses that require City Planning Department approval. This provision for building permit applications allows for greater flexibility in land use planning and better control over development to meet changing needs. During the year, the Board reviewed 150 applications, compared to 182 the previous year. If the board declines admission, the candidate may request a review of the decision. In 1986, there were six revision requests, compared to four in 1985.

Design development and layout plans are used administratively within government to guide development. Although development plans and project plans are prepared as part of the spatial planning statements and the development plan, project plans are generally of local importance and apply to newly created plots of land or areas with extensive development needs. redevelopment. These are action plans that make it possible to prepare and release land for public and private development. Compared to statutory plans, these are usually drawn on a larger scale and show proposed roads and site layout in more detail. Examples of such plans prepared during the year are those in Tsuen Wan West, Sai Kung Town, San Tin, Cha Kwo Ling and various other planning areas in Sha Tin, Tuen Mun and Fanling. Many existing plans have been revised to reflect changes in population projections, government policies and planning standards.

Guidelines for setting aside land for various uses, standards for providing community facilities, and location and use requirements critical to the preparation of city plans and planning documents are contained in the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines, as amended by the shall be approved by the Rural Development Policy Committee. The document is constantly being revised to reflect changes in government policies, demographics and other social and economic trends. Sections revised during the year covered Education, Industry, Public Services and Environment.



Land and land use surveys across the area have been conducted or updated to provide the background information for the preparation of statutory and departmental plans. Special planning studies such as land supply forecast, population distribution forecast in the private housing sector, future demand and supply of hotels and space requirements of banks in industrial buildings were also carried out during the year as insights for development formulation and political land planning.

Work on formulating planning statements for the subregions continued throughout the year. These set out the government's intentions for future land use and development in the five sub-regions. In 1986, the Development Progress Committee approved declarations for the New Northeast Territories, New Southeast Territories, and New Southwest Territories. Declarations for the New Northwest Territories and the metropolitan area will be scheduled over the next year. These statements establish a necessary link between the territorial development strategy and district planning and are already proving to be useful in drawing attention to development issues in these sub-regions.

A Central Information and Technical Management Unit of the City Planning Bureau was created in 1980 to provide a common channel through which planning information was communicated to the public. During the year, a total of 1,820 inquiries from members of the public were processed by or through this unit's organization, an increase of 13% from the 1,613 inquiries in 1985. Those seeking planning advice and information included visitors and foreign officials. , professionals, owners, developers, journalists and students.

Development of new cities and rural communities

The starting signal for a major housing construction program in 1982 provided the impetus for new urban development programs. The objective of this housing program was to provide 1.8 million individual housing units over a 10-year period, most of which would be built in new cities in the New Territories. This objective was essentially achieved and the new city programs were extended into the 1990s. The first generation of new cities, Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun, are already home to 1.4 million people and are expected to be in large part completed by the end of this decade. The development of the new second-generation cities in the northern New Territories, namely Tai Po, Fanling and Yuen Long, is progressing rapidly, and major works will be completed in the early 1990s. These new cities currently have about 340,000 inhabitants. Work at Junk Bay New Town on Sai Kung Peninsula is progressing rapidly and, along with work at Tin Shui Wai in the New Northwest Territories, preliminary work started in the late 1990s should result in final development. Upon completion of current development programs, the population of the New Territories will have grown to almost 3.5 million people, compared to the current 1.8 million and less than half a million in 1970.

In order to ensure proper coordination of the main task of planning and executing development works across the area, the area development department is structured in a multidisciplinary way and includes professional staff with experience in civil engineering, urban planning, architecture and landscaping. The Department works closely with the Housing Authority in implementing the public housing program and the City and New Area Government, Department of Municipal Services and Department of Regional Services to encourage the growth of new balanced communities.



The private sector continues to make a significant contribution to a large number of privately funded housing developments and facilities.

Tsuen Wan

Since its birth in the post-war years as the industrial satellite of Kowloon City, Tsuen Wan has grown into a thriving community of nearly 700,000 people. When all major developments are completed in the early 1990s, the new city will have a population of around 800,000 and will provide employment opportunities for 280,000 workers in the industrial sector.

The city is home to the Kwai Chung Container Terminal, which is being further expanded through reclamation.

Development on Tsing Yi Island is progressing rapidly and here the large population increase in the coming years will be accommodated mainly in large social settlements. Formation of sites for specialized and land-intensive industries is underway in the southern and western parts of the island.

Traffic continues to play a central role in the new city. The only bridge connecting the island to the mainland is already severely congested, but the completion of the Tsing Yi North Bridge by the end of 1987 will improve access and promote the island's rapid development. Work has already started on the Route 5 road tunnel to Sha Tin and several major road improvement projects are scheduled to start in the city to connect this highway to other major roads and the container terminal. This includes the New Container Port Road and the Castle Peak Road viaduct.

To meet the needs of the growing population, there is an extensive program to provide additional park and recreational facilities. Work has begun on Kwai Chung Park at the landfill controlled by Gin Drinker's Bay.

Innovative leisure facilities are being integrated that will make this park a regional attraction. Plans were drawn up to move the Yeung Uk Sportsground, located near the city center, to an area in the Shing Mun Valley to form the core of a large sports and recreation complex.

It is proposed that the land from the Yeung Uk Sports Ground relocation and Tsuen Wan Bay reclamation be used for a modern commercial/residential development that will revitalize the city center and provide the catalyst for rehabilitating old and overstressed buildings. The redevelopment of some of the oldest public housing complexes has already begun to provide residents with better living conditions and environments.

A study is underway to formulate improvement and expansion plans for the existing villages in the foothills green area north of Tsuen Wan. Suggestions are made to reduce water pollution and explore the area's recreational potential.

Sha Tin

Sha Tin's population increased by about 100,000 to 400,000 last year and is expected to reach 750,000 by the mid-1990s. Housing construction in the public and private sectors has advanced at a rapid pace, but advances in industrial development have not kept pace with the rapid growth of urban populations, even though industrial land was available.

In Ma On Shan, an extension of Sha Tin, engineering works for reclamation, land formation and infrastructure provision were at their peak. The Ma On Shan development potential has been revised to accommodate a proposed additional road link from Sha Tin to Kowloon via Tate's Cairn. Based on the recommendations



Based on this review, Ma On Shan will be developed for a population of approximately 200,000 and land production will be adjusted accordingly.

Development in Sha Tin during the year focused on a wide range of community facilities. Major completed projects included waterfront promenades, a cultural complex, a hotel and a magistracy. Adequate commercial facilities are available in all housing developments along with a large commercial complex in the center of Sha Tin city.

Other major facilities in the new city are the Prince of Wales Hospital, with over 1,400 beds, and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. In addition, a technical institute has been completed and other hospitals and a teacher training school are in the active planning stage.

I support Mun

Tuen Mun's population has now grown to around 280,000 and planned land development will bring the population to over 500,000 by the mid-1990s.

High density development has been, and will continue to be, focused on reclaimed land from Castle Peak Bay and along the adjacent valley floor between Castle Peak Ridge and the Tai Lam Hills. In this 'urban core', eight public housing developments were completed, housing around 176,000 people. Another 45,000 people live in home ownership and private equity schemes.

The city center has grown rapidly and, when completed, will offer a variety of commercial and leisure activities. The new government buildings are occupied and the auditorium is mostly complete. Adjacent commercial and residential development is also progressing rapidly. Facilities in the city center will be complemented by the first phase of city park construction. Elsewhere, a swimming pool complex and two covered leisure centers were completed.

Due to polarized migration, the demand for school facilities is extraordinarily high. The school construction program has advanced and 10 schools are under construction. A new technical institute was also opened.

Within the Neustadt core, the existing industrial areas are being extensively developed and provide space for around 1,700 companies and jobs for over 33,000 employees.

Work has begun on the Tuen Mun-Yuen Long light rail system, which will provide rapid tram connections within the city and to Yuen Long. At the southern end of the system, the transport hub also provides facilities for public buses, taxis and minibuses and is connected to the new ferry wharf which offers hoverfer connections to Central.

Work has also begun on a marina in the sparsely populated residential areas along the coast to the southeast of the city, which will offer 300 berths, as well as hotel and commercial facilities.

This is Poe

Tai Po New Town is located at the northwest end of the port of Tolo, about 20 kilometers north of Kowloon. With the completion of the Tolo Highway and the electrified Kowloon-Canton Railway, the journey time from Tai Po to Kowloon is less than 30 minutes by train or road.

Historically, Tai Po served as a market town for its rural hinterland, but rapid population growth in recent years has overshadowed this traditional role. In 1986, Tai Po had a population of around 135,000 and current plans are to increase that number to around 300,000 by the mid-1990s.



Around 190,000 people will be housed in six public housing developments, four of which will have a home ownership component. Private residential areas are expected to house around 110,000 people.


Fanling New Town, which covers about 790 hectares, includes Fanling, Luen Wo Hui, Shek Wu Hui and Sheung Shui. It is about eight kilometers north of Tai Po. It will be linked to Yuen Long, Sha Tin and Tai Po by the New Territories Circular Route under construction. With the opening of the Fanling Bypass, Tolo Highway and Tai Po Bypass, the new city enjoys a high-speed road connection to Kowloon uninterrupted by traffic lights. This road, or alternatively the electrified Kowloon-Canton Railway, allows people to reach central Kowloon in less than 40 minutes.

The new city's current population is around 105,000, but is projected to increase to 220,000 over the next decade. So, around 120,000 people will be accommodated in social housing.

There are plans to rebuild the existing commercial and retail hubs of Shek Wu Hui and Luen Wo Hui and upgrade the On Lok Tsuen Industrial Zone. The preservation and expansion of existing villages is taken care of.

Yuen Long and the New Northwest Territories

The growth and development of Yuen Long City continues at a rapid pace. The current population is around 86,500 and is projected to increase to 161,000 by 1995. Work on a new public housing area that will house over 30,000 people in Long Ping, northwest of the city, has reached a stage where people are already being accepted.

Yuen Long will be linked to nearby Tuen Mun New Town by the Yuen Long-Tuen Mun Light Rail System, currently under construction and scheduled to open in 1988. A major transportation hub for the city is also scheduled to be completed in time with the Light Rail Transit System.

Planning work is nearing completion for a landscaped city park that will include a wide range of features and attractions. Meanwhile, work will soon begin on a town square to create an important open space element in the eastern part of the city.

Initial construction has started on a comprehensively planned new town in Tin Shui Wai, which will also be linked to the Light Rail System. Major earthworks will begin in 1987. This new city has a projected population of 150,000 but has land reserves for expansion to 350,000 in later stages. The first occupation of social housing is scheduled for 1992.

Following a comprehensive planning study of the remaining areas in the Northwest New Territories, there are proposals to modernize existing infrastructure systems that will significantly improve the services and environment of certain existing settlements. The design and implementation of many components is ongoing.

The overall intention is that concentrated urbanization will take place in Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai and Hung Shui Kiu in the Tuen Mun/Yuen Long corridor, while established settlements in Kam Tin and Lau Fau Shan will be improved.

Junk Bay and Sai Kung

The first public housing development in Junk Bay New Town is scheduled for completion in early 1987.



Following the government's decision to proceed with the development of both tubes of the Junk Bay Tunnel, the approved Junk Bay New Town Phase I development plan, which called for a population of 223,000, was revised to include an expanded development area with a total population of 325,000.

Development is planned around three main districts with populations of 125,000, 90,000 and 110,000 respectively. The new city will be served by a large, centrally located and easily accessible shopping complex, which will also include open space, community facilities and a transportation hub. The main external access linking Junk Bay with East Kowloon will be the twin-tube Junk Bay Road Tunnel, work on which began in late 1986. The tunnel is complemented by the improvement of Po Lam Road, which also connects to East Kowloon and serves as the first external road connection before the opening of the road tunnel in 1990.

A possible future extension of the Mass Transit Railway from Kwun Tong is under consideration and the revised development plan envisages such an extension going south to Junk Bay New Town.

Outside of the new city, plans for the Sai Kung District prioritized recovery potential and containment of new urban development in selected areas. The approved draft development plan for the town of Sai Kung and its immediate hinterland envisages a projected population capacity of around 40,000.

District Islands

In recent years, coastal islands have played an increasingly important role in meeting the recreational needs of the people of Hong Kong.

As part of the islands' development programme, projects continued throughout the year to accommodate existing and future population growth, improve living standards and improve general facilities for the islands' growing number of visitors. While development generally remains low-level and rural, the work program is extensive and diverse, focusing primarily on the Mui Wo and Tai O population centers on Lantau, as well as Cheung Chau and Peng Chau.

In early 1986, work began on building a new rural housing development in Mui Wo for around 1,700 people to complement the existing rural housing developments in Tai O and Cheung Chau. Planning began for the development of more rural public housing and other facilities, including ferry docks, schools, market buildings, leisure facilities, sewage treatment plants and slaughterhouses.

urban renewal

In order to facilitate the process of urban regeneration in areas where satisfactory redevelopment is hampered by factors such as multiple land ownership, small land size or obsolete blueprints, the government has decided to establish a Land Development Corporation (LDC). His main task will be to negotiate the handover of existing properties and oversee the comprehensive redevelopment of the area. An interim LDC board of directors was appointed in August. The Department of Buildings and Land of the Urban Planning Office carried out studies to identify areas that would be suitable for such redevelopment.

Acquisition of land designated for open spaces and government, institutional, and community uses in the areas covered by the Western, Wan Chai, and Yau Ma Tei city plans continued in 1986, with efforts concentrated on congregational projects



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Sites that have been partially acquired. It is estimated that approximately US$75 million was spent on land acquisition in these areas by the end of the year.

Of note is the approval by the Executive Council of the reuse of 24 private plots of land for the implementation of the Chai Wan Folk Museum project, which is being developed and managed by the Urban Council for the benefit of residents of the East District of Hong Kong Island.

Urban renewal programs continue to be of particular importance, especially those of the Hong Kong Housing Society. To support the Housing Society in its program, 100 lots in Sai Ying Pun and Yau Ma Tei are expected to be operational and vacant by the end of the year.

To enable the government to improve private roads and ensure more efficient traffic management on these roads, a program was designed to purchase nine private roads in Kowloon City and North Point.

Potential areas of development

Five areas of potential development, all requiring restoration of Victoria Harbour, were identified to meet projected development needs and cater for further growth in the 1990s. areas in Aldrich Bay, Hung Hom Bay, West Kowloon, Central and Wan Chai and Green Island, which will provide approximately 640 hectares of land for development and housing of up to 420,000 people.

In mid-1986, the reclamation of 37 hectares of land in Hung Hom Bay for the expansion of the Kowloon-Canton Railway Freight Yard and for various other government uses began, and the planning and engineering study report was prepared by consultants on behalf of from the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation, was submitted shortly thereafter.

The recovery study for Central and Wan Chai is being conducted by government consultants and is scheduled to start in early 1987.

The study for the Aldrich Bay Reclamation, which will cover an area of ​​17 hectares, has been completed and work on rebuilding the typhoon protection is scheduled to begin as a first phase in mid-1987.

The impact of the proposed recovery on the port will be assessed through hydraulic and water quality studies.

public building

In 1985-6, the Department of Architectural Services completed 107 building contracts under the Public Works program. The total investment, including small jobs, was US$ 1,717 million. A further $395 million was spent by the Department's Maintenance Department to carry out maintenance and refurbishment work on 6,300 government, county and regional council and UK Armed Forces buildings, including rented accommodation and staff accommodation. The total expenditure of US$2,112 million increased by about 12% from the expenditure of US$1,876 million in 1984-1985.

Tenders for all types of projects remain very active and very competitive. During the 12-month period ending March 1986, asking prices rose by just over 10%, with most of the increase occurring in early 1986. During the same 12-month period, labor and material costs basics rose 3 and 6 percent, respectively, and prices continued to rise slightly during the year, reflecting the general recovery in the construction industry.



Major projects completed in 1986 included the Shatin Cultural Complex, with a 1,450-seat auditorium, extensive stage facilities, orchestra pit and acoustic treatment that make it suitable for large-scale orchestral, operatic, dance and theatrical performances. The complex also includes a three-story, 3,500-square-foot library block that offers adult and children's lending areas, study rooms, reference/viewing/listening libraries, and exhibition spaces that serve as the region's central library. A marriage registry, restaurants and shops form part of the complex, which is connected to Shatin Town Park by outdoor terraces.

The District Court and Judiciary Building on Harbor Road, Wan Chai was completed at the end of the year. This distinguished 28-story building houses the Causeway Bay Judiciary and the Kowloon and Victoria District Courts and offers 39 courtrooms on the lower floors for various types of court proceedings, including district and magistrate courts, family and juvenile courts, small claims and--and labor courts. The top 14 floors of the building offer 27,000 square meters of office space shared by six ministries.

Expansion of Hong Kong's medical facilities continued in 1986, with significant progress being made at the 1,600-bed Tuen Mun Hospital, which is due for completion in 1988 and is well underway. Laundry work begins in early 1987 and is completed at the same time. This is believed to be the largest hospital project currently under construction in the world, but it will soon be surpassed by the new Oriental Hospital in Chai Wan. Foundation work on the $1.3 billion project at a site overlooking Chai Wan Bay was completed at the turn of the year, followed by foundation and substructure work. The hospital will serve the entire eastern district of Hong Kong and provide 1,750 beds in the main building. The development includes a polyclinic, pathology and special blocks, a psychiatric nursing school and staff accommodation. Work on the superstructure will begin in early 1988 and the entire project is expected to be completed by the end of 1991.

In addition to these two major projects, work continues on the second phase of the Queen Mary Hospital expansion to provide new facilities for pediatric and psychiatric patients, as well as a number of other medical facilities. The third phase began in October and is expected to be completed in 1992. The existing wards are then expanded to a total of 2,000 beds in 1994. Planning work was at an advanced stage for the Shatin Convalescent/Infirmary Hospital, the first of its kind in Hong Kong, due to start in early 1987 and which will provide 700 beds to complement the existing Prince of Wales Hospital.

In terms of recreational and cultural facilities, in addition to the Shatin Cultural Complex, a similar development at Tuen Mun progressed well during the year and will be completed in early 1987.

Construction on the Hong Kong Cultural Centre, scheduled for completion in late 1987, also continued, reaching pitched roof levels by mid-year. Foundation work on the new art museum will begin in early 1987 on an adjacent site. The notable recreational project completed in 1986 was the new Hong Kong Squash Center at Victoria Barracks, offering 18 courts, including one of international standard.

Expansion work at the passenger terminal at Kai Tak Airport progressed throughout the year despite issues related to airport security and the need to keep the airport fully operational at all times. To facilitate modifications to existing buildings, certain parts of



The new terminal will be operational before the entire project is completed in 1988. The airport's passenger capacity will increase from the current 10 million to 18 million per year.

Construction on the 47-story Queensway government offices will be completed early next year. The building with more than 54 thousand square meters of offices will be occupied in phases during the construction and expansion works.

Several projects for the Disciplined Services were also completed in 1986, including a new Maritime Police base in Aberdeen, part of a general expansion and modernization of the Maritime Police facilities. Design work for new naval bases in Sai Kung and Ma Liu Shui was carried out. Divisional police stations were completed at Castle Peak and at Tin Sum in Sha Tin, while the new Kowloon Regional Command Center provided improved communications to the Kowloon area. Refit work on the Fanling Tactical Police Unit, a major project to improve training facilities, began during construction of the final phase of the expansion of the Wong Chuk Hang Police Training School and the new Tai Po and Tai Po District Police Stations. Tsing - Hey. The fire department moved to a new headquarters and divisional fire station in Tsim Sha Tsui East, as well as a new fire station in Shun Lee Tsuen and an ambulance depot in Tai Po. Construction of 274 detention facilities at Hei Ling Chau and Stanley Prison was underway, and a new border crossing facility was completed at Man Kam To to accommodate the increasing traffic between Hong Kong and China.

In addition to executing its own construction contracts, the Architectural Services Division continued its extensive participation in joint venture projects between the government and private developers and with municipal entities that are the subject of government subsidies. Joint venture projects completed in 1986 or under construction include housing in Ho Man Tin and Nga Tsin Wai Road, Kowloon, and Tai Tam and Shouson Hill, Hong Kong, of which the government will receive a total of over 390 housing units. Other major projects include developments at Tai Po Market and Southorn Playground, Wan Chai and the new China Passenger Ferry Services Terminal currently under construction in Kowloon. Subsidized work for schools and education, vocational training, social services, medical institutions and leisure facilities currently employs the department with over 400 projects.

private building

In 1986, 597 private building proposals were submitted for approval by the Building Control Council, compared to 626 in 1985. A total of 404 occupancy permits were issued for completed buildings, providing a usable floor area of ​​2,515,834 square meters. , a decrease of approximately 13% compared to the previous year. Total private construction spending, excluding land costs, was $13,906 million, an increase of 21%. At the end of the year, 818 authorized persons were registered architects, engineers or surveyors, 355 registered civil engineers and 2,455 building code registered contractors.

Interest in luxury housing development has continued, as evidenced by the construction of the large housing project overlooking Tai Lam Country Park and the proposed new housing blocks on the site of the former Repulse Bay Hotel. Other significant examples of developments that have been approved include the new Hong Kong and China Ferry Terminal on Canton Road, the proposed City Polytechnic on Chee Avenue and the



Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center on Harbor Road with two hotels, serviced apartments and offices in the four tower blocks above.

Work is underway on the new Bank of China building at Central, which when completed will be the tallest in the region, as well as the installation of a new 275 kVA transmission system that will include major tunnel works from Wah Fu to Bowen Road includes . by the Hong Kong Electric Company to meet the growing demand for electricity.

With the merger of the Building Regulations Office and the Lands Department into the Buildings and Lands Department on April 11, every effort will be made to accommodate private sector building proposals simultaneously within the building code and lease terms and in relation to zoning. of the flat city. Opinions on these aspects, as well as those of other interested government bodies, are now provided in response to eligible applicants and builders within the deadline set in the Building Regulations, thus reducing the time required to present essential information on proposed construction projects.

The legislative changes implemented in 1986 included a major revision of the Building Code (Building Code) and a minor update of the Building Code (Planning Code), also revising legislative changes to facilitate the control of unauthorized works.

This year, public awareness of the problem of illegal construction has increased, as it affects the environment and conditions of private buildings. The Building Control Office received 5,484 complaints. It also carried out 14,976 inspections and issued 3,797 orders requesting the removal of irregular structures or the correction of illegal alterations or additions to buildings. A high-level interdepartmental committee was also formed to review enforcement policies and coordinate enforcement programs across government departments.

With regard to the maintenance of dilapidated private buildings, the building authority closed 32 hazardous buildings, complied with 23 orders requiring demolition or repair of hazardous buildings, and complied with 738 orders requiring repair of defective concrete. Special concrete and steel testing instruments were introduced to determine the extent of the problem, which is fast becoming a major concern. The agency also complied with eight orders requiring remediation work on dangerous slopes.

It had its busiest year with slope stabilization work being carried out by the government on behalf of private landowners. Many orders worth more than $1 million have been completed to our satisfaction, and more are available. Recent innovations in this area have been the introduction of shrubs, in addition to hydroseeding, to provide better surface protection and replace trees lost during the original bank failure.

With the dominance of skyscrapers and the ever-increasing height of modern structures, the Building Code is constantly exploring new ways to perform high-end building repairs. In addition to administering building codes and ordinances, the office also provided expert advice to various state licensing agencies on the suitability of permitted facilities. He reviewed 2,554 applications for supermarkets, 724 for entertainment venues, 210 for schools, 92 for daycare centers and 24 for oil storage facilities. In addition, the office processed 470 applications for work permits to combat construction noise.

A specialist team called the Drainage Unit was formed in November after the government agreed to a recommendation to improve the priority status of works to reduce pollution of Hong Kong's watercourse by effluents and industrial waste.



Its main attributions are the control of clandestine, defective, inadequate and unhealthy drains and sewers in private buildings.

topography and mapping

The Survey and Cartography Office of the Construction and Soils Division has as its main functions the establishment and maintenance of topographic control throughout the territory as a basis for surveying land limits and the preparation and revision of topographic cartography. Some of the other services provided include basic large scale mapping, special purpose mapping, aerial photography and photogrammetry and reprographic services.

Horizontal and vertical control networks, known as geodetic control systems, were established and maintained with great precision. These networks provide the necessary source for creating cadastral surveys (or property lines) and the all-important control for engineering surveys and topographic mapping.

Cadastral surveys in urban areas are a constant requirement. Most of the work consists of defining lease boundaries and demarcating land needed for government use. In the New Territories, the focus has shifted from the new towns to the village areas, where an increasing number of boundary surveys for residential plots in the villages are being carried out. Other functions include restoring old property lines for redevelopment purposes and maintaining the cadastral records that define land allocation and occupancy for each region of Hong Kong.

Comprehensive coverage of area maps is provided, ranging from the large scale base map series from 3,000 sheets at 1:1,000, through the 1:5,000, 1:20,000 and 1:50,000 series to small scale single sheets at 1: 100,000 and 1:200,000. A new series of 1:10,000 maps of the developed areas has been completed, primarily for use in guides and to replace outdated 1:7,500 sheets. Travel guides, maps and rural leisure series remain in high demand, needing continual revision and regular redesign and replacement.

A wide range of mapping services are also offered to other government agencies. These services include producing final paper maps for the Hong Kong Annual Report, providing geological services for geotechnical control, and producing base maps for other forecasting services, election boundary maps, landscape park maps, and harbor and port maps. flat slopes. Monochrome copy services and high quality photo reproduction services are also provided by the Reprographic Unit.

The Air Survey Unit, operating from Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force aircraft, continued to provide aerial photography for construction work, volumetric calculations of quarries and reservoirs, environmental studies and large-scale mapping. The treatment and creation of the necessary data continues to be carried out by the photogrammetry department of the Cabinet of Topography and Cartography. The vertical and oblique images were obtained with an aerial surveillance camera on a RHKAAF helicopter and were particularly useful for obtaining images of dangerous slopes.

The three survey/mapping computers and plotters installed in the Hong Kong, Kowloon and Tai Po District Survey Offices are now operating at full capacity, performing survey calculations and producing computer-enabled maps and plans. Terminals from more distant county research offices were installed to connect to these three main units. The introduction of these modern "high tech" facilities has greatly improved efficiency.

The proposal for the installation of a computerized land information system is under analysis.


port works


Around 600 meters of seawall were built at Ap Lei Chau, allowing the recovery of four hectares of seabed and providing land for roads, shipyards and other industrial and government uses. A pier for the Maritime Police was built in Aberdeen.

Other port works under construction include an extension to a public pier at Cheung Chau and a 180-metre breakwater for ships at Stonecutters Island.

geotechnical control

The Geotechnical Control Office (GCO) of the Department of Civil Engineering Services continued to exercise geotechnical control of public and private civil engineering works in the interest of public safety. All new project proposals for works, landfills, earthworks and deep excavations were checked for compliance with the required safety standards. A total of 4,400 design proposals were examined. The Geotechnical Control Board also attended or inspected landslide events and provided advice on emergency preparedness, evacuation and remediation work.

Within the scope of geotechnical consulting services for government projects, the GCO carried out 46 geotechnical projects for 46 projects and advised the Lands and Works Group departments on another 122 projects.

The long-term landslide prevention program continued with expenditures of approximately $55 million per year. In 1986, stabilization work on 42 slopes and retaining walls was completed at a cost of $44 million, and work began on an additional 61 slopes and walls. Stabilization work was also carried out on 13 slopes that affect squatters.

The Geotechnical Area Studies Program Report for Hong Kong and Kowloon was released at the end of the year. This is the first of 12 reports covering the area and summarizing geotechnical constraints on land development for use in planning and engineering feasibility studies.

The first of the new 1:20,000 scale Geological Survey of Hong Kong maps and explanatory memories covering Sha Tin, Kowloon and Hong Kong Island have been made available to the public by the GCO. Maps and memories contain geological information both on land and at sea, in far more detail than has been previously attempted.

An extensive archive of geological data with maps, a collection of rocks, fines and micrographs, as well as field recordings, has been built and forms the basis of information for the public.

Quarry and Material Testing

The Department of Civil Engineering's Office of Geotechnical Control manages two state quarries and supervises six private quarries and two private quarries operated on behalf of the government. With the addition of the crushing facilities associated with the development work, the area's total production was approximately 11 million tonnes. The total consumption of aggregates, crushed stone and sand was around 16 million tons. The remaining five million tons were mainly imported from China.

The GCO also operates several laboratories across the territory to provide government agencies with a testing and consulting service for a wide range of construction materials, with a primary focus on earth, rock, rebar and concrete, but also wood, aggregates and bituminous products. . More than 220,000 tests were performed during the year.


water supply


Full supply was maintained throughout the year. In early 1986, there were 396 million cubic meters of water stored, compared to 428 million cubic meters in early 1985. The combined storage of Hong Kong's largest reservoirs, High Island and Plover Cove, was 339 million meters. cubic. The precipitation in the year was 2,338 millimeters against the average of 2,225 millimeters. A total of 360 million cubic meters of water were funneled from China during the year. The Lok On Pai desalination plant was not operated and remained a "reserve resource". Water salinity in High Island remained around 12 milligrams per liter, while salinity in Plover Cove ranged from 50 milligrams per liter at the beginning of the year to 46 milligrams per liter at the end of the year.

A peak consumption of 2.22 million cubic meters per day was recorded, compared to a 1985 peak of 1.95 million cubic meters per day. Average daily consumption throughout the year was 1.93 million cubic meters, an increase of 10.3% over the average of 1.75 million cubic meters in 1985. Drinking water consumption was 703 million cubic meters against 637 million cubic meters. In addition, 107 million cubic meters of salt water were delivered for discharge, up from 101 million cubic meters.

Planning studies completed in 1986 included improving fresh water supplies for settlements in Shau Kei Wan, Telegraph Bay, Kellet Bay and Siu Sai Wan on Hong Kong Island and Tai Po and Tuen Mun in the New Territories, and improving of the water supply for flushing in areas in southern and eastern Kowloon.

Major ongoing studies included improving fresh water supply to mid-level areas in the Central, providing fresh water to Sham Tseng and Tsing Lung Tau, extending water supply to remote villages in the New Territories, and improving the Central Water Supply System. Saltwater Supply in Hong Kong, Iceland. The planning work for the central waterworks workshop at Lung Cheung Road was nearing completion.

During the year, construction of receiving and distribution systems continued for future increases in supply from China. Serving the Western New Territories from Muk Wu via Au Tau to Tai Lam Chung, the pipeline was completed and commissioned in early 1986. Construction continued on the Pak Kong Treatment Works and the Junk Bay New Water Supply Transfer Facility. Town for development and expansion of supplies to Kowloon East and Hong Kong Island East, while planning work for the laying of the associated Eastern Cross-Harbor Main Line has commenced.

In order to improve Hong Kong Island's water supply systems, construction of waterworks in Shau Kei Wan, Wan Chai and Pok Fu Lam continued, with those in Shek O, Sai Wan Ho, North Point, Stanley and Repulse Bay being planned. Construction to upgrade Red Hill's processing facilities has also begun.

Both the planning and construction of the waterworks proceeded satisfactorily in all new cities. Planning work at the Au Tau Treatment Works has begun to accommodate the new developments at Tuen Mun and Yuen Long. The diversion and protection of the distribution systems in these areas for the construction of the Tuen Mun-Yuen Long Light Rail System has been completed.

Construction work has begun on three main submarine lines from the mainland to Tsing Yi and Ma Wan and from Lantau Island to Cheung Chau to secure and improve the water supply in these areas. The design of the Cheung Sha filters was in progress. For offshore islands, distribution systems in Cheung Chau, Cheung Sha and Pui O were extended.

Distribution systems in general have been expanded and expanded to accommodate the urban and rural needs of the area. Salt water for discharge has been delivered to most areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula, as well as Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Tsing Yi and Tsuen Wan



Tuen Mun in the New Territories. Planning work has also been carried out to expand discharge supplies to Wan Chai and Aberdeen and to improve systems at Kwun Tong and Ho Man Tin.

During the year, several mechanical and electrical installations of sewage treatment stations, pumping stations and supply reservoirs were commissioned. This included additional pump sets at Muk Wu, additional treatment plants and pumping equipment at Tuen Mun, and new pumping stations at Tsing Yi Island, Tsuen Wan West, Au Tau, Shum Wan Shan and East Area of ​​Hong Kong Island . The first phase of work to bring water to upscale villages in the New Territories was essentially completed with the commissioning of five pumping houses. The second phase, which includes a further 18 pump houses, was underway.

New customer information centers opened in Kwun Tong and Stanley, joining existing centers in Causeway Bay, Mong Kok, Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin, Tai Po and Sai Kung. The network has continued to prove a success and there are plans to expand it across the country.

Planning for the implementation of the regionalization of the operational functions of the water supply department was ongoing. The first region was created, initially covering activities on Hong Kong Island and offshore islands.


Hong Kong Island and neighboring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma receive electricity from Hong Kong Electric Company Limited (HEC), and Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and some offshore islands, receive electricity from China Light and Power Company Limited (CLP).

The two concessionaires are owned by investors and are not franchised. The government monitors the financial arrangements of companies through control systems. The programs require that companies' long-term financing plans and any proposed rate changes be submitted to the governor's board for approval.

Arrangements for monitoring the operations of power companies were reviewed by an American consultancy in 1984, resulting in recommendations to strengthen the monitoring process. The advisory report was published in March 1985 and a special working group, reporting to the Minister of Economic Services, was created to prepare the recommendations made by the advisors. The working group will present its conclusions to the Executive Council in the first quarter of 1987.

Power generation in Kowloon and the New Territories is provided by CLP and three affiliated power generation companies - Peninsula Electric Power Company Limited (PEPCO), Kowloon Electricity Supply Company Limited (KESCO) and Castle Peak Power Limited (CAPSO). The total capacity of the four companies at the end of 1986 was 4,361 MW. ESSO owns 60 percent and CLP owns 40 percent of the three related companies.

The operation of the power companies of the affiliated power generation companies is in the hands of CLP, which also owns its own 20 MW gas turbine in Hok Un 'B'. PEPCO owns three plants: Tsing Yi “A” (720 MW), Tsing Yi “B” (800 MW) and Hok Un “C” (240 MW). KESCO has a gas turbine capacity of 504 MW along with Castle Peak 'A' Station, which consists of four 350 MW coal or oil fired dual fuel units. Adjacent to Castle Peak 'A' station is Castle Peak 'B' station, owned by CAPCO. This station, scheduled for completion in 1990, will supply four 677 MW dual-fuel (coal or oil) units. The first unit was commissioned in early 1986, the second



one is scheduled to be commissioned in early 1987. Castle Peak 'A' and 'B' power plants will have a combined capacity of over 4,000 MW and will be the largest power plant complex in Southeast Asia.

CLP's transmission system operates at 400 kV, 132 kV and 66 kV, and distribution is mainly at 33 kV, 11 kV and 346 volts. Power supply is 50 hertz alternating current, typically 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. Large consumers can be supplied with 33 kV and 11 kV.

During the year, work continued to develop a 400 kV extra high voltage transmission system to transport power from Castle Peak Stations to the various load centres. This 400 kV network consists of two transmission rings. One ring, a primary ring, encircling the New Territories was completed in late 1985. It consists of 90 kilometers of double-circuit overhead power lines and four extra-high voltage substations at Lei Muk Shue, Tsz Wan Shan, Tai Po and Yuen Long. The other ring, due for completion in 1988, will provide 22 kilometers of cable lines connecting the main substations in Tsz Wan Shan, Tai Wan and Lai Chi Kok.

Power for Hong Kong Island, Ap Lei Chau and Lamma is provided by HEC's Ap Lei Chau and Lamma power plants. The Ap Lei Chau plant, with an installed capacity of 935 MW, consists of two blocks of oil-fired power plants of 60 MW and six of 125 MW and two gas turbines with a total capacity of 65 MW.

The demand for electricity has grown by 244% in the last ten years. To ensure that HEC can continue to meet growing demand in the future, the company has been awarded land on Lamma Island for the development of a new twin power plant fired by coal or oil. The station's 750MW first phase was completed in February 1984. The next phase will add another two 350MW units to the station upon completion.

In the HEC system, power transmission takes place at 275 kV, 132 kV and 66 kV and distribution takes place mainly at 11 kV and 346 volts. With the exception of a small proportion of 132 kV overhead lines, all transmission and distribution is underground or via submarine cables. The supply is 50 hertz, 200 volts single phase and 346 volts three phase. High voltage supply is also available for larger consumers.

The PLC and HEC transmission systems are interconnected via an interport connection, providing cost savings to customers through cost-effective power transmissions between the two systems and a reduction in revolving reserve requirements. The connection line, which started operating in 1981, now has a capacity of 480 MVA. When fully completed, the total capacity will increase to 720 MVA.

CLP's system is also linked to that of Guangdong General Power Company of China, and more than three million units of electricity are exported to Guangdong province every day. This interconnection results in better use of the company's plants in periods of low demand. In July 1985, CLP signed an agreement with China Merchants Steam Navigation Company to supply power to Shekou Industrial Zone from August 1986. This agreement, which provides Shekou with a reliable power supply without subsidies from consumers in Hong Kong, is another example of close cooperation on Power issues that have developed on both sides of the border.

On January 18, 1985, Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Company (a wholly owned subsidiary of CLP) and Guangdong Nuclear Investment Company signed the joint venture agreement establishing the Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company to build and operate a nuclear power plant in Daya Bay , in the province of Guangzhou. About 70% of the station's electricity is supplied to Hong Kong to meet the region's growing electricity needs until the 1990s.



When completed, the Daya Bay nuclear power plant will consist of two 900 MW pressurized water reactors.

The most important electricity statistics and sales figures can be found in Appendix 30.


Domestic, commercial and industrial gas in Hong Kong is supplied as manufactured city gas and substitute natural gas (SNG) by Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited (HKCG) or as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by most of Hong Kong's major oil companies. Manufactured town gas and SNG accounted for about 52 percent of all gas sold in 1986 and LPG for 48 percent.

About 70 percent of all local LPG sales are distributed through a dealer network in portable cylinders and about 30 percent as piped gas supplies from localized bulk LPG storage and vaporization facilities. in the settlements served or adjacent to them. Towngas is produced in Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon and more recently at Tai Po Industrial Estate. The two gas plants have capacities of 3.68 and 1.42 million cubic meters per day, respectively. With the commissioning of other gas plants in early 1987, Towngas' production capacity increased to 6.52 million cubic meters per day.

Currently, Towngas is supplied to the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, including Aberdeen, Repulse Bay, Stanley and Ap Lei Chau, as well as to the urban areas of Kowloon and many cities in the New Territories via high-speed transmission pipelines. pressure and intermediate, medium and low pressure distribution systems, including Sha Tin, Tai Po, Junk Bay and the industrial cities of Kwun Tong, Yau Tong, Tsuen Wan and the neighboring island of Tsing Yi.

SNG, on the other hand, is produced by HKCG at temporary gas plants in the new towns of Yuen Long and Tuen Mun and delivered through separate distribution systems within each county. When natural gas becomes available, the makeshift gas plants will be closed and gas will be delivered to new cities via a high-pressure pipeline.

In 1986, LPG sales increased by eight percent over the previous year, while pipeline and SNG sales increased by 12 percent, primarily as a result of higher sales to housing developments.




Along with the growth of economic and construction activity, Hong Kong's transport authorities must always ensure that there are sufficient funds for the smooth movement of people and goods throughout the area.

This is in line with the government's policy to further develop the road, rail and public transport network and to control and coordinate the operation of the transport system with a high degree of efficiency and productivity.

Transport planning is therefore an endless process with studies and projections that must meet existing needs and also look to the future.

An important consideration was the need to accommodate the massive movements of people from metropolitan areas to new cities in the New Territories. That task has been exacerbated in recent years by China's open-door economic policy, which has led to a greater flow of people and goods across the border.

To replace a now somewhat outdated comprehensive transport study from 1976 which provides forecasts up to 1991, a new study has been initiated which will develop a transport investment program and propose measures through 2001.

In the areas of port development and maritime services, Hong Kong, which has one of the most perfect natural harbors in the world, has continued to efficiently meet the demands of an increasing number of ship arrivals and has coped with growth in both the volume of cargo handled and the number of passengers.

In addition, the Maritime Department, which administers the port, completed a Port Development Strategy Study in May 1986 in cooperation with other government departments. The study offers a development strategy and program, also up to 2001.

Hong Kong entered an important new era in civil aviation with the signing of the Hong Kong-Netherlands Aviation Agreement on 17 September. It is the first in a series of aviation agreements governing the operation of scheduled air services that Hong Kong intends to complete in the coming years to replace existing agreements between the UK and third country governments in relation to Hong Kong.


Responsibility for overall policy formulation and the direction and coordination of all transport matters rests with the Department of Transport of the Secretariat of Government, headed by the Minister of Transport. In discharging this responsibility, the Secretary of Transportation is assisted on important matters by the Transportation Advisory Committee (TAC), which advises the Governor in Council on transportation policy issues. The TAC has 11 appointed members, including the President, and six official members. The Transport Policy Coordination Commission, which advises on policy coordination, is made up entirely of official members and is chaired by the Minister of Transport.



The Transport Commissioner directs the Department of Transport, which administers the Highway Code and other laws governing non-rail public transport operations. Its responsibilities include managing road traffic, including road tunnels, car parks and metered car parks, and regulating public road and river traffic. He is advised by the Standing Conference on Road Use and the Standing Committee on Shipping. He is also responsible for driving licenses and the registration, registration and testing of vehicles.

In June, as part of a reorganization of engineering functions within the government, the Office of Highways became a separate department of the Director of Highways, responsible for the design, construction, repair and maintenance of all highways and roads. The new department was placed under the political direction of the department of transport. The Royal Hong Kong Police Force enforces traffic laws and prosecutes criminals.

A traffic court, presided over by a member appointed and constituted under the Highway Code, provides the public with a means of appealing against decisions taken by the Traffic Commissioner in relation to the registration and licensing of vehicles and the issuing of rental and passenger licenses.


The basis for long-term planning of the territory's overall development is the Territorial Development Strategy drawn up by the Department of Strategic Planning of the Directorate of Soils and Works. Transport considerations form part of the contribution to the strategy, and transport planning is done within the overall framework it provides.

During the year, the Department of Transport carried out three short- and medium-term transport planning studies. These were: a study of public transport needs between ports up to 1991, a rerun of the complete Comprehensive Transport Models to update travel demand forecasts for 1991 and 1996, and the East Kowloon Traffic Study, which examined future needs of East Kowloon transport infrastructure, with a view to the future opening of the Eastern Harbor Crossing and Tate's Cairn Tunnel.

Rail operators have also carried out studies on the possible expansion of their offer. The Kowloon Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) engaged consultants to undertake an economic feasibility assessment for the expansion of the Light Rail Transit System and a feasibility study for the expansion of the rail terminal and associated infrastructure in the Hung Hom Bay Claim. The Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC) conducted studies on possible MTR extensions from Tsuen Wan to the Northwest New Territories, from Kwun Tong to Junk Bay, and from Sheung Wan to the proposed Green Island Reclamation.

Progress was made in the detailed planning of major new highways to allow construction to begin in 1987. These included the remaining section of the New Territories Ring Road System from Fairview Park to Mai Po, the remaining section of the East Corridor from Shau Kei Wan Island to Chai Wan and the Western Approach to Developments in Ma Chai Hang, Chuk Yuen.

cross border traffic

Traffic between Hong Kong and China via the two road junctions of Man Kam To and Sha Tau Kok continued to increase sharply in 1986. The number of vehicles traveling in both directions increased from 5,032 per day in December 1985 to 7,220 per day in december 1985



1986 in Man Kam To and from 340 per day in December 1985 to 778 per day in December 1986 in Sha Tau Kok. Most (97 percent) were trucks, reflecting the rapid growth of commercial and industrial ties with China. There were also a limited number of private cars, mainly used by businessmen with interests in Shenzhen, and by the end of the year, 22 companies were operating bus services across the border.

The Kowloon Canton Railway also plays an important role in the growing traffic between Hong Kong and China. About 3.28 million tons of cargo (1985: 2.52 million) and 2.21 million head of cattle (1985: 2.06 million) were brought to Hong Kong by rail. Exports to China by rail totaled 848,000 tonnes, a significant increase from the 588,000 tonnes transported in 1985. A new freight yard was opened at Mong Kok, increasing the railroad's cargo handling capacity by around 20%. Cross-border passenger traffic on the KCR also increased, from 19.1 million in 1985 to 21.1 million in 1986, and a fourth daily train to Canton was introduced in April.

Hong Kong-China ferry services also carried more passengers, with a total of eight operators carrying 2.4 million passengers (2.1 million in 1985) from China's two ferry terminals at Central on Hong Kong Island and Tai Kok Tsui in Kowloon. A new China Ferry Terminal is built on Canton Road in Kowloon and completed in 1988.

road network

Hong Kong's roads are among the busiest in the world. At the end of the year, the territory had 266,933 vehicles and 1,345 kilometers of roads – 380 in Hong Kong Island, 359 in Kowloon and 606 in the New Territories. An average of seven million public transport trips are made on the road every day.

strategic road network

The main feature of the system is Route 1, which runs from Aberdeen on the south coast of Hong Kong Island to Sheung Shui in the north of the New Territories and includes three tunnels - Aberdeen, Cross Harbor and Lion Rock. Other strategic routes within urban areas run along the north coast of Hong Kong Island, including the East Island Corridor (Route 8), two routes that follow the west and east coasts of the Kowloon Peninsula, Routes 2 and 3 and Route 4. along the base of the hills that separate Kowloon from the New Territories.

The strategic road system in the New Territories connects each of the new cities. The main link in the western New Territories is Route 2. It consists of the Tsuen Wan bypass and its links to Kowloon, the Tuen Mun Highway from Tsuen Wan to Tuen Mun, and the existing dual carriageway from Tuen Mun to Yuen Long. In the eastern New Territories, the main link is the recently completed continuation of Route 1 from Sha Tin to Sheung Shui.

Further enhancements to this strategic network are under construction or planned. On Hong Kong Island, a major project to upgrade Connaught Road (Route 7) to create a two-lane free-flowing facility from Harcourt Road to Hill Road began in August. This project includes the construction of two viaducts, an underpass, three footbridges, the widening of Connaught Road West and ancillary works. It will cost approximately US$520 million and will be completed by the end of 1989. The project for the final phase of the Eastern Corridor from Shau Kei Wan Island to Chai Wan was well advanced. Construction, which will cost about $200 million, is scheduled to begin in 1987 and be completed in late 1989.

In Kowloon, construction on the third stage of the West Kowloon Corridor from Sham Shui Po to Lai Chi Kok (Route 2) has continued and is scheduled for completion in late 1987.



The first two stages of Gascoigne Road near the Cross Harbor Tunnel to Sham Shui Po have been completed some time ago. The final stage, an elevated track over Ferry Street, will be built when traffic conditions dictate. Elsewhere in Kowloon, Route 1 is being improved with the reconstruction of the Princess Margaret Road viaduct. The current viaduct, built in 1966 before the population of the New Territories began to increase, has only three lanes of two-way traffic. The new viaduct, which will cost approximately $60 million and be completed in mid-1989, will provide two lanes of traffic in each direction, separated by a center divider.

In the New Territories, the remaining sections of the New Territories Ring Road between Au Tau and Fanling are under construction and should have been completed in 1991. The future major road link with China is being built at Lok Ma Chau and is scheduled for completion in 1988. In July, work began on a large viaduct to replace the current intersection on Lam Kam Road.

Elsewhere in the New Territories, construction began in April on the main section of the new main road from Sha Tin to Tsuen Wan (Route 5). This will be the first direct road link between Tsuen Wan and the east side of the New Territories, replacing the current detours and busy routes via Lion Rock Tunnel and Tai Po Road. The main section will be 3.5 kilometers of dual carriageway, of which 2.5 kilometers will pass in tunnels under Smugglers Ridge and Needle Hill. The toll plaza and administration building are located at the entrance to the Tsuen Wan Tunnel. The cost of the entire route is approximately $1 billion. When completed in late 1989, travel time between Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan will be reduced from the current 25 minutes to about 10 minutes.

During the year, work began on two other tunnels that will form part of the strategic road network, the Eastern Harbor Crossing and a tunnel through the new city of Junk Bay, and planning began on a further link between Sha Tin and urban area, a road tunnel under the Tate cairn

Other road projects

A major project is underway to provide level access for vehicles and pedestrians to the Wan Chai Reclamation Area, where intense commercial and other development is taking place. The work will cost approximately US$120 million and will be completed by the end of 1987. Other major projects include upgrading the Tai Po Road and Lam Kam, Man Kam To and Sha Tau Kok roads, all in the New Territories.


Due to the rugged terrain and harbor, road tunnels are an important part of Hong Kong's road network. Of the four existing tunnels, the Lion Rock, Aberdeen and Airport tunnels are managed by the Department for Transport and the Cross Harbor Tunnel is owned and operated by the Cross Harbor Tunnel Company Limited.

The Lion Rock Tunnel connects Kowloon to Sha Tin and the northeastern New Territories. It opened in 1967 with a single tube and a second tube was added in 1978. Average daily traffic is 79,000 vehicles. The Aberdeen Tunnel, opened in 1982, connects the north and south sides of Hong Kong Island. Average daily traffic is 37,000 vehicles. The toll for both tunnels is $3 for all vehicles.

The free airport tunnel provides direct road access from central Kowloon to Hong Kong International Airport and also passes under the airport runway to Kwun Tong. Traffic has steadily increased since the tunnel opened in June 1982 and now averages around 55,000 vehicles a day.




Opened in 1972, the Cross Harbor Tunnel passes under the harbor between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. Traffic in the tunnel has increased so much over the years that by 1983 it had become the busiest four-lane facility in the world, averaging 110,000 vehicles a day. The toll structure remained unchanged, with eight classes ranging from $2 for motorcycles to $20 for larger trucks. In June 1984, to reduce congestion, the government imposed a $2 to $5 drive-through fee on all vehicles using the tunnel, except for public and private buses and vehicles used by disabled drivers and members of the consular corps. After an initial 15% drop in the number of vehicles using the tunnel, the number rose again to 110,500 per day by the end of 1986.

Construction of three new road tunnels began during the year. One tunnel - the Eastern Harbor Crossing - is a commercial project undertaken by the New Hong Kong Tunnel Consortium, an international group of companies formed for the purpose. It will connect Quarry Bay on Hong Kong Island and Cha Kwo Ling on Kowloon via a double submerged pipe joint that will include road and rail (MTR) connections. The other road tunnels are being built by the government and are the Route 5 Tunnel connecting Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan and the Junk Bay Tunnel from Kwun Tong to Junk Bay New Town. All three are scheduled for completion in 1989-90. A feasibility study of the Tate Cairn Tunnel linking Diamond Hill in Kowloon to Sha Tin was completed in late 1986 and its results are being reviewed. Provided there are no serious and unforeseen problems, it is hoped that this tunnel, which will provide much-needed relief to the severely congested Lion Rock Tunnel, can be completed by early 1992.

More economical use of roads

Comprehensive computerized traffic control measures were introduced in Central District and Wan Chai in connection with the expansion of Connaught Road and works to improve access to Wan Chai Reclamation in order to improve the traffic situation. Preliminary traffic planning work has commenced on the approaches to the East Harbor Crossing from Hong Kong and Kowloon to deal with the expected increase in traffic flows.

In Kowloon, traffic improvement plans included widening Gascoigne Road at its busy intersection with Wylie Road and Science Museum Road at Tsim Sha Tsui. A traffic management system was introduced in Mong Kok, which included the removal of parking lots and street vendors on Nelson Street, and a comprehensive traffic diversion system was introduced to handle the gradual reconstruction of the Princess Margaret Road viaduct. In addition to important measures, changes in the traffic situation across the area were constantly monitored so that traffic light times could be adjusted to traffic flows. There are around 640 traffic lights in the area, 320 of which are computer controlled. Planning work is underway to expand the Kowloon area's existing computerized traffic control system to Wong Tai Sin and Kwun Tong to improve conditions there. A contract has been signed to expand West Kowloon's video surveillance system, which has proven invaluable for traffic control, from the current 10 camera sites to 24. When completed, it will control all traffic signals on the north coast of the island , from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan.


In December 1985, it was decided not to introduce the electronic road pricing system, which involves charging for the use of busy roads at peak times.



for now. However, implementation of the system will be considered in the event of continued growth in private vehicle ownership or a serious increase in traffic congestion.

the park

During the year, a total of 11 car parks with 7,125 spaces were operated on behalf of the government by a private company, while five outdoor car parks with 635 spaces for cars and trucks and 34 spaces for motorcycles were operated by the Department of Transportation. Other off-street public parking is provided by the Department of Civil Aviation at Hong Kong International Airport and by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation at train stations. Surveys conducted in late 1985 indicated that there were approximately 42,400 parking spaces in privately owned and operated multi-story housing developments and outdoor parking lots throughout the area. Street parking is generally paid and only offered where traffic conditions permit. In mid-1986, there were 14,900 paid parking spaces throughout the region, open from Monday to Saturday, from 8 am to midnight. In areas such as Causeway Bay, Happy Valley and Tsim Sha Tsui, where parking demand is high, meter operation has been extended to Sundays and public holidays.


The number of registered passenger cars increased from 11,200 in 1985 to 13,900 in 1986. However, after the introduction of the six-year passenger car test in January 1986, some end-of-life vehicles were scrapped, there was a slight drop in the total number of licensees - 144,723 in December 1985 to 139,321 in December 1986.

The number of commercial vehicles steadily increased from 77,492 in December 1985 to 86,633 in December 1986.

At the end of 1986, the total number of registered vehicles of all categories was 266,933, which corresponds to an increase of 1.5 percent compared to the previous year. The number of new learner drivers remained at around 4,000 per month. As part of the driving offense points system introduced in August 1984, 697 license holders with 15 points or more had their licenses withdrawn for violations of the Road Traffic Act (StVO).

vehicle inspection

The Department of Transport continued to operate four Vehicle Inspection Centers in Kowloon Bay, To Kwa Wan, Sheung Kwai Chung and So Kon Po and conducted annual re-registration inspections of all public vehicles, older freight vehicles and vehicles licensed to transport dangerous goods. Department of Transport vehicle inspectors were also stationed at three regional police vehicle detention centers to inspect vehicles involved in accidents or suspected malfunctions. Airport vehicles were inspected at the airport, buses franchised at depots.

As of January 1, a regulation was introduced according to which private vehicles over six years old can be examined by private workshops authorized to issue road safety certificates. During the year, 27,737 vehicles were inspected under this regime.

With continued monitoring of bus maintenance standards, the condition of the concession's buses has improved, resulting in a reduced number of lawsuits for deficiencies identified during unscheduled inspections. At the same time, random checks on unlicensed buses have been increased, helping to improve maintenance standards for smaller bus companies.




thrilling roller coaster


Riders at Pokfulam Riding School

pipe enthusiasts

་ ་ ་

school sports meet


road safety


There was an encouraging decrease in road crashes and casualties, but the trend began to slow down as the year progressed and efforts to sustain improvements in road safety continued.

Traffic accidents involving bodily injuries fell by 2% in 1986. There were 14,610 accidents, of which 4,100 were serious and 280 were fatal, against 14,920 in the previous year (4,360 were serious, 290 were fatal). Detailed investigations to identify the causes of accidents were carried out in 124 traffic accident hotspots. Corrective measures to prevent accidents were recommended at 69 of these locations. Corrective actions, when implemented, have been shown to reduce accidents by an average of 28 percent.

Road safety campaigns continued to play an important role in reducing road accidents. The main themes of the 1986 campaigns were the role of parents and teachers in educating children about road safety. Emphasis was also placed on promoting elderly pedestrian safety, bicycle safety and defensive driving on high-capacity roads. In addition to using posters, public interest notices and flyers as promotional tools, four widely distributed editions of the "Road Safety Quarterly" were produced to further spread the road safety message. In addition, a new Road Users Code designed to promote safety for all road users has been finalized and will be published in early 1987.

By the end of 1986, the Hong Kong Road Safety Association operated 228 School Road Safety Patrols with the aim of keeping school children safe on their way to and from school. The Road Safety Council, an advisory body, continued to coordinate all road safety issues on the ground.

A second off-street rider training center is scheduled to open in Sha Tin in 1987 and will provide mandatory off-street training for motorcyclists.

Legislation was enacted to change the scoring system for traffic violations so that the number of points awarded for speeding increased with the severity of the violation, and to regulate the use of motorized carts.

Improvement and Expansion of Public Transport

Improving individual mobility through expanding and improving public transport services continued to be a key element of the government's internal transport policy.

In May 1986, the westward extension of the Island Line of the Mass Transit Railway from Admiralty to Sheung Wan was commissioned, resulting in a significant increase in the efficiency of transport services along the north coast of Hong Kong Island. Another Mass Transit Railway extension is underway as part of the Eastern Harbor Crossing project to connect the Kwun Tong line with Tai Koo Shing.

Construction of the Light Rail Transit system by KCRC has started to meet the demand for travel within Tuen Mun and Yuen Long in the northwestern part of the New Territories. The corporation is studying the possibility of further expansion of the system in the New Territories.

Improvements to bus services were concentrated in the New Territories and southern Hong Kong Island. The standard and level of bus service has continued to improve with more effective planning and supervision, with operators achieving reasonable profit margins with comparatively low fares.

Road and rail competition further eroded sponsorship of ferry services between ports, and the planned opening of the East Port Crossing in 1990 is expected to result in a further decline in sponsorship. As a result, a gradual rationalization



The linking of Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company ferry services will be implemented over the next five years to maintain a commercially viable franchised ferry network.

Kowloon-Guangzhou Railway

The number of passengers using the Kowloon-Canton Electrified Railway (KCR) between Sha Tin, Tai Po and Fanling cities and the metropolitan area, as well as those traveling to and from China via Lo Wu, increased significantly during the year . The railroad carried an average of 311,000 passengers a day, 63% more than 190,500 three years ago.

A new interchange station in Tai Wai opened in April to serve the southern part of Sha Tin New Town, replacing the temporary station.

Between 5:52 am and 12:00 noon, 450 trains operated daily, with four direct trains per route between Kowloon and Canton. With the Kowloon Motor Bus Company and minibus operators providing feeder services to KCR stations, 22 feeder routes were in operation.

In July 1986, legislation was passed allowing the KCRC to build and operate a Light Rail Transit (LRT) system in the northwest New Territories between Tuen Mun and Yuen Long. In 1985, work began on leveling and other preparations for the first phase, which included 23 kilometers of track, 41 stations and seven lines, in addition to several feeder buses, and continued throughout the year. This phase of the LRT is expected to be operational in 1988.

suburban train

The Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system now includes three lines operating as an integrated whole with 37 stations covering a total of 38.6 kilometers with interchanges at Prince Edward, Mong Kok, Admiralty and Central stations.

On the Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong lines, trains run every 2 minutes during morning peak hours and every 2.5 minutes during evening peak hours. On the Island Line, trains run at 3.5-minute intervals morning and evening at peak times.

The MTR carried an average of 1.6 million passengers per weekday, making it one of the busiest metro vehicles per kilometer traveled in the world.

On Christmas Eve 1986, a record 2.09 million passengers were carried. Train arrivals at destinations within two minutes of the scheduled time were maintained at 99.8% throughout the year.

A five percent general tariff increase was introduced in May. However, adult fares were kept in the $2 to $5 range. Buyers of high-end shared prepaid cards continued to enjoy discounts that included a last trip bonus.

Several promotions were developed to attract more passengers and raise awareness about the benefits of prepaid cards. In addition, public notices and extensive poster campaigns were organized to promote education among MTR passengers, primarily to allow passengers to disembark.

At the end of the year, the MTR network was served by 39 feeder bus lines. To encourage drivers to use the system, multi-storey car parks will be provided near MTR stations at Kwai Fong, Tsuen Wan, Sheung Wan and Central.




There are three licensed bus companies in Hong Kong, which carry four million passengers a day on a total of 356 routes.

The largest, Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited (KMB), has 213 bus routes in Kowloon and the New Territories and operates 22 routes between ports jointly with China Motor Bus Company Limited. In 1986, the fleet was expanded by 220 double-decker buses and eight tourist buses, which at the end of the year had 2,740 buses, of which 2,599 were double-decker buses, 100 were single-decker buses and 41 were tourist buses.

Most of the KMB-operated bus services have been upgraded to new cities in the New Territories, including four new 'express' services to Kowloon and train stations. Air-conditioned buses have been introduced on all KMB airport services.

With the exception of the post-tunnel fare on Cross-Harbor routes, KMB bus fares have remained the same since the last revision in February 1985. Fares on urban routes range from 70 cents to $2.10, while fares on on rural routes they range from 80-80 cents to $4. Higher fares are charged for express, bus and recreational services.

During the year, KMB transported 1.1 billion passengers and traveled 210 million kilometers - increases of 2% and 9%, respectively, compared to the previous year.

China Motor Bus Company Limited (CMB) operates 96 bus routes in Hong Kong Island and Ap Lei Chau and 19 shared routes between ports. In 1986, its fleets of 1,019 double-decker buses carried 320 million passengers and covered 55 million kilometers, an 8% drop in visitor numbers from 1985, largely due to competition from the MTR Island Line.

CMB bus fares were revised in April. Fares range from US$1 to US$1.70 on urban routes and from US$1 to US$3.50 on suburban routes. Bus fares for services at the port remained unchanged, with the exception of the fare for the leg after crossing the port, which was revised to US$1.20. After 12 months of regular monitoring of CMB maintenance standards in light of the recommendations of the Transport Advisory Committee Working Group report on CMB Maintenance, the Committee concluded that the CMB has made encouraging progress in improving vehicle maintenance and other aspects of its maintenance performance.

On the island of Lautau, New Lantao Bus Company (1973) Limited (NLB) operates eight routes with a fleet of 56 buses, 11 of which are double-deckers. In 1986, NLB buses carried an average of 6,500 passengers on weekdays. Leisure demand increased that number to an average of 15,700 on Sundays and holidays. Revised in May, NLB bus fares range from $0.80 to $5.70 on weekdays and $1.20 to $9 on Sundays and holidays.

KMB's franchise was extended through August 31, 1995; for CMB until August 31, 1989 and for NLB until March 31, 1991.

Franchise bus services are complemented by a fleet of 2,208 public non-franchise leased buses and 117 private buses operated by private housing estates and factories for their own use.

micro bus

The size of the public minibus (PLB) fleet has been fixed at 4,350 since May 1976. PLBs are 14-seat minibuses licensed under the Highway Code to carry passengers at separate rates. Some PLBs are used on regular services (green minibus services) and others on occasional services (red PLB services).



In 1986, red PLBs were carrying around a million passengers a day. There is no fare and route control for the red PLBs, popular with passengers willing to pay higher fares for fast, direct and convenient service, with the added benefit of being able to hop on or off anywhere on unrestricted sections of the route. However, this type of red PLB contributes to congestion, as they tend to be concentrated on the main bus and tram corridors, and their frequent stops slow down high-capacity carriers and other traffic.

Expansion of the green minibus program continued in 1986, with PLBs being converted to fixed routes and fares under the control of the Department of Transportation to serve areas of special needs. Another 15 green minibus lines were introduced during the year. At the end of the year, 152 green minibus lines with 1,125 PLB operated throughout the region, transporting around 514,000 passengers daily. Some green minibus lines offer discounted fares for passengers with disabilities, senior citizens and students.

A fleet of 2,165 privately owned minibuses is also maintained by schools, housing developments and businesses for their own use. Permission was granted on April 1 for public minibuses to place commercial advertising on the inside or outside of the vehicles.

Residential Bus Services

To meet the transportation needs of remote residential areas, and particularly private residential developments, a residential bus service program was introduced in 1982 to complement franchised bus services. Resident services are authorized under a passenger service license under certain conditions, allowing the service to operate only according to the route, timetable and stops approved by the Traffic Commissioner. Licenses, which are normally valid for one year, can be renewed as needed for the service. There are 21 residential bus lines in operation - 20 in the New Territories and one on Hong Kong Island with 85 single-decker buses. In 1986, around 5,500 passengers were transported, which corresponds to an increase of 15 percent compared to the previous year.


Tram operation in Hong Kong dates back to 1904 when Hong Kong Tramways Limited started operations on five intersecting routes. Operating along the densely populated north coast of Hong Kong Island, the tram service includes six routes that intersect on a 30 kilometer route. Trams continued to be well used even after the opening of the island MTR line. In 1986, the fleet of 161 double-decker trams carried an average of 334,000 passengers per day. Fares were last revised in 1983 and remained at 60 cents for adults, 20 cents for children under 12 and 30 cents for student ticket holders.

In order to improve the operational efficiency of the company's services, approval was granted to move the warehouse facility from Sharp Street East to Sai Ying Pun and Sai Wan Ho. Now the trams are being rebuilt and modernized to make travel more comfortable.

Peak Tramway Company Limited has operated a cable car since 1888 to Victoria Peak between the lower levels of Hong Kong Island and Victoria Gap, 397 meters above sea level. The service stops at four stations along the 1.4 kilometer line and negotiates a gradient of one to two in places. It is popular with tourists, while also providing a direct link to the Central District for Peak residents. In 1986, the service carried 7,200 passengers a day, a 13% increase from 1985.


tram, trolley


A cable car is in operation at Ocean Park in the southern district of Hong Kong Island. The system was designed to transport visitors between the plains and headlands of the park and has 246 vehicles with a total transport capacity of 1,476 people. During the year, the system carried an average of 3,000 passengers per day.

the voice

Ferries remain an important form of public transport in Hong Kong. Services are mainly provided by the two franchise companies – Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited (HYF) and Star Ferry Company Limited (SF). Star Ferry operates a fleet of 10 vessels, crossing the harbor between Edinburgh Place on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui and Hung Hom in Kowloon. During the year, the company carried 40 million passengers on its two routes. HYF operates 16 interport services (three of which carry vehicles), nine commuter services and two excursion services. The company has a fleet of 85 vessels, including double- and triple-decker ferries and high-speed hovercraft, some with air conditioning. Fares for HYF ferry services were increased on January 1st. Fares for passengers between ports range from US$1.7 to US$5 for the regular class. Outside fares range from US$1 to US$9 during the week and from US$1 to US$11 on Sundays and holidays. During the year, HYF carried 77 million passengers and four million vehicles, down eight and five percent respectively from 1985.

As a result of the opening of the MTR Island Line, HYF inter-port passenger ferry services experienced a 13% drop in customer numbers compared to 1985. This trend is expected to continue beyond the planned opening of the Eastern Harbor Crossing in 1990. The suspension of passenger service from Chai Wan to Kwun Tong at the end of March marked the beginning of a gradual reduction in interport connections in response to the continuing drop in customer numbers.

In addition to the services of the two licensed ferry companies, 10 smaller ferry services to outlying islands are offered by six licensed operators. To meet local demand, particularly in remote rural areas, complementary services known as “Kaitos” are available. During the year, 126 "Kaitos" were in service. Both types of services are controlled by licenses issued by the Department of Transport under the Ferry Service Regulations. Fleets of speedboats known as 'walla-walas' are available for hire from public docks in Victoria Harbour.

Three new piers opened during the year - one at Tsing Yi, one at Sai Wan Ho for licensed ferry service to Rennie's Mill and one next to the Butterfly Estate at Tuen Mun.


Hong Kong is served by three types of taxis: Hong Kong and Kowloon taxis, which can operate anywhere on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories (but mainly serve urban areas); New Territories Taxis, which only operate in permitted areas in the New Territories, and Lantau Taxis, which only operate on Lantau Island.

For downtown taxis, fares were $5 for the first two kilometers and 70 cents for each additional 267 meters. For New Territories and Lantau, the rate has been changed to $4 for the first two kilometers and 80 cents for every additional 400 meters, effective March 1. A double toll is charged for taxis crossing the port.

A comprehensive review of the taxi policy is being conducted by a subcommittee of the Transport Advisory Committee. Completion is scheduled for the end of 1987.



Port Development and Transport Services The Port of Hong Kong continued to efficiently meet the demands of an increasing number of ship arrivals and a growth in both the volume of cargo handled and the number of passengers.

Victoria Harbour, situated between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, is the hub of maritime activity. It has an area of ​​5,000 hectares and varies in width from 1.2 to 9.6 kilometers.

Optimum utilization of all port facilities is reflected in the call times of ships calling the port, with cargo ships spending an average of just two and a half days at the port's mooring buoys and container ships at Kwai Chung terminals for about 13 hours. These are probably the fastest response times of any port in the Far East.

Port management is the responsibility of the Director of the Navy. It is advised by several committees that liaise closely with commercial and maritime interests to ensure that facilities and services are developed to meet the changing needs of Hong Kong and the ships calling at the port.

In 1986, some 14,050 ocean-going ships and 81,150 land-based ships called in Hong Kong, loading and unloading over 62 million tons of cargo. This included 34 million tonnes of general cargo from marine vessels, 44% of which was in containers.

While containerization is an important method of transporting cargo, a significant amount of dry cargo handled in Hong Kong is eventually transported by light and power cargo ships. About 2,000 of them were operational at the end of 1986 and 26 percent were mechanized. General cargo is normally handled using marine equipment, but heavy floating cranes are available if required.

The Port of Hong Kong handled 2.7 million TEU (twenty-foot equivalent units) in 1986. The container terminals at Kwai Chung offer six berths with over 2,300 meters of quay wall and around 90 hectares of handling area of load. This area includes container yards and container loading stations, all operated by private companies or consortia. Up to six “third generation” container ships can dock at container terminals at the same time. One of the Kwai Chung terminal operators is supplying a 12-storey multi-purpose warehouse with a usable area of ​​52,400 square metres, with the first two floors serving as a container loading station. A six-story distribution and transshipment centre, one of the largest of its kind in the world, is also being built and will more than double the operator's current container capacity. Several other multi-level warehouses near Kwai Chung offer additional storage facilities.

Other shipyards and terminals provided and operated by private companies can accommodate ships up to 305 meters in length and up to 14.6 meters in draft. Public sector cargo handling facilities include cargo work areas in Wan Chai, Yau Ma Tei, Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Western District, Rambler Channel, Chai Wan, Sham Shui Po, Kowloon Bay and Tuen Mun. These areas are administered by the Department of the Navy. Government policy calls for the provision of public cargo areas across the territory to maintain fast and efficient internal cargo movement.

The Ministry of the Navy, in cooperation with other government agencies, concluded in May a study on the port development strategy. The purpose of the study is to recommend a strategy and development program for the provision of additional major port facilities in Hong Kong by the year 2001, taking into account expected future requirements derived from commercial forecasts and the capacities of various existing port facilities and planned and



medium and long-term strategic development opportunities. The main conclusion of the study is that additional container terminals and related facilities will be needed to meet the expected increase in demand in the 1990s and beyond. To this end, the study recommends land reclamation west of Stonecutters Island as the best development option. The feasibility of this recommendation is being examined in detail.

While Hong Kong is already considered the leading container port in Asia and one of the 3 largest in the world, the expansion of the Kwai Chung container port is taking place in the short term. Rehabilitation of approximately 26 hectares of seabed at Kwai Chung Creek, begun in July 1984, continued in 1986. The newly formed land will be used as a reserve area for container terminals.

As the second phase of the expansion program, work has begun to reclaim an additional 29 hectares of land in Kwai Chung to provide three additional berths and associated terminal facilities. Construction of this new terminal is expected to be completed by the end of 1989.

During the year, 9.4 million passengers were transported between Hong Kong and Macau on jetfoils, hydrofoils, jetcats, shuttle ferries, high-speed ferries and conventional ferries operating from the Hong Kong-Macao Ferry Terminal on Hong Island Kong or Sham Shui Po- Macau - Kowloon Ferry Terminal.

About 2.34 million passengers, a 13% increase from 1985, traveling between Hong Kong and 18 destinations in China passed through the temporary terminals at Tai Kok Tsui and Central. Carrier bridges, jetcats, catamarans and conventional ferries operate on these routes.

In January 1986, a temporary terminal opened in the Central District of Hong Kong Island to alleviate congestion at the Tai Kok Tsui Terminal in Kowloon and to handle increased passenger traffic bound for China.

Construction of a new ferry terminal at Tsim Sha Tsui, on the site of the current Kowloon Public Pier Number 54, is progressing as planned. This new terminal is scheduled to open in early 1988. It will serve destinations in China, replacing temporary terminals at Tai Kok Tsui and Central.

In the port of Hong Kong, 71 mooring buoys are provided and maintained by the Maritime Department. Of these, 44 are classified as “Class A” berths, suitable for ships up to 183 meters in length, and 27 as “Class B” berths, suitable for ships up to 137 meters in length. These berths include 55 dedicated typhoon berths that allow vessels to remain safe during the passage of tropical storms, improving work efficiency and reducing operating costs.

For ships calling in Hong Kong, immigration facilities are available 24 hours a day at the Western Quarantine Anchorage and from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm. in the east quarantine anchorage. Quarantine facilities are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at Ancoradouro de Quarentena Oeste, but only between 6am and 6pm at Ancoradouro de Quarentena Oriental, upon request through the Porto Communications Centre. Vessels can apply for an early release, an early immigration process and an early free radio practice.

Hong Kong occupies a prominent position as a center for shipping and management activities. As a British home port, the volume of ships registered in Hong Kong is of international importance. Despite a general downturn in world shipping, Hong Kong's registered fleet grew substantially from 7.1 million to eight million gross tons during the year, elevating the Hong Kong registry's position as one of the world's top 12 registries. world. The Regulatory Authority for Registered Vessels in Hong Kong



Kong is the responsibility of the Maritime Department of the Ministry of the Navy in terms of maritime control, safety standards and international certification to facilitate its operations around the world. Hong Kong shipping lines also control a significant percentage of the world's deadweight tonnage that is not registered in Hong Kong. Most local shipowners and affiliates are represented by the Hong Kong Shipowners Association.

Hong Kong registered ships apply the same construction, safety, manning and merchant shipping regulations in all important respects as UK registered ships. This status cannot continue beyond 1997. The Sino-British Joint Declaration provides that the future Hong Kong SAR may continue to maintain a ship register under its own legislation. Therefore, it is necessary to amend the registration laws applicable to Hong Kong so that they can remain under British administration until 1997 and thereafter under the government of the Hong Kong SAR.

A consultation document was published in May 1985, outlining preliminary proposals for the amended registration and inviting comments from those involved in shipping. Taking into account the comments received, a plan for the amended registry was prepared and discussed in the Sino-British Joint Liaison Group, which agreed on the principles for establishing the amended registry at its fourth meeting in July. A document outlining these agreed principles was published in October and detailed proposals for the amended registry are being developed by the government in consultation with other stakeholders.

In connection with the present registration, the Maritime Department of the Ministry of the Navy carries out survey and certification of vessels registered in Hong Kong under various international conventions, and also provides plan approval and survey service. Statutory surveys of ships destined for Hong Kong registration are carried out worldwide by surveyors of the Department. On-site inspectors are made available to UK or foreign ships to issue certificates in accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974 and other international conventions on the law of the sea.

Several of these international certificates have been issued to ships flying a foreign flag at the request of foreign governments. In addition, one of the world's largest fleets of high-tech dynamically assisted vehicles, comprising jetfoils, hydrofoils, lateral hovercrafts and jetcats, operates in Hong Kong under the Maritime Department's supervision and certification. With certain exceptions, ships operating in Hong Kong waters must be licensed under the Port and Shipping Control Regulations. These too are tested and provided with certificates.

Ships registered in Hong Kong maintain a high standard of safety in accordance with the SOLAS Convention and its amendments for enhanced safety measures. This Convention is widely recognized as the most important of all international maritime security agreements.

One convention of particular importance in international force and enforced by ships registered in Hong Kong is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) 1973, as amended by its 1978 Protocol. the Convention and are equipped with International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) certificates. As a result, Hong Kong ships can now provide binding proof of compliance with MARPOL and thus make a positive contribution to the environmental protection of the seas. Furthermore, as visiting ships are required to comply with MARPOL standards, the risk of pollution of Hong Kong waters has been reduced.



During the year, Hong Kong also passed a major amendment to the 1974 SOLAS Convention, which entered into force internationally. The new requirements provide improved standards for life-saving appliances and related training and will be complied with by ships registered in Hong Kong, thus contributing to a higher level of safety for maritime transport in general.

Phase 1 of Hong Kong's mandatory pilotage scheme is now operational and Phase 2 is expected to be introduced in 1987. The final phase will be implemented in 1989, after which all vessels of 1,000 gross tons and above will be required to use the services. of a licensed Hong Kong pilot when navigating within the pilotage area. The Director of the Navy is the piloting authority in Hong Kong.

All licensed pilots are members of the Hong Kong Pilots Association, which provides commercial piloting services at fees regulated by law.

All navigation buoys in Hong Kong waters comply with the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities Marine Buoy System and all fairway buoys are illuminated and equipped with radar reflectors. Other navigation aids in the port and its approaches are constantly being improved to ensure greater safety and the reprogramming of some beacons to solar energy continues and is being successful.

The Port Communications Center is connected to the Green Island signal station by telex, telephone and VHF radio and to the Waglan Island signal station by telephone and VHF radio. The Maritime Department operates a continuous VHF radiotelephony port operations service based on international maritime frequencies, providing extensive maritime communications throughout the port and its approaches. Telex and telex facilities are also directly connected to users across the world.

A continuously monitored emergency communication network connects the Navy Department's Search and Rescue Coordination Center with Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force military aircraft and helicopters, Department of Fire and Maritime Police launches, and other similar facilities. If a ship encounters difficulties in the South China Sea 1,300 kilometers from Hong Kong, the Ministry of Marine will activate the Maritime Rescue Coordination Center in conjunction with other rescue coordination centers in the region.

Maritime Department patrol boats monitor shipping, fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo areas. The boats are in constant radio contact with the port's communications center so that the center can initiate and coordinate all necessary measures. A fleet of fire trucks manned by firefighters is kept on standby with units on both sides of the harbor.

After approval by the Legislative Council Finance Committee in July 1986, implementation of a vessel traffic management system to reduce navigation risks in Hong Kong waters and its approaches began and is due to be completed in early 1989.

The system will consist of five remote radar stations located at Black Point, North East Lantau, Shek Kwu Chau, Bluff Head and Waglan Island, with the Ship Traffic Center located at the new Macau Ferry Terminal. It is intended that the system be put into operation in stages while the main elements are being installed.

The port has good bunker facilities and ships can be supplied with fuel oil from docks at the oil terminals or from a large fleet of bunker ships. Fresh water is available from commercial piers or from private vessels serving moored vessels or from government mooring buoys.



There are extensive facilities for repair, maintenance and dry docking or launching of all types of vessels, including oil rigs up to approximately 230 meters long and 27 meters wide. There are five floating dry docks opposite Tsing Yi Island, the largest of which can lift vessels up to 40,000 dwt. Hong Kong has a large number of small shipyards equipped to carry out repairs on small vessels. These shipyards also build specialist boats, including sophisticated patrol boats and pleasure boats.

Hong Kong is a major center for recruiting seafarers. The Seamen Recruitment Office and the Merchant Marine Office register and monitor the employment of around 9,500 active seafarers aboard around 750 ships of various flags. Considerable attention has been paid to providing more comprehensive training for Hong Kong seafarers and, in this regard, the Temporary Seafarers Training Center in Little Sai Wan provides additional in-service training to meet the requirements of the International Convention on the Training and Competence of Seafarers. Construction began on the permanent facilities of the Maritime Training Centre, which is scheduled to open in mid-1987.

The Examinations Department conducts a wide range of examinations for candidates wishing to obtain certificates of competence for service on vessels of various sizes and types, sailing around the world or operating in local waters. Furthermore, the department inspects, oversees and oversees all aspects of training at accredited institutions for the acquisition of various maritime qualifications recognized by the Hong Kong government.

The Mariners' Clubs in Kowloon and Kwai Chung offer seafarers of all nationalities high quality leisure and wellness facilities.

Civil Aviation

The Civil Aviation Department is responsible for all aspects of civil aviation in Hong Kong, with the exception of the licensing of scheduled air services, which is the responsibility of the Air Transport Licensing Authority, an independent public body. The department is made up of five divisions that deal with air traffic control, flight safety, technical affairs and planning, international air services relations, and administration of Hong Kong International Airport. It has accounting services to control income and expenses and office administration services for recruitment, discipline and social assistance.

Hong Kong's single-runway airport is the result of an ongoing program of modification and development to accommodate the rapid growth in air traffic and the introduction of new aircraft. A full range of facilities are available, including aeronautical engineering, in-flight catering and one of the largest air cargo complexes in Asia.

The signing of the Hong Kong-Netherlands Aviation Agreement on 17 September marked the beginning of an important new era in Hong Kong's civil aviation history. This is the first in a series of air services agreements governing the operation of scheduled services that Hong Kong hopes to secure with other governments in the coming years. These agreements were specifically designed taking into account the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration on the Future of Hong Kong.

Hong Kong International Airport experienced a 7.8% increase in passenger traffic in 1986, compared to 3.1% in 1985. A total of 10.6 million passengers passed through the airport in 1986, compared to 9 .8 million in the previous year, and that annual passenger volume exceeded the 10,000,000 mark for the first time. General cargo, including finished goods imported, exported and re-exported by air, totaled 536,000 tons, compared to 430,000 tons in 1985. The value of air freight totaled $122,927 million. Measured by total trade in imports, exports and



Air re-exports and imports each represented about 21 percent in value, air exports about 28 percent and air re-exports about 19 percent. The United States was the most important market for exports and re-exports by air, accounting for 50% and 24% of trade, respectively.

Flight movements increased by 8.5% to 64,770 per year. More than 80% of the planes that served Hong Kong were widebody.

The number of airlines serving Hong Kong International Airport and the overall frequency of their flights remained largely unchanged. During the year, around 30 scheduled airlines operated around 1,100 scheduled flights a week between Hong Kong and around 70 other cities. The network of scheduled services covered Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, North America, Australasia and Asia. In addition, an average of 75 non-scheduled flights were operated between Hong Kong and Europe, the United States, Australia and Asia each week.

This year saw the introduction of scheduled Cathay Pacific Airways flights to Beijing, Rome, Paris, Amsterdam and San Francisco, as well as the reintroduction of scheduled flights to Auckland and Nagoya. A total of 22.5 percent of Cathay Pacific Airways shares were offered for sale, with 15 percent going to the public and airline employees. The airline has been listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange since May. Cathay Pacific Airways has placed an order with Boeing for two B747-400 aircraft, with options for seven more B747-400s and two B747-300s, and has converted an option for one B747 Freighter into a firm order. Cathay Pacific Airways was also the launch customer for the Rolls Royce RB211-524-D4D engines for the B747-400.

Hong Kong Dragon Airlines continued to operate B737 branch services between Hong Kong and various cities in China, other Asian countries and Micronesia.

In May, the Hong Kong Air Transport Licensing Authority licensed Dragon Airlines to operate scheduled flights to four cities in Thailand. In July, ATLA licensed Cathay Pacific Airways to operate scheduled services to Manchester and Amsterdam.

Expansion work on the airport's passenger terminal building continued and is expected to be completed in 1988. The terminal building's capacity will then be nearly doubled to 18 million passengers a year.

In May, work began on a 22-month project to create shoulders along the entire length of the runway to overcome serious soil erosion problems in the grassy areas adjacent to the runway. During the entire project contract period, the runway will be closed to flight operations daily from 00:01 to 08:45.

In June, a long-range Doppler VOR/DME radio navigation aid was commissioned for operational use at Tung Lung Island. This replaced outdated VOR/DME equipment at Mount Kellett which had been in service for over 20 years.

The Civil Aviation Ordinance (Aircraft Noise Ordinance), which authorizes the government to ban aircraft that do not meet international noise standards for take-off and landing in Hong Kong, was enacted in June but was still not operational by the end of the year. A noise study of the impact of helicopter operations at Fenwick Pier Street Heliport, in close proximity to the Hong Kong Academy of Performing Arts, showed that, subject to certain restrictions on helicopter types and flight paths, there were no significant negative impacts. A lease agreement to use the facility for a further five years was therefore approved by the board of directors.

Air-conditioned buses with large luggage storage capacity have been introduced for the bus service between the airport and Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui.




Public order

Responsible for crime prevention and detection, the Royal Hong Kong Police Force continues to grow and adapt its resources to meet the growing challenges of modern policing. For example, long-term programs are being introduced to improve the police forces' radio communications network and IT facilities.

In 1986, a strategy was adopted to gradually increase the proportion of local officers in the highest echelons of the police force. To maintain the high efficiency and morale of the police force, merit-based promotion will remain a priority.

In the fight against illegal drug trafficking, the police are in close contact with customs and tax authorities. Customs and Excise also work closely with foreign law enforcement agencies to combat smuggling and enforce Copyright Regulations. Work continued on amending the Customs Goods Regulation, which provides for the control of the import, manufacture and distribution of taxable goods.

The Independent Commission Against Corruption enforces the Anti-Bribery Regulation and continues to educate the community on the evils of corruption. From time to time, the Commission works closely with the police to pool resources and expertise.

The Correctional Center manages the prison system, conducts all types of rehabilitation and prison programs, and runs closed centers for Vietnamese refugees. In 1986, the department continued to expand and improve its facilities and services. Great importance is given to the professional and educational training of prisoners.

Fighting fires is no easy task in the crowded areas of Hong Kong. The fire department, however, provides the community with an efficient and modern service, with fire stations strategically located throughout the area. The work of the department's ambulance team continued to increase throughout the year, receiving around 1,000 calls daily.

Crime Suppression Committee

The Crime Committee, chaired by the Secretary General, continued to reflect the high priority the government attaches to fighting crime and maintaining law and order. The committee provided advice and recommendations on a variety of issues, including triads and gang activities, control of counterfeit firearms, addressing juvenile delinquency and juvenile offenders, harassment by vice establishments, and regulation of Hong Kong's security industry.

The threat of triads, gangs and organized crime was the focus of attention throughout the year. In April, the committee released a discussion paper entitled "Possible changes in law and administration of justice to address the triad problem",



which contained a wide range of legislative and other options aimed at making the fight against organized crime more effective. The document generated strong public and media interest and a range of opinions were expressed during the three-month consultation period, culminating in an adjournment debate in the Legislative Council in July. While some options received more support than others, there was clear public support for vigorous action to combat the Triad threat. In October, the Secretary General made a statement to the Legislative Council outlining the options the government intended to pursue. The development of several options in the draft legislation has started.

Discussions are ongoing with government agencies about areas under their jurisdiction and where triads and gangs may operate, with the aim of preventing criminal activity through tighter controls and modified procedures.

The Crime Combat Commission paid special attention to the problem of juvenile delinquency. It followed recommendations to prevent young people from becoming delinquent and to reduce recidivism among those with criminal records. It was decided to create a young offender assessment board that could better coordinate court advice on the backgrounds of young offenders and the prison programs they would likely reform. The committee also initiated a detailed investigation into the triad's influence in schools and measures to combat it.

The committee oversaw the implementation of the standardized law and order statistics system, which became fully operational in July and provides consistent statistics from all branches of the criminal justice system. Once the proposal for the implementation of a more sophisticated integrated statistical system was approved, planning began.

Discussions began with the Security Association on how best to regulate the security sector to ensure that the services provided are of appropriate standards. In this context, changes in the Guard Ordinance to improve the quality of guards and measures to control the standard of intrusion alarm systems were examined. Liaison with goldsmiths and jewelers associations was maintained to encourage appropriate security measures on the part of these crafts, and the proposed scheme of using closure orders to solve the problem of trucking establishments that disturb dwellings was further improved .

District Crime Commissions continued to play an important role in the fight against crime, organizing their own publicity campaigns on various topics and supporting national efforts such as the Neighborhood Watch Scheme and the Annual Crime Campaign, activities that raise public awareness of prevention measures to help Combat crime and participate in these activities. District committees also reflect community concerns for law and order, and close relationships are maintained with the board of directors, typified by the annual conference of all district and central committee members.


The Queen and Prince Philip's visit in October was the culmination of a year of activity and progress for the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. The royal visit required a major police operation, which mainly served to order the large crowd that thronged to see the Queen.

Earlier this year, the force was honored with a visit from Princess Alexandra, Honorary General Commander of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. Accompanied by her husband, the Honorable Angus Ogilvy, the Princess unveiled the plaques opening the Police Officers' Club in Causeway Bay and the Police Sports and Recreation Club in Boundary Street, and commissioned three new releases from the Maritime Police.



In May, the police commissioner made his first official visit to Beijing under an agreement to exchange information and promote closer cooperation. This led to better contacts from the international criminal police organization (Interpol).

The extent of the triad society's influence in the community was a major concern in 1986, culminating in the release of the Crime Control Committee's discussion paper on options for changes in law and administration of justice to address the triad problem. Following an investigation begun in mid-1985, the police launched a full-scale anti-Triad operation during the night of July 15, arresting 34 men for investigation of various crimes. After the operation, the police set up a special anti-Triad hotline with encouraging results.

Other crime trends that came under scrutiny were increases in shoplifting, particularly in new cities; the law and order of unlicensed pool halls; and the reckless carrying of large sums of money by victims of theft, often unaccompanied workers acting as couriers for their employers.

To address the problem of shoplifting, police launched a campaign in August to highlight the seriousness of the crime and call for the reclassification of shoplifting to "shoplifting".

The officers were outfitted in new winter uniforms towards the end of the year and it is planned that they will wear new two-piece uniforms for the summer. Designed for greater comfort, ease of care and a more modern appearance, the new designs replace uniforms that have not changed for 21 years.

Police Bands, accompanied by teams of police bands and lion dancers, visited Paris, Rome, San Francisco and Expo '86 in Vancouver.


In 1986, 81,411 crimes were reported, against 86,944 in 1985. There were 5,372 robberies, against 6,745, and 11,942 robberies, against 13,922 in 1985. The general detection rate was 47.9%, against 46.1% in the previous year.

A total of 37,863 people were arrested and prosecuted, compared to 38,749 in 1985. 35,265 adults and 2,598 juveniles (under 16 years of age) were prosecuted, compared to 35,585 and 3,164 respectively the previous year.

organized and serious crime

Several anti-Triad operations were carried out by the Serious and Organized Crime Group. Of particular importance was the neutralization of an overseas-based triad society that tried to gain a foothold in the territory. The operations also dealt a severe blow to several other locally based triad societies.

The number of robberies involving real or fake firearms remained practically at the same level as the previous year. There were recorded 139 robberies with real or fake firearms, 38 of which were committed against goldsmiths and jewelers, resulting in $38 million in lost property.

A total of 18 firearms were seized during police operations, resulting in 53 people being indicted for various crimes.

economic crime

Further progress has been made in court in several major fraud investigations conducted by the Bureau of Commercial Crimes. Investigative and judicial processes in Hong Kong have been tested by the difficulties encountered in bringing these complex investigations to justice.



During the year, the full benefits of the office's computerized exhibition management system were realized. This has resulted in a significant reduction in the time spent preparing court proceedings and, in particular, a reduction in the workload associated with preparing extradition documents within the timeframes required by the treaties.

The first joint Commercial Crime Bureau-ICAC task force was created in 1986. This greatly facilitated a thorough investigation, using the powers contained in both the Police Department and the Anti-Corruption Ordinance.

Hong Kong remains a center for the production of high-quality counterfeit currency and other printed security documents, supplying both the domestic market and ever-increasing international criminal groups. During the year, several workshops that produced counterfeit money, checks and customs stamps were located and neutralized.

The agency's expanded ability to liaise with foreign law enforcement agencies continued to provide a useful flow of information and prevented several frauds. Close contact with foreign law enforcement forces was maintained through Interpol, and the Office received a large number of requests for assistance through that agency.

Public order

There were no serious incidents affecting Hong Kong's internal security during the year. Police Tactical Unit officers continued to play an important role in maintaining order at important public events. They became fully engaged during the royal visit in October and were honored to stand guard during Princess Alexandra's stay at Government House in April. During 1992, officers ranging from the rank of police officer to the superintendent received training in homeland security tactics and crowd control methods at the base of the Police Tactical Unit in the New Territories.

bomb reports

During the year, 70 incidents related to bombs and explosives were recorded. These were categorized as 25 homemade explosive devices, 64 World War II duds (mainly grenades and plane bombs), nine instances where explosives were confiscated, and 23 reports made in good faith but turned out to be harmless items contained. In addition, 134 fraud reports were received, which were handled by bomb defusers or general duty officers.

illegal immigration

Illegal immigration remains one of the most serious problems facing security forces. An average of 738 police officers were deployed daily to combat all forms of illegal immigration, including detecting and arresting those who evaded security surveillance. A total of 3,726 scammers were caught during the year. By comparison, a total of 16,832 illegal immigrants were arrested trying to enter Hong Kong.

Maritime Police boat patrols also helped to prevent illegal entry by sea. The Illegal Immigration Department took effective action against trade unions that bring illegal immigrants to Hong Kong, and during the year a total of 339 people were prosecuted for involvement in such criminal activities.

Among the fugitives who appeared, 19 were in possession of forged identity documents. In 1985, there were 53.



The new style ID card remains difficult to counterfeit, while computerized screening procedures are making it possible to identify fraudsters using lost or stolen ID cards belonging to bona fide Hong Kong residents.

The smuggling of children into the territory was a worrying trend in the second half of the year, despite countermeasures by security forces. During the year, police identified 212 illegal immigrant children.


The sixth consecutive heavy opium harvest in the "Golden Triangle" border region between Burma, Laos and Thailand has led to widespread drug trafficking in Southeast Asia and a flow of opiates to Hong Kong. Continuous enforcement action by police and customs resulted in fluctuations in prices and purity levels.

A worrying trend has been the growing seizure of methaqualone that had been smuggled into the territory.

About 643 kilograms of opiate drugs, including heroin base, heroin #3 and opium, were seized, compared to 467 kilograms in 1985. There were 12,554 criminal prosecutions for narcotics offenses, compared to 12,432 the previous year.

crime prevention

The Crime Prevention Office continued to expand its activities. Its employees collaborated with various public agencies and organizations to produce a wide range of crime prevention leaflets and public interest announcements, and participated in seminars and community expos.

Criminal Information

The Police Operational Nominal Index Computer System, maintained and managed by the Directorate-General for Criminal Records, remained in operation. In 1986, around 9,000 queries were processed daily.

The Bureau of Identification specializes in fingerprint technology and forensic photography. Crime Scene Unit staff visited 23,140 crime scenes to examine fingerprints, resulting in the identification of 535 people as associated with 645 cases. The main collection of fingerprints contains 573,438 sets of fingerprints. During the year, 72,336 arrest fingerprints were processed and 39,294 people had a criminal record. The department also conducted searches of 60,565 sets of fingerprints for verification purposes.

The Department of Certificates Without Criminal Convictions received 38,200 requests for certificates.

The photography department, comprised of professional photographers and trained police officers, produced 594,030 black and white photos and 165,718 slides and color photos.


The number of road accidents involving personal injury continued to decline in 1986. Several factors contributed to this, including the impact of the opening of new high-traffic streets, which relieved pressure on the city's existing streets; the opening of the Mass Transit Railway's Hong Kong Island line, which further eased the pressure, and the continued general decline in the number of registered vehicles, particularly private cars. Part of the latest decline may be due to the strict inspection standards being set for private motor vehicles over six years old.



Road safety campaigns continued throughout the year, with special attention to the elderly.

The Traffic Safety City in Sau Mau Ping was renovated during the year and there are plans to open two more 'towns' in 1987.

As of December 31, preliminary figures for crashes involving personal injuries showed a total drop of 1.2%, with 288 deaths and 19,420 injuries.

community work and media

The Police Department of Public Information (PPRB) continued to promote closer links between the force and the public and kept the public informed about the force through close cooperation with the media.

Another major national crime-fighting campaign, themed “Home Security,” was launched to combat the problem of residential burglaries. The campaign included an intense "Crime Fighting Month" in September, culminating in "Home Safety Day" on September 28, when thousands of young people from various youth organizations, including the Youth Police Call, mobilized to distribute home security guidance for all residential buildings in the area.

As part of the campaign, the neighborhood watch program continued to expand and was completed in two phases during the year. At the end of the second phase, a total of 31,152 households had joined the program. Public enthusiasm for the program remains high. This concerted effort to raise public awareness of simple crime prevention methods and the need for home security is showing some encouraging results. For the first time in over 10 years, the number of burglaries in 1986 compared to 1985 dropped by 14.3%, a very pleasing development.

In addition to supporting the Campaign to Combat Crime, the police youth movement, the Junior Police Call, continued to grow and develop. Approximately 3,000 young people apply to join the JPC each month, and the total number that have joined the movement since its inception in 1974 is now over 430,000. In addition to providing wholesome pastimes for its young members, the movement is committed to education, charitable giving, and members participate in a variety of community programs. JPC played an important role in the Save a Ring-Pull campaign launched by the Hong Kong Kidney Patients Trust Fund to raise funds to treat people with kidney disease.

As part of an ongoing effort to encourage young people to help fight crime, the spring saw the sixth in a series of 'Young Help the Police' competitions. From the many thousands of entries, 30 young people were selected to participate in the final, where their talents as 'detectives' were put to the test as they tried to find the 'culprit' while watching a specially curated television programme. The entire ending was shown on the JPC television show. The five winners traveled to West Germany and the United Kingdom, while the five runners-up went to Thailand.

Another means of encouraging the public to fight crime is through the Good Citizens Awards Scheme, which awards cash prizes to those who actively help to apprehend criminals. During the year, 75 Good Citizens received awards totaling $122,000. The Good Citizen of the Year Award, created in 1985 for outstanding achievements by members of the public, continued to attract nominations, and seven such awards totaling $48,000 were presented during the year. The general willingness of the population to cooperate with the police was illustrated by the fact that 4 792 criminals were actually arrested by citizens. This corresponded to 12.6% of all arrests. The public continued to use the police "hotline" phone to report crimes



Training. The number of criminals arrested based on hotline information reached 5,000 in September 1986.

Television programs jointly produced by the PRB and Radio Television Hong Kong continued to prove popular, and Crimewatch, the program that recreates true crimes and seeks public support, proved to be a great success in terms of ratings and public response. "Police 15", a 15-minute program broadcast weekly on Chinese channels offering simple crime prevention advice and calling crime witnesses to come forward, celebrated its 10th anniversary in October 1986 and was the subject of a special program.

Staff at the 24-hour PRRB newsroom processed an average of 155,912 media inquiries per month. The newsroom also issued an average of 1,598 traffic reports and 1,298 press releases per month on all aspects of policing. Press conferences, background information and interviews were also organized by the PPRB.


Police academy facilities continued to expand and improve to meet growing demand. Recruitment inspectors continued to complete a 36-week course, and recruiting officers began their careers with a 22-week course. Courses included criminal law, social studies, police and court procedure, drill and musket, first aid and, for foreign inspectors, an eight-week course in colloquial Cantonese. Intern traffic officers completed a six-week course on traffic laws and procedures.

The school provides training for junior police officers to refresh and update their professional knowledge, for traffic officers, and for newly promoted non-commissioned officers and station non-commissioned officers to prepare them for higher-level roles. With the implementation of the revised mock court training curriculum, the standard of judicial evidence by junior officers will be raised.

The regional training program continued to be operated from centers in each of the four police regions. Each year, it provides additional training to approximately 2,000 police officers in their first two years of service. In addition, a continuing education program for inspectors with less than one year of service has proven most effective, as have a series of community relations courses specifically designed for newly appointed neighborhood policing coordinators.

The Police Training School's Detective Training Wing held standard 12-week criminal investigation courses throughout the year, with an average of 25 inspectors, 20 precinct sergeants and sergeants, and 100 officers attending each of the four courses. The courses are designed for Uniform Branch officers and officers already serving in criminal formations who have not received formal training in criminal investigation. A small number of full-time Immigration and Customs and Excise officers at Inspectorship and NCO levels also attended the courses. All officers taking the standard criminal investigation courses were also trained in disaster victim identification techniques and, during the course, formed the Disaster Victim Identification Unit (DVIU), which would act in the event of a major civil disaster. .

Additional training for lower level CID and supervisory authority CID officers, which was first introduced in May 1984, continued in the year under review. The courses last two weeks and are aimed at police officers from the fourth year of graduation who work in criminal training. The academic year includes 16 courses for official detectives, two courses for official detectives, one course for sergeant detectives and three courses for criminal inspectors.



In management training, greater attention was given to management concepts and the use of human resources.

Command courses are held for inspectors, newly promoted chief inspectors and superintendents and are designed to develop your supervisory and management skills. Directory seminars for officers of the rank of Chief Superintendent are held throughout the year in one- or two-day sessions. These seminars aim to keep civil servants up-to-date on current professional, political, socio-economic, managerial and technological developments.

To accommodate expansion and provide additional expertise in specific services, local universities, technical schools and leading organizations will be tasked with organizing specialized courses related to work for the Wehrmacht such as radar, navigation, firefighting, first aid, naval police and accounting/financial investigations for the Office of Commercial Crimes.

The inspector's scholarship program continued to attract those seeking a college education. Since the system was implemented in 1970, 32 civil servants have graduated and eight are in their first or second year of full-time study.

During the year, 12 inspectors started a part-time course at the Hong Kong City Polytechnic which will lead to the award of an Advanced Diploma in Public and Social Administration.

With regard to training abroad, 38 officers of various ranks took part in professional and technical training courses in Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Malaysia and New Zealand.

police cadet school

Since its inception in 1973, the number of police cadets has gradually increased from the original 150 to the current 750. During its 13 years of service, 3,114 cadets have graduated from the school. Of these, 2,863 went to the police, 40 to the fire department, 75 to customs and 47 to the correctional service.

The two locations where the school is located - Fan Gardens, Fanling and Dodwell's Ridge, Sheung Shui - are temporary. It is anticipated that a purpose-built school will be built in Fan Gardens in the coming years.

complaints against the police

The Cabinet for Complaints Against the Police (CAPO) was created in 1974 to investigate complaints from the public about the conduct and conduct of police officers, including civilians and officers of the Auxiliary Police. Over the years, the number of complaints has steadily increased and, in 1977, the OMELCO Police Team was formed to monitor all complaints. The president and members were selected from the Executive Council and the Legislative Council and appointed by the Governor. The Attorney General of the Republic was a co-opted member.

In 1978, Group 2 received 264 complaints. By 1984, the total had risen to 4,389, indicating both greater knowledge of the system and confidence in police investigations. That trust has continued and is reflected in the fact that nearly 90% of allegations are now filed in person or over the phone to CAPO's three regional offices or police departments.

By 1984, however, increased complaints had put pressure on the group's members, and a working group was set up to study methods of reducing that pressure.



workload while maintaining detailed and independent monitoring. As a result, the new Police Complaints Committee (PCC) was formally established in early 1986, supported by its own independent secretariat. The PCC is composed of a President and two Vice-Presidents of the Executive Council and the Legislative Council and eight Justices of the Peace, all appointed by the Governor.

In 1986, 4,547 complaints were filed, which represents an increase of 5.1% over the 4,325 complaints received in 1985. During the year, 65 police officers were disciplined and seven were convicted of criminal offences. The rate of substantiated claims was 7.3 percent, compared with five percent that were classified as false. Investigations into 1,506 complaints filed during the year have not yet been concluded.

In addition to investigating complaints, the CAPO has a preventive role and is responsible for educating the police on reporting trends and related issues. To this end, a video cassette was produced on common reporting situations in conjunction with the PPRB and an intense program of lectures, which lasted throughout the year, covered most of all junior police officers who could be deployed. In this way, conflict situations with the public should be reduced and public relations improved.

Police Complaints Commission

A new Commission on Police Complaints, made up of members of OMELCO and Justices of the Peace, was appointed by the Governor to take over the work previously done by the OMELCO Police Team. The Committee is an independent body whose main task is to oversee the handling of all public complaints by the police. A secretariat staffed by full-time staff supports the work of the committee.

planning and development

Construction on Phase 1 of a new police headquarters began later this year and is due for completion in early 1989. Detailed planning for Phases 2 and 3 is ongoing.

During the year, two new divisional police stations in Tin Sum were completed in Sha Tin and Castle Peak, along with temporary accommodation for the Police Tactical Unit in Fanling. A new Maritime Police base for the Southern Division was also completed in Aberdeen, as were two new police sports and leisure clubs in Boundary Street and Causeway Bay. New police facilities were also installed at the Man Kam To border post.

Work continued on the long-term renovation program for former police stations. Construction has already begun on seven new police building projects: the renovation of the Police Training School, Phase V, Phase III; Tai Po District and Divisional Police Station; District Police Station and Tsing Yi Division; the New Territories regional headquarters; Siu Lek Yuen Division Police Station; Lo Wu Police Station and Lok Ma Chau Border Post. By the end of the year, the site training work for the Hung Hom Divisional Police Station and the new Police Tactical Unit was well advanced.

A 20-story block for 144 junior officers on Old Bailey Street, Central was completed in March and a similar block in Yuen Long was completed in September. In addition, rooms purchased at Jubilee Gardens, Sha Tin, were ready for occupancy in September 198.


Datanet, the new message switching system, proved a success in its first full year of operation and in June the new Airport District Command Control Center was officially opened. The Airport District now has an upgraded Beat radio system covering Hong Kong International Airport.



Approval was obtained for a five-year project to replace and integrate most of the existing communications facilities. This includes expanding these facilities into areas previously excluded from the Beat radio system. A new directional radio system aims to ensure the police have continuous communication availability and greater flexibility during operations during large-scale operations and natural disasters.


The fleet today comprises 1,311 ATVs and 720 motorcycles. The introduction of special vehicles to District Task Forces proved successful and improved the units' efficiency in their anti-truck activities.

computer development

The use of computers within the police force has steadily increased. The Commercial Crime Bureau and the Kowloon Region now have a variety of microcomputers to aid in the investigation of serious crimes. During a six-month trial period, the Department of Criminal Intelligence had computer facilities designed to considerably improve the collection, compilation and analysis of information on the triad and the activities of organized crime throughout the territory. Eight microcomputers were purchased for selected Regional Intelligence Units and District Intelligence Sections to enhance their storage, retrieval and analysis of information on criminals and criminal patterns. The benefits of all these computing facilities are being evaluated. Preparations continued for the introduction of a personal computer and training system to improve personnel record keeping and assist management with career planning and resource allocation.

Licensing and Registration of Companies

Work continued on proposed amendments to the Firearms and Ammunition Regulations to provide tighter controls on imitation firearms and changes to the Warden's Regulations.

Applications for Police Commissioner's Licensing have continued to increase steadily. At the end of the year, 70,348 security guards were registered. There were 242 registered clubs; 31 companies exempt from registration and 129 licensed massage companies.

In addition, an interservice review of license fees, certificates and permits issued by the Commissioner of Police was carried out with the aim of recovering all processing costs. The recommendations of this revision are expected to take effect in 1987.

police dogs

Police dogs are trained at the Yuen Long Police Dog Unit in the New Territories and are used for tasks such as patrolling, tracking and detecting dangerous drugs. The handlers and their dogs regularly attended extensive training programs to ensure that high standards of operational performance were maintained.

The police canine unit also frequently held public demonstrations.

The unit has 92 police dogs, mostly German shepherds.


At the end of the year, the police had a staff of 25,957 disciplinary posts, 560 more than in 1985. It also had 5,716 civilian staff, which represents 18.04% of the total staff.



During the year, 9,303 people applied for police service. The number of officers appointed was 994, 14% of whom were women. A total of 152 police inspectors were appointed, of which 81 were appointed as direct recruits on the spot, 28 as direct recruits abroad and 43 as junior police officers under the “potential officers” selection program.

Troop advancement prospects remained excellent at all levels. A total of 27 enlisted officers were promoted to senior superintendent and above, 32 chief inspectors to superintendent, 45 senior inspectors to chief inspector, 85 sergeants to station sergeant, and 270 officers to sergeant. In addition, 16 particularly experienced station sergeants were promoted to the rank of inspector.


The Police Welfare Department provides a wide range of wellness, psychological, athletic, recreational and dietary services to disciplined and civilian members of the force and their families.

During the year, 5,389 interviews were carried out in regional offices of social services and 4,999 visits by social agents to police officers and family members at home or hospital. Some 4,213 children of regular and auxiliary police officers have received scholarships from the Police Children's Education Trust and the Police Education and Welfare Trust.

Two new sports and recreational clubs were opened by Princess Alexandra in April. The Police Sports and Recreation Club in Boundary Street offers a wide range of facilities for all levels, while the Police Officers' Club in Causeway Bay offers facilities for inspection level officers and above and their civilian colleagues.

Thirty-one cottages and recreation centers in picturesque locations were also available to troupe members.

Hong Kong Royal Auxiliary Police

The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force is made up of volunteers from all walks of life. Its current strength is 4,837, about 10 percent of whom are female officers. The force supports the regular police force in day-to-day policing tasks and provides additional manpower when needed.

The average daily turnout of auxiliaries for police functions was around 700.

The Commissioner of Police officially opened the new Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Headquarters in Kowloon Bay on 25 January.

Customs and Tax Department

The Customs and Excise Department is organized into three main departments – the Department responsible for department administration, revenue and training; the Operations Department, which includes the three Customs and Excise Service regions, along with the three Trade Supervision regions, and the Investigation Department, which includes the Customs Investigation Department, the Trade Investigation Department and the Commercial Standards Investigation.

The department's main component is the Customs and Excise Service, a disciplined force of 2,611 officers and men who enforce Hong Kong's laws on taxable goods, dangerous drugs, import and export controls and copyright protection. Other responsibilities include the prevention and detection of illegally imported goods that are prohibited or restricted for reasons of public health or safety or to comply with international obligations.



The work of the Commercial Controls Group, another arm of the department, made up of Chief Industrial Officers, is described in the Industry and Commerce chapter.

revenue protection

There are seven groups of taxable goods in Hong Kong - hydrocarbon oil, alcoholic beverages, non-intoxicating beverages, methyl alcohol, tobacco, soft drinks and cosmetics. The Customs and Excise Service is responsible for collecting and protecting revenues from taxable goods. The Dutiable Commodities Ordinance imposes controls on the import, export, manufacture, sale and storage of these commodities in Hong Kong. In 1985-1986, approximately $3,092 million was raised for taxable assets, compared to approximately $2,343.60 million in 1984-1985.

drug operations

The service is responsible for preventing and combating illicit trafficking in narcotics and other dangerous drugs. It intercepts illegal imports and exports and cracks down on drug manufacturing, trafficking and abuse in Hong Kong. The service works closely with the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, foreign customs and other law enforcement agencies.

During the year, 406 kilograms of opiates and cannabis were seized, including 156 kilograms of heroin, 162 kilograms of heroin base, 56 kilograms of opium and 32 kilograms of cannabis. In addition, 77,355 pills of various dangerous synthetic drugs, mainly methaqualone, were seized. A total of 1,439 people were charged with drug-related offenses.

Protection of intellectual and industrial property rights

The service is responsible for protecting the copyright of literary, dramatic and musical works. While the problem of piracy of sound recordings has been contained, the unauthorized copying of films and television programs and the unauthorized photocopying of books remain a problem. In 1986, the Copyright Department conducted 72 copyright investigations, which resulted in the indictment of 98 individuals and the seizure of 161 pirated copies, 19 photocopiers, 918 pirated videotapes and 75 VCRs. Furthermore, as part of the department's activities in this area, 188 VCRs and 80 pornographic magazines were seized, and 10 people were indicted for offenses under the Offensive Publications Law.

The department is also responsible for commercial legal protection. He investigates false and misleading product descriptions under the Trade Descriptions Act and industrial design protection violations under the Copyright Act. During the year, the Commercial Regulations Investigation Bureau and the Copyright Division conducted 1,724 investigations, resulting in 850 indictments for violations of the Trade Descriptions Ordinance and the Copyright Ordinance.

Independent Commission against Corruption

The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) completed 13 years of operation. Its anti-corruption efforts in Hong Kong continued vigorously, despite its notable success in rooting out unionized corruption in the public sector. One of the highlights of the year's successful operations was the dismantling of a horse racing fortification ring dubbed the "Shanghai Syndicate". The Commission's growing international reputation as a leader in the fight against corruption led it to be chosen to host the Third International Anti-Corruption Conference, to be held in Hong Kong in November 1987.



This year, the ICAC also carried out its sixth mass survey on attitudes towards the Commission and public knowledge of its work. The research fieldwork took six weeks and involved more than 1,000 interviewed samples. The calculation and compilation of the data collected in the survey was completed at the end of the year.

The ICAC is independent from the civil service and the Commissioner reports directly to the Governor. A Corruption Advisory Committee, composed of senior citizens and senior government officials, advises the Commission on policy matters relating to personnel, financial estimates, administration and other aspects of its work. Each of the Commission's three functional departments, namely Operations, Prevention of Corruption and Community Relations, is also governed by an Advisory Board composed of members from various sectors of the community and public service. All complaints against the Commission and its staff are handled by an ICAC Complaints Committee, comprising five members of the Executive and Legislative Councils and a Legal Secretary. A total of 20 complaints received during the year were thoroughly investigated.

The operation

The Department of Operations investigates all reports relating to alleged or suspected criminal offenses in accordance with the Anti-Corruption Regulations, the ICAC Regulations and the Corrupt and Unlawful Practices Regulations.

The department received 2,547 allegations of corruption. Of these, 852 were submitted in person by members of the public, 1,044 by telephone and 477 by letter, and 201 were received from government agencies. About 65 percent of these allegations were filed by people willing to identify themselves.

The Illegal and Corrupt Practices Ordinance was amended in 1985 to include elections for both the Legislative Council and the Regional Council, in addition to the Urban Council and the District Councils. Following these changes, the ICAC received 29 complaints relating to the regional and municipal elections held on March 6, 1986. A total of 14 complaints related to elections for regional councils, while 15 related to elections for councillors. As more elections are held in Hong Kong, this could become a new concern for the Commission.

Another area of ​​concern has been the occurrence of large-scale fraud, facilitated by corruption. Special task forces were created to investigate reports of these types of crimes, which often involve complex and lengthy investigations. New skills needed to be developed, including basic accounting, banking and computer skills.

As a result of investigations conducted by the department, 251 people were prosecuted for corruption or related crimes and 169 cases were closed with 122 convictions. The conviction rate of closed cases was 74%. At the end of the year, 82 lawsuits and 420 preliminary investigations were pending.

On the advice of the Operations Review Committee, reports on 320 current or former government employees were forwarded to department heads and the Department of Civil Service for consideration of disciplinary or administrative action.

corruption prevention

The Corruption Prevention Department reviews and recommends procedural changes that may encourage corruption in government departments and public institutions. Advice is also available to private organizations or individuals upon request.



Complaints and lawsuits related to corruption in the private sector increased during the year. Analysis of these complaints showed that management was less tolerant of employee misdeeds. The department's advisory group, which supports the private sector in implementing anti-corruption measures, reached out to 102 organizations. The free services offered ranged from oral advice to detailed studies of systems and work habits, conducted in confidence.

110 commissioned studies were completed during the year, bringing the total to 1,123 since 1975. These studies were detailed examinations of specific areas of a government agency's operations, covering policy, law, policy, methods of work, and administration. Reviewing the effectiveness of past studies and following up on corruption prevention measures continued to be an important aspect of the department's work.

The Corruption Prevention Department worked closely with various government agencies, offering advice on draft laws, new procedures and guidelines. The department was also actively involved in interdepartmental and interdepartmental working groups and was represented on 56 working groups and committees. Corruption prevention groups created at senior level in ministries continued to provide a coordinated approach to corruption prevention studies. At the end of the year, there were 33 such groups.

Training programs continued to be organized for government, public institutions and private sector managers. The programs addressed the concepts of regulators' accountability, the role of management in preventing corruption, and the delegation of responsibility and authority. Training for senior and lower government officials has helped to incorporate anti-corruption measures into the evolution of government policies and procedures.

The department also participated in management seminars organized by Shenzhen University for managers and executives in China.

community relations

The Community Relations Department is responsible for educating the public about the evils of corruption, leveraging public support in the fight against corruption, and promoting higher moral standards and a greater sense of responsibility in the long-term community. To achieve these goals, the Department of Outreach maintains close contact with the community through 11 local ICAC offices, while the Department of Media and Education reaches out to the public through the mass media and educational institutions.

Liaison staff engaged in dialogue with a broad spectrum of the community. The department performed 17,613 liaison functions and 218 special programs, reaching 375,500 people. This was the third year the department had initiated a special program to involve volunteers in community work, which in 1986 was extended to housewives.

A national program Towards a Fulfilling Life was co-organized with a service club to introduce young people to various aspects of the fulfilling life and to draw them away from purely material pursuits. In all, 28,500 people participated in the program.

In the department's Media and Education division, the Board of Public Education continued to produce educational materials to promote moral education in schools. Teachers were also introduced to a social ethics program for grades 5-7 called The Way Ahead. The first set of structured teaching materials for primary schools was also produced




introduced. The set included an illustrated booklet titled 'A Thought a Day', which consists of 20 stories about the dilemmas and doubts that Hong Kong children face in their daily lives, and a film titled 'Super Kid'. The commission was assisted by professors in the production and dissemination of these didactic materials.

The department used mass media, particularly television, to spread the anti-corruption message. Two shows, Vanguard II and Money Isn't Everything, were shown on the Chinese channel of the two local TV stations. The former was a six-hour drama series depicting ICAC investigations and the latter, in its third year, was an educational series for young people and comprised 13 nine-minute episodes.

At the end of the year, the Commission started a joint venture with the two television channels to co-produce two series of mini-programmes. One aimed to educate the public about anti-corruption laws; the other was a youth program based on the theme Towards a Fuller Life. These programs ran through May and October 1987. In the meantime, in-house production began on another drama series about the commission's investigations.

The Commission's annual multimedia publicity campaign, launched in January 1986, generated over 900 requests for advice and assistance from commercial firms and individuals over a seven-week period. This campaign won two gold awards: Best Film and Best Print Ad in the Institutional/Corporate and Public Service section of the third Creative Awards competition organized by the Association of Accredited Advertising Agents in Hong Kong.

At the end of the year, a new series of ads was developed to maintain the campaign's impact.

government laboratory

The Government Laboratory provides an essential and sophisticated scientific support service for law enforcement agencies such as the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, the Board of Customs and Excise, the Immigration Service and the Independent Commission Against Corruption .

The scope of the laboratory's forensic department is broad and includes the investigation of crimes as diverse as arson, theft, forgery, deceit, forgery, fraud, hit-and-run, manslaughter, illegal drug manufacturing and possession, paternity testing, incest, sexual assault , theft and assault. Crime scene investigations continued to play an important role in the service, which saw approximately 550 crime scenes visited by laboratory personnel during the year. The workload of all departments in the department has increased and the urgency of many works requires the use of rapid analysis techniques. The use of newly acquired equipment for the semi-automatic examination of narcotics and organs and body fluids in cases of death of unknown cause was expanded.

The forthcoming introduction of a new ID card led to a search for laboratory specialists regarding suitable inks, papers and production processes. Questionable Documents Division officials were also involved in examining materials from complex cases of business fraud, and in these investigations the new Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer was an invaluable tool.

The newly founded traffic accident reconstruction is now well used by police forces and has proven to be a useful addition to the department's range of services.



The continuing importance of restricted non-opioid substances, coupled with the increasing complexity of the work of the Substance Abuse Section, has led to the expansion and reorganization of this Section.

Forensic biochemistry related to the collection of blood, other body fluids and hair continued to advance and the 'Shooting Residue' project was very successful and is now well established in routine work.

Two new instruments, an argon laser and a mass spectrometer, were installed, allowing the department to significantly expand its crime-fighting support capabilities.

correctional facilities

The Correctional Center administers a wide range of treatment and training programs for different types of offenders. The department provides services for juvenile delinquents, drug addicts, first-time offenders and repeat offenders. It operates 20 correctional facilities, three temporary accommodation units, a staff training institute and a support unit with facilities employing 6,170 staff. The capacity for 8,848 inmates is 8,107 per day in 1986, against 7,969 in 1985. In addition, the department is also responsible for managing closed centers for Vietnamese refugees. The staff of these institutions, with the exception of the management, were recruited and trained specifically to care for refugees. They have no prior experience related to prisons or inmates.

male adult offenders

Prisoners are assigned to a facility based on their security rating, which takes into account the risk they pose to the community and whether or not they are first-time offenders. Care is taken to separate repeat offenders from first offenders.

Eleven prisons house adult male prisoners, four of which are high security facilities. Stanley and Shek Pik Prisons house prisoners serving long sentences, including those sentenced to life imprisonment. The Siu Lam Psychiatric Center houses the criminally insane and those in need of psychiatric treatment. Adult men awaiting trial or in custody during a court hearing are being held at the Lai Chi Kok Detention Center. Male civil debtors who are detained from time to time are held in a separate section of the Lai Chi Kok Detention Center.

Ma Po Ping Prison, Tung Tau Prison and Victoria Prison serve as medium security facilities for male criminals. In addition to its prison function, Victoria Prison also houses illegal immigrants awaiting repatriation to China, those imprisoned for immigration offenses, and a small number of Vietnamese refugees.

Four facilities, namely Tai Lam Correctional Facility, Pik Uk Prison, Tong Fuk Center and Ma Hang Prison, are designated minimum security prisons and are used to house prisoners who work outside the facility, often on community projects. A special section within Ma Hang Prison has been reserved for geriatric prisoners. Those who are fit are involved in light industrial work or gardening, while the disabled may be hospitalized.

young offenders

The department operates four separate correctional programs under the Prison Ordinances, Training Centers, Drug Addiction Treatment Centers and Correctional Training Centers for Male Young Offenders. In 1986, an average of 1,062 young offenders were incarcerated each day, compared to 1,125 in 1985.


reference library

CHV When



Pik Uk Correctional Facility is a maximum security facility for juvenile offenders with facilities for a reception centre, training center and prison. Young adults under the age of 25 are also held there to face charges about their suitability for placement in a detention facility.

The Lai Sun Correctional Facility on Hei Ling Chau Island provides accommodation for young prisoners between the ages of 14 and 20.

Cape Collinson Correctional Institution and Lai King Training Center are equipped with a full range of facilities for young offenders who have been sentenced to a training facility.

A very effective detention center program is operated at the Sha Tsui Detention Center. It is a medium security facility on Lantau Island divided into two sections, one for the detention of juveniles between the ages of 14 and 20; and another for young people between 21 and 24 years old. Strict discipline, hard work, strenuous physical exertion, and an energetic routine are emphasized in the program.

Phoenix House provides temporary housing for youth who have been released from detention or supervised training centres. Residents are typically indoors for up to three months before being allowed to live in their home or other accommodation, continuing to live in aftercare. While at Phoenix House, they must go to work or attend school, but must return in the evening for counseling and therapy.

female perpetrators

The Tai Lam Women's Center in the New Territories provides housing for women sentenced to prison. It also has an investigation department and a separate department where women with addictions are treated in accordance with the Addiction Treatment Center Ordinance. Most of the women work in a large industrial laundry that provides services to various government agencies and public hospitals.

Offenders under the age of 21 are held at the Tai Tam Gap Correctional Facility, which has separate sections for training center inmates, juvenile inmates and people on remand.

Casa Bauhinia serves as temporary accommodation for prisoners who are released under the supervision of the training center.

drug addiction treatment

Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Treatment Centers Ordinance (Chapter 244 of the Hong Kong Act), courts have the power to sentence a drug addict found guilty of a criminal offense punishable by imprisonment up to detention in a treatment center. of drug addicts. The length of detention varies from a minimum of two months to a maximum of 12 months, depending on the progress of the detainee. This is followed by the statutory 12-month follow-up.

There are two treatment centers for male addicts of different ages. Accommodation is at Hei Ling Chau Addiction Treatment Center for adult addicts and Nei Kwu Chau Addiction Treatment Center for under 21s. For dependent women, the treatment center is part of the Tai Lam Center for Women. As of December 31, 1986, the inmates undergoing treatment were at Hei Ling Chau Addiction Treatment Center 892, Nei Kwu Chau Addiction Treatment Center 130, and Tai Lam Women's Center 100.

The drug addiction treatment program aims, on the one hand, to detoxify and restore the physical health of drug addicts and, on the other hand, through the use of therapies



and rehabilitation treatments to wean addicts of their physical, psychological, and emotional dependency on drugs.

Social adjustment measures, such as employment and accommodation after release, as well as intensive follow-up care by an aftercare professional, are important components of the program. In this sense, temporary accommodation will be established at Casa Vida Nova, a transitional home, immediately after discharge for those who need this support. Violation of supervision requirements may result in a supervisee being recalled for further treatment.

care after care

Aftercare plays an important role in helping inmates reintegrate into the community and lead hardworking, law-abiding lives. This service begins shortly after the prisoner is admitted to an institution and continues throughout the period of incarceration. During incarceration, strong relationships are built between the prisoner, his family and the release officer.

Individual and group counseling guides prisoners to deal with the problems and difficulties they may encounter after release. Upon release, the follow-up officer maintains close contact with the ex-offender, providing adequate help and guidance to meet the demands made on him and ensure he lives a life in accordance with the law.

There is statutory aftercare for all releases from training, detention and addiction hospitals, as well as juvenile prisoners. Violations of supervisory duty may lead to dismissal for a further term of imprisonment. Program success is defined as the percentage of those who complete the period of care without relapse and, if applicable, remain drug-free. Percentages at the end of 1986: detention camps: 94; training centres, 66 for men and 93 for women; young prisoners, 86 for men and 89 for women.

correctional facilities

Correctional Services Industries aims to provide jobs for prisoners and other inmates and to provide government goods and services in the most cost-effective manner. The focus is on training inmates to develop a healthy work ethic. Most are employed in manufacturing industries such as clothing manufacturing, precast concrete production and public sector service delivery. A small proportion of prisoners are involved in domestic activities related to the running of institutions.

At the end of the year, the prison services industry employed 3,848 inmates and inmates in manufacturing activities and 3,208 inmates and inmates in domestic services and utensils.

Tai Lam Correctional Facility's workshops continued to expand, producing a wider range of concrete products, including curbs and paving slabs. At Stanley Prison, additional equipment was installed in the shoemaker's workshop to manufacture a wider range of shoes and boots. Improvements were made in several workshops throughout the year, and the industries as a whole continued to improve productivity and product quality. A comprehensive quality assurance program has been implemented. Through careful management and increased productivity, the commercial value of goods and services provided by Correctional Services Industries for the year was $131.5 million, an increase of 3.8% over the prior year.


psychological services


Qualified psychologists and specially trained officers provide a wide range of counseling services for prisoners and detainees with emotional, behavioral or personality problems. In addition, the service also provides detailed reports for courts and departments to use in determining an offender's suitability to participate in their programs. The psychological department also conducts research projects to improve treatment programs and reduce relapses.


Offenders under the age of 21 may be required to attend mandatory classes taught by qualified teachers. They follow a curriculum recommended by the Curriculum Development Committee under guidance from the Department of Education. Adult offenders may voluntarily attend evening courses taught by part-time faculty from the Department of Education's Division of Adult Education. Correspondence courses, self-study courses and special courses with external examinations are also taken by juvenile and adult offenders. External exams include the City and Guilds of London Institute Telecoms Examination, the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination.

visit judges

Governor-appointed Justices of the Peace visit each institution biweekly or monthly, depending on the type of institution. Their statutory responsibilities include investigating complaints, controlling rations and reporting living standards and working conditions. They are also required to advise the Commissioner on the prisoner's employment and job opportunities after release. In 1986, 517 facilities, including those that received Vietnamese refugees, were visited without notice.

Medical service

All facilities are equipped with hospitals or dispensaries that provide treatment and health care, including radiodiagnostic and pathological examinations and prophylactic vaccination for detainees. While basic medical care is provided within the institutions, inmates requiring specialist treatment are referred to a visiting counselor or transferred to a government hospital as needed. Basic dental treatment is also offered.

The Siu Lam Psychiatric Center and a Psychiatric Observation Unit at the Lai Chi Kok Reception Center provide treatment for criminally insane and psychiatric counseling and evaluation for inmates referred by other institutions and courts.

Antenatal and postnatal care is provided in women's facilities and in closed centers for refugees. Invariably, precautions are being taken to ensure that babies are born in government hospitals rather than institutions.

Employees training

The department's Personnel Training Institute is responsible for training new employees and serving officers. A 26-week orientation training program is offered to all recruiting assistants and officers. This is followed by four more weeks of training until the end of the probationary period. The curriculum, designed for the law enforcement community, includes study of Hong Kong law, footwork, self-defense,



Weaponry, Preparedness Training, First Aid and Social Sciences, including Criminology, Psychology and Social Work.

Developmental and professional courses are offered throughout the year to all serving officers to update their professional skills, prepare officers for promotion, and equip selected officers for assignments in specialized areas such as counseling, aftercare, nursing, mental health services, and physical education.

Society for the Rehabilitation of Offenders, Hong Kong

Formerly known as the Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, the Society for the Rehabilitation of Offenders, Hong Kong is a voluntary organization providing services to ex-offenders sentenced without imprisonment and released prisoners. Services provided by the company include social counselling, residential accommodation, career counselling, recreational activities and care for released prisoners with a history of mental illness.


At the end of 1986, 4,226 Vietnamese refugees were in closed centers run by the department, compared with 4,438 the year before. The closed center Chi Ma Wan and the closed center Hei Ling Chau are home to South Vietnamese and North Vietnamese respectively. This separation became necessary after conflict and unrest between the two groups. The gated center of Tuen Mun is home to a mix of southerners and northerners, including unaccompanied women and minors, and family groups that have been carefully selected for their ability to live in harmony with one another. In April, Cape Collinson Correctional Facility ceased functioning as a closed center when its refugees were transferred to the closed center at Tuen Mun.

Several improvement projects have been implemented to provide additional facilities for education, training and recreation in the closed centres.

Save the Children Fund, World Relief, The Salvation Army and International Social Service organize social services, including educational courses, job training and recreational activities for refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees continued to cover the substantial costs of food, medical supplies, supplies and emergency supplies.

Fire Department

During the year, the fire department answered and processed 18,808 fire calls, 10,895 special calls and 365,574 emergency calls. Fires killed 45 and injured 604 people, including 63 firefighters. A total of 736 people were rescued and hundreds more were rescued by firefighters.


The Firefighters (Amendment) Bill (No. 3) was introduced and passed in 1986 and aimed to prohibit the misconduct of obstructing escape routes and indiscriminately blocking fire exits in multi-story buildings.

Any violation of this legislation is a direct criminal offense and carries a maximum fine of $25,000 and a maximum fine of $5,000 per day for continuation. A second or subsequent offense can result in a maximum fine of $50,000 and one year in prison.

The law also provides that a person who has complied with a fire risk prevention notice, but allows the danger to reoccur within 12 months of notification, is liable to legal action.



The changes tighten legislation related to the recurrence of fire risk and dissuade the common but dangerous practice of blocking escape routes and indiscriminately locking emergency exits.

buildings and rooms

Two new fire stations opened in 1986 as part of the government's policy to respond to all emergency areas within specified minimum timeframes based on risk category. These were located at Shun Lee Estate and Tsim Sha Tsui East in Kowloon. An ambulance depot was also completed at Castle Peak Bay. There are now 48 fire stations, 19 ambulance depots and five fire stations in the area. A new 12-story Fire Station was completed in August 1986 in Tsim Sha Tsui East.

By the end of the year, more than 2,100 employee apartments were occupied or available. 50 officers' condos and 1,376 additional marital quarters for firefighters and ambulances are planned in selected locations.

Fire protection

The department is responsible for enforcing fire safety regulations. He also advises and supports all parts of the community in general fire protection measures and in combating fire hazards. The Fire Safety Bureau plays an important role in educating the public about fire safety. Promotional campaigns launched throughout the year raised community awareness of fire safety, soliciting more fire safety lectures, exhibitions and demonstrations from Kaifong associations, rural committees, schools and community groups. The number of complaints - 7,446 - from members of the public was taken as an indication of the public's level of concern about potential fire hazards and a growing awareness of the services provided by the department. Firefighters carried out 83,473 inspections of all types of facilities and where fire hazards were identified, reduction notices were issued. In 1986, there were 1,500 strike violation lawsuits, resulting in fines of $1.2 million. All new building plans are reviewed by the department, which defines and advises on built-in fire protection requirements. During the year, around 8,555 new building plans were processed. The department is also responsible for conducting research on fire safety issues.

emergency services

The fire brigade operates the state rescue service with a strength of 1,802 uniformed officers of all ranks and 136 civil servants. The service operates 216 ambulances from 19 depots or ambulance stations across the area and from many fire stations. During the year, 365,574 calls were answered involving 468,554 people – an average of 1,001 calls every 24 hours. Compared to 1985 as a whole, this means a 9.5% increase in the number of calls.

Ambulance equipment is constantly monitored and all ambulances are equipped with pain relievers, oxygen lines, inflatable splints, special stretchers and incubator transport options.

home appliances and workshops

The department has around 700 modern emergency units and vehicles equipped with the latest firefighting and rescue equipment to ensure that firefighting and rescue operations are carried out quickly and efficiently. In 1986, 28 new or replacement devices and

Aberdeen typhoon shelter



decorated for the Tin Hau Festival

sunset silhouettes


Ferry traffic in the port







immigration patrol



Vehicles of various types were put into service. Of these, six were mini-devices purchased in Japan, specially designed for the steep roads and narrow paths typical of Hong Kong's remote islands. The devices have been deployed on the islands of Cheung Chau, Peng Chau and Lantau. The department is constantly evaluating new products from different parts of the world to put them into service if they meet local requirements.

To service its fleet of firefighting and rescue equipment, the department operates three workshops – on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories.

Employees training

All recruits, except those in the Senior Firefighter (Control) and Senior Firefighter (Control) specialized communications ranks, are trained at the Firefighter Training School in Pat Heung in the New Territories. Courses vary in content and last between eight and 26 weeks. Training for Senior Firefighter (Control) and Senior Firefighter (Control) is conducted at the Firefighters' Communication Center in Kowloon by instructors from the Training School. During the year, 372 recruits successfully completed initial training.

The school also held fire safety courses for station officers and station officers, refresher courses for ambulance personnel, basic courses in fire fighting, marine fire fighting and the use of breathing apparatus for government agencies and private organizations in Hong Kong. Kong. Around 880 people participated in these courses throughout the year. The driving school provided courses for 2,370 officers and other ranks.

Foundation and Recruitment

Uniformed fire department strength was 6,322 at the end of 1986. The number of civilians employed by the department increased to 627. Recruitment exercises were held, resulting in the appointment of 28 officers and 250 firefighters and 93 paramedics. Standards are high and, on average, only about five percent of all applicants are accepted.


immigration and tourism

Travel to the travel environment and

IMMIGRATION Control in Hong Kong has a relatively recent history. The first travel restrictions were imposed in 1923 when non-Chinese were required to present travel documents or visas to enter Hong Kong. The police were responsible for checking travel documents and issuing British passports and visas. In order to contain the rapid population growth, the government decided in 1940 to increase immigration control and recommended the formation of an immigration authority to take over these tasks from the police. However, the new department did not survive the war. After the liberation of Hong Kong in 1945, the police resumed responsibility for immigration duties.

In the first post-war years there was a significant increase in population, which in 1950 created the need to control the entry of Chinese from China. Entry permits were required except for Guangdong natives. In addition, a quota system was introduced to limit the number of daily participants. In 1959, the increasing volume of immigration work resulting from the continued influx of Chinese immigrants and the socio-economic development of Hong Kong led the government to revisit the issue of establishing an autonomous department to provide immigration services.

The Hong Kong Immigration Service was established on 4 August 1961, headquartered in rented premises in a bank building in Central. The department celebrated its 25th anniversary with a series of events that culminated in a governor-reviewed parade on November 29. 1986

Since the department's inception, political and economic changes in Hong Kong and elsewhere, as well as increasing pressures from legal and illegal immigration, have resulted in a significant expansion in the scale and scope of the services it provides. In November 1976, the Immigration Service and the Registry Service were merged, and in May 1979 the department assumed responsibility for registering births, deaths and marriages. As a result, in recent years the department has had to deal with a wider range of work, as well as a dramatic increase in the number of passengers and applicants using its facilities.

Despite these changes, the main objective of the work of the immigration service continued to be to contain the population increase due to immigration to an acceptable level. In 1986, around 27,100 legal immigrants from China settled in Hong Kong. In recent years, illegal immigration has been the biggest threat to keeping growth at a reasonable level. In September 1980, the number of illegal immigrants reached 450 a day. Measures taken since then have significantly improved the situation. These include ending the "grassroots reached" policy (which allowed illegal Chinese immigrants who had successfully entered Hong Kong), passing laws requiring all residents over the age of 15 to carry legal identification at all times, drive and screen the employers



Identification documents for new employees and the gradual introduction of a more secure identification card, supported by an efficient computerized registration system. In addition, security forces at the border and in Hong Kong waters made continuous efforts to detect and intercept illegal immigration. In 1986, an average of 46 illegal immigrants were arrested at the entrance each day. Another 10 illegal immigrants who escaped detection on entry were arrested every day throughout the year.

Illegal immigration of children, often at great risk and suffering, continued. In the first nine months of 1986, an average of five calls a week for immigration residency applications increased to six a day for the remaining three months. Every effort is being made to eradicate this despicable and dangerous practice.

The work of the Immigration Service is divided into two main areas - controlling people entering and leaving Hong Kong and providing travel documents and registration facilities for residents. The work covers areas as diverse as issuing travel documents, visas and identity cards, processing naturalization applications and registering births, deaths and marriages. A lot of effort is also put into detecting and prosecuting those who violate immigration laws and returning those who remain in Hong Kong illegally. Immigration policy is designed to limit permanent population growth and every effort is being made to streamline immigration procedures for Hong Kong residents, tourists and business people.

immigration control

The number of passengers entering and leaving Hong Kong continued to increase. Passenger traffic was about 43.6 million in 1986, up 6.9% from 40.3 million in 1985. Movements to and from China, 2.1 million up from 23.6 million in 1985 show the greatest growth, but numbers for other categories of travelers also showed increases. As a result, all immigration checkpoints have had a very busy year. Most of China's traffic was carried by rail via Lo Wu, which remained under severe pressure. Conditions at Lo Wu were uncomfortable for passengers and staff alike due to severe overcrowding in the current temporary terminal building. This remained despite an extension of opening hours. Construction of the new permanent terminal is on schedule, and opening is scheduled for January 1987, before the Lunar New Year holiday. Work on improved facilities at the Man Kam To border crossing was completed and the permanent terminal became operational in February. A fourth direct train to Guangzhou was introduced on 1 April. Work on a new road crossing point at Lok Ma Chau is ongoing but will not be completed until late 1988 or early 1989.

A temporary China Ferry Terminal opened in January, using the former Macao Ferry Terminal building. This temporary terminal has greatly eased the overcrowded conditions at the Tai Kok Tsui immigration checkpoint. Work has already begun on the permanent passenger terminal, whose completion is scheduled for 1988.

Arrangements for Chinese residents to visit Hong Kong have been extended. In 1986, there were 65,600 individual visitors and 65,500 group visitors.

A new program was launched in August allowing some former Chinese residents now living in Macau to visit their relatives in Hong Kong. At the same time, arrangements have been made to allow a small number of wives and children of Hong Kong residents who are of Chinese origin and are now in Macao to apply for entry into Hong Kong. Approximately 3,021 visitors and 750 immigrants were received through these programs in the last five months of the year.



Planning and preparation for the computerization of immigration control work continued in 1986. The system will be gradually implemented from May 1987 at the Hong Kong-Macao Ferry Terminal.

personal documentation

During the year, 0.9 million travel documents were issued to Hong Kong residents. Re-entry permits to travel to China and Macau accounted for around 72% of all spending.

The four-year program to introduce a new, more secure ID card has now been completed and the entire record keeping system has been computerized. This has proven to be very effective in combating illegal immigration.

Planning and preparation work is underway for issuing new types of identity cards for Hong Kong residents from 1 July 1987. Under this program, a permanent Hong Kong identity card will be produced, stating that its holder will have the right to reside in Hong Kong, issued persons who have this right. Hong Kong residents who do not have this right will be issued another form of identity card that does not state that the holder has the right to reside in Hong Kong. For the purpose of issuing new British national (overseas) passports and Hong Kong identity cards from 1 July 1987, it is necessary to introduce permanent identity cards, proving the right of residence of the holder in Hong Kong, both which will contain the corresponding endorsement on the permanent cards and the right of residence of the holders.

vietnamese refugees

Vietnamese refugees continued to arrive in Hong Kong throughout 1986. As in the previous year, the situation improved as a further reduction in the refugee population was achieved. There were 9,443 refugees in Hong Kong at the beginning of the year, while the number of refugees dropped to 8,039 at the end of the year. Of these, 4,527 were in closed centers and 3,512 in open centers. During the year, 2,087 refugees arrived, against 1,112 in 1985, while 327 babies were born. It is the first time since the closed center policy was introduced in July 1982 that the number of arrivals has increased in one year compared to the previous year. Separately, 228 refugees chose to leave Hong Kong voluntarily upon arrival. On the resettlement side, 3,816 refugees were resettled from Hong Kong camps, including 60 on-site resettlement cases. Compared to the resettlement of 3,953 refugees in 1985, the 1986 figure represents a three percent increase over the previous year.

Newly arrived refugees continue to be held in closed centers under the closed center policy introduced in July 1982. In closed centers, refugees cannot engage in a secondary occupation. However, the centers offer a full range of social, educational and recreational services and skills, as well as language training programs for adults, through volunteer agencies supported by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Government. from Hong Kong. Families divided between open and closed centers can be reunited in closed centers.

During the year, the United States, Canada and Australia continued to implement a resettlement program for Vietnamese refugees in Hong Kong. As a special effort to reduce the refugee population, the UK accepted 425 Hong Kong refugees during the year for resettlement under more flexible family reunification criteria. In response to the British initiative, other countries, including Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and New Zealand, also relocated 369 refugees from Hong Kong.



Belgium, Denmark, Japan and Luxembourg have agreed to relocate a limited number of people from Hong Kong. As part of international efforts to reduce the refugee problem in Hong Kong, the government has also agreed to accept 20 Vietnamese refugees of Chinese origin from open centers for local settlement each month, up to a maximum of 250. This local settlement program started in April 1985 and so far 60 refugees have taken advantage of the program by accepting Hong Kong's offer.

In February, in response to a UNHCR request, the government decided to set up a RASRO (Rescue at Sea Resettlement Offers) Transit Center in Hong Kong to help resolve the problem that RASRO participating countries face in relocating refugees rescued in the South Sea. normal warranty period of 90 days are faced. The plan was to allow expired cases to be transferred from other camps in the region to the closed centers in Hong Kong, allowing more time to process these resettlement cases. The center opened in May 1986 and admitted refugees can stay for a maximum period of 180 days. The number of RASRO cases using the center at a time is limited to 100 and the costs of maintaining these refugees are fully reimbursable by UNHCR.

The result of all efforts during the year was a net reduction of 1,404 refugees in Hong Kong. This situation allowed the government to close the closed Cape Collinson center in April and begin merging the two open centers, the Jubilee Transit Center and the Kai Tak Transit Center, at the Kai Tak site. Conversion of the Kai Tak site began in July and is scheduled to be completed in January 1987 when refugees will be transferred to Kai Tak at the Jubilee Transit Center.

Housing refugees in Hong Kong cost the government US$118 million in 1986, of which US$106 million was spent in closed centers and US$12 million in open centers. UNHCR contributed US$35 million to assist and care for refugees in these centres. Since early 1986, it has funded language education and training programs for refugees.

The 3,512 people who arrived in Hong Kong before July 1982 and still live in the open centers face few restrictions on movement in or out of the centers. They are allowed to take temporary jobs to support themselves and their families. More than 85 of the refugees have lived in open centers for over seven years.


Hong Kong earned an estimated US$17,300 million from tourism during the year, a 20% increase from 1985.

Hong Kong Tourism Association

The Hong Kong Tourism Association (HKTA) is a public company established in 1957. Comprised of members of the private sector whose businesses are based on tourism, it coordinates the sector's activities and advises the government and the sector itself on measures to ensure the growth.

In December 1986, it had 1,526 members, a 6% increase from 1985. The President and members of the HKTA Board of Directors are appointed by the Governor.

The association derives more than 90 percent of its income from a government subsidy and the remainder of its income from membership fees, sale of literature and souvenirs, and tours.



HKTA is headquartered at the Connaught Center in the center of Hong Kong Island. It operates an information and gift center at its headquarters and similar centers at the Star Ferry Concourse in Kowloon and the Empire Center in Tsim Sha Tsui East. These centers and the information desk at Hong Kong International Airport served over 1.2 million visitors in 1986. There are also English and Japanese hotline telephone services, which together handled 30,000 calls during the year. All inquiries, whether in person or over the phone, are monitored to provide more information about visitor interests and spending patterns.

Marketing Hong Kong as an overseas tourist destination is done primarily through HKTA's 11 overseas offices and agencies, which work closely with the travel industry. Offices are located in San Francisco, New York, Chicago, Sydney, Singapore, Tokyo, Osaka, London and Frankfurt and there are representative offices in Paris and Rome. There is also an agreement with Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific Airways to act as the HKTA's information agent in 44 cities in 19 countries.


During the year, HKTA refined and improved three key marketing themes, which continued from the previous year. These themes have promoted Hong Kong as an "all-season destination", an ideal venue for international conferences and exhibitions, and a premier destination for travelers to and within Asia. To promote the first theme, conveying the message that Hong Kong has a lot to offer visitors all year round and not just in the usual high season from October to November, the HKTA organized the first “Hong Kong Food Festival – the Flavor of” . '86', which ran from August 17th to September 17th. The festival was heavily promoted abroad to publicize Hong Kong's culinary attractions and its position as the culinary center of the Orient. The highlight of the festival, which brought together the talents of more than 170 Hong Kong restaurants and entertainment venues, was the presentation of the Hong Kong Food Festival Culinary Awards. At the Culinary Awards, a jury of 10 foreign experts joined a local jury to judge 269 original entries in both Chinese and Western cuisine categories. An additional feature of the festival was the introduction of the "Yum Sing Night on the Town Tour", designed to introduce visitors to Hong Kong's nightclubs, clubs, pubs and bars.

Around 100 members of the foreign press specializing in food writing were invited during the festival, and 2,700 visitors came to Hong Kong for special food-themed tours.

The second marketing message around the convention and exhibition business received a boost with the Queen's official ceremony for the new Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center on 21 October, the first day of her visit to Hong Kong.

The center, located on the waterfront of Wan Chai and scheduled to open in late 1988, will enhance Hong Kong's international appeal as a venue for major conventions and exhibitions. It will be competitive for conferences with more than 2,500 delegates and exhibitions with more than 18,000 square meters of presentation space. The number of international conferences and exhibitions held in Hong Kong has steadily grown, rising from 15 in 1976 to 450 in 1986.

The third marketing theme took into account the fact that few travelers visit a single destination in Asia, particularly from long-haul markets. In this context, HKTA developed a new marketing strategy whereby an agreement in principle was reached with another Asian national travel agency and an airline to promote Hong Kong in a two-destination package for the US market.



Marketing strategies are designed to promote higher return markets, with a focus on increasing spending in Hong Kong and encouraging return visitors. The 3.73 million visitors to Hong Kong in 1986 came mainly from the United States and Canada (22.3%), Southeast Asia (19.7%), Japan (19.5%), Western Europe (15.4% ) and Australia and New Zealand (8.1%). About 50 percent were repeat visitors.

HKTA relies on cooperative advertising in cooperation with airlines, wholesalers and hotels. Special summer and winter seasonal campaigns were held with Hong Kong hotels in various overseas markets. Promotional visits will be arranged for foreign travel agents and media representatives who come to Hong Kong to experience the tourism product. In 1986, 4,670 agents and 1,050 media representatives were welcomed to Hong Kong and informed of new and upcoming developments. Tours in conjunction with the HKTA are designed to coincide with special events. For example, during the 1986 Hong Kong International Dragon Boat Race, 92 media representatives were hosted by the HKTA. A total of 21 foreign teams and 91 local teams participated in the races, and $680,000 was raised by running special "Oar for Charity" races for the Community Chest.

During the year, the HKTA continued to organize three tours to increase the appeal of visitors to Hong Kong. These were the 'Come Horseracing' tour which allows visitors to visit the two circuits in Hong Kong, 'The Land Between Tour' which gives an insight into the rural aspects of the New Territories and takes visitors to areas which other riding routes and o Sports and Recreation Tour, which allows tourists to use the facilities of a private golf and country club Nearly half of all visitors to Hong Kong participate in at least one organized tour of Hong Kong.

The association again ran the "Student Ambassador Program", in which 100 Hong Kong students who are going to study abroad participate in a month-long program to familiarize themselves with all aspects of Hong Kong so that they can speak better about his homeland abroad and power.

The HKTA has also continued its “Effective Selling Skills” certification program, designed to provide retail businesses looking to optimize their retail opportunities through courteous service to tourists. In another programme, the Shop N Win' promotion, carried out with six exclusive agents and 64 participating stores, around 120 prizes were awarded to winning foreign visitors.

During the year, several new hotels opened, adding more than 2,000 rooms to the 18,180 already available. The Association continued to implement the Hotel Reservation Monitoring System, which assists the overseas travel industry in pre-booking.


the armed forces

and auxiliary services


| Assistant

team assistant

The armed forces operate in Hong Kong under the overall command of the Commander of British Forces, who advises the Governor on matters affecting the security of Hong Kong and also reports to the Chief of Defense Staff in London. The armed forces are deployed to the territory primarily to help the government maintain security and stability and maintain confidence in the UK's stated commitment to Hong Kong.

The Royal Navy, British Army and Royal Air Force are all represented. During the year, the permanent garrison consisted of five Royal Navy patrol boats, a Navy tug, a Royal Marines attack squadron, a British infantry battalion and four Gurkha, a Gurkha Engineer Regiment, a Signals Regiment Gurkha, a Gurkha Transport Regiment and an Army Helicopter. Air Corps squadron of nine Scout helicopters and a Royal Air Force squadron of 10 Wessex helicopters.

The size and composition of the garrison and Hong Kong's contribution to its costs are determined by a Defense Costs Agreement between the Hong Kong government and the United Kingdom. The current agreement entered into force on April 1, 1981 and has a seven-year term. If necessary, reinforcements can be made available.

Although the influx of illegal immigrants has declined in recent years, the three services must continue to focus a significant part of their efforts on preventing illegal immigration by land and sea.

Hong Kong also has several voluntary organizations that form a strong auxiliary service force to support the government and military.

Throughout the year, focus continued on training for national security operations, and joint exercises - involving the Royal Air Force, the Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers ) were involved – helped to improve proficiency in such operations.

royal navy

The Royal Navy, based on HMS Tamar in the Central District, continued to patrol Hong Kong waters. Its force of five patrol boats and fast pursuit craft from the Third Raiding Squadron, Royal Marines, acted in close support to the Royal Hong Kong Police Force in deterring and apprehending illegal immigrants from China, intercepting Vietnamese refugees and conducting operations against smugglers. and others illegally violate territorial waters.

The Commander-in-Chief Hong Kong is responsible for operational control of Hong Kong's naval defense area, which extends over 91 kilometers. He is responsible for all Royal Navy forces involved in search and rescue operations in the South China Sea and works closely with the Director of Navy and Director of Civil Aviation. The Marine



The base of HMS Tamar maintains an airlock for diving emergencies and a small freediving team assists the police in recovering drugs and contraband and is trained in techniques for detecting and neutralizing underwater explosives. The Captain in Charge also manages the Naval Staff in Singapore, where the Royal Navy maintains berths and a fuel oil depot.

In 1986, the Royal Navy's Global Task Force 86 visited Hong Kong. This was one of many visits the group made over nine months around the world. The group included HM Ships Beaver, Manchester and Amazon. They were supported by Royal Fleet auxiliary ships Fort Grange, Olmeda and Bayleaf. Other visitors were warships from Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Holland, Sweden, France and the United States. During the year, ships of the Hong Kong squadron were deployed throughout the Far East region. Bets are being taken to show continued British interest in this vast free trade zone. The countries visited were Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, South Korea and Japan. Many of these deployments included joint naval exercises and ocean training with the naval forces of the countries visited.

The Hong Kong squadron consists of five Peacock-class patrol boats: HM Ships Peacock, Plover, Starling, Swallow and Swift. Built by Hall Russell Limited, Aberdeen, Scotland, the five ships are purpose-built for patrol duties in Hong Kong waters, including search and rescue, and can remain at sea during typhoons. All ships are made of steel and aluminum and are 63 meters long, 10 meters wide and have a gross tonnage of 763 tonnes.

High-resolution radar, direction finders, depth probe and very high-precision gyroscope are part of the equipment that allows precise navigation through the narrow waters of Hong Kong. Boarding duties are generally accomplished with the use of two rigid inflatable Avon Seariders, which are widely available throughout the service. A comprehensive communication system allows ships to talk to shipping parties and coastal authorities and send messages anywhere in the world.

Led by the captain in charge, a team is training to coordinate a control system to protect merchant shipping that uses the Port of Hong Kong in times of stress or war. The team includes officers from the Royal Naval Reserve, United States Naval Reserve and Canadian Armed Forces Reserve based in Hong Kong, who may be available at short notice. The team works closely with the Maritime Department and the shipping companies.

The strength of the Royal Navy, including reinforcements, is around 670, supported by around 70 civilians employed locally. The patrol boats are jointly manned by Chinese crews and British Navy personnel serving in Hong Kong. A total of around 370 local people work on land and at sea in shipping, engineering, public services and medicine. Equipping laundries on Royal Navy ships is another job traditionally done by Hong Kong men.

The Royal Navy plays an active role in the community and throughout the year the team provided maritime training for the Sea Cadet Corps and the Hong Kong Sea School and supported the Home of Loving Faithfulness.

The army

The Army provides most of Hong Kong's armed forces under the direct command of the Land Forces Commander. The command of the operational units is exercised by the Gurkha Field Force Commander on behalf of the Ground Forces Commander, while the logistical units grouped as support troops are under the command of the Commander's Support Troops.



In 1986, the 1st Battalion, 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment was replaced by the 1st Battalion Coldstream Guards and the 1st Battalion, 7th Duke of Edinburgh was replaced by the 1st Battalion, the 2nd's own Gurkha Rifles. King Edward VII, replaced. Throughout the year, the 6th Queen Elizabeth's own Gurkha rifles, the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's 2nd Battalion's own Gurkha rifles, and the 10th Princess Mary's own Gurkha rifles were based.

Support is provided by a number of units permanently based in Hong Kong. These include the Queen's Gurkha Engineers, the Queen's Gurkha Signals, the Gurkha Transport Regiment, the 660th Army Air Corps Squadron, the Composite Ordnance Depot, the British Military Hospital and 50 Hong Kong Workshops, Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Real.

The people of Hong Kong play an important role through their support of the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) - a locally enlisted regiment of part-time soldiers - and the Hong Kong Military Service Corps, also locally enlisted but part of the British . The last corps is made up of full-time regular soldiers and comprises 1,272 Chinese officers and men who serve in Hong Kong as guards, parliamentarians, interpreters, dog handlers, drivers, cooks, clerks, sailors and shopkeepers. The Hong Kong Military Service Corps makes valuable contributions to the garrison and has played an important role in operations against illegal immigrants.

The Army's main function is to assist the Royal Hong Kong Police Force in maintaining internal security and be responsible for maintaining the integrity of the border. In recent years, the Army's primary mission has been to help control illegal immigration, with individual battalions spending an average of three months a year on border duty. A high level of border security is maintained and anti-illegal immigration operations continue to play an important role in the Army's daily life.

Due to limited space and the unsuitability of much of Hong Kong's terrain for training, several overseas exercises were conducted to maintain high standards of military capability. During the year, exercises were held in Malaysia, Brunei, New Zealand, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Australia and Singapore. In addition, a detachment from Hong Kong participated in a New Zealand Five Power Defense Treaty Exercise. Gurkha Field Force units also hosted visiting detachments from the Royal Australian Regiment of the 5/7th Battalion, the Royal Armed Forces of Brunei and the Singapore-based New Zealand Forces. The high standard of fire by Hong Kong-based units was demonstrated at the 1986 Regular Weapons Skills Meeting in Bisley, England. The 6th Queen Elizabeth Own Gurkha Rifles took third place in the Major Units competition and the Depot Hong Kong Military Service Corps team took fourth place out of 24 Minor Units. Corporal Fung Kin-man, who served in the Army Dog Unit of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, became the first Chinese soldier from Hong Kong to be selected for the British Army Team after being among the top 200 pistol shooters competing in the Service Pistol Championship, placed seventh.

royal air force

The main element of the Royal Hong Kong Air Force is based in Sek Kong in the New Territories. No. 28 Squadron (Army Cooperation) operates 10 Wessex helicopters from Sek Kong Airfield and is supported by the Technical and Administrative Squadrons. The supporting element includes an air traffic control unit that also provides advisory control services outside the airspace of Hong Kong International Airport. Movement of personnel and cargo by air from Hong Kong International Airport is controlled by the RAF Airport Unit, based at Kai Tak. The RAF Security and Provost Services Unit is



located in Blackdown Barracks, San Po Kong. In addition, RAF personnel serve on the British Forces General Staff, the Joint Air Task Cell and the Joint Service Movements Centre.

Wessex helicopters are used in direct support to the Army and can transport up to 14 soldiers or 1,400kg of cargo anywhere in Hong Kong. The helicopter is the only viable means of rapidly getting troops, supplies and equipment to remote areas, and its speed and flexibility have been key factors in the success of security force operations.

Although illegal immigration across the land border has significantly decreased, some illegal immigrants still try to enter Hong Kong via speedboats. These clandestine operations, normally conducted at night, are countered by combined operations by surface ships and Wessex helicopters. Wessex uses its night sun of 65 million candles to illuminate the area and help capture speedboats and surface craft occupants. Flying is demanding and requires a significant amount of time on night duty awaiting deployment.

During the year, one helicopter was available for search and rescue duties during the normal working day and one helicopter was in constant readiness for national medevac, alternating with the Royal Auxiliary Air Force of Hong Kong. During the dry season, the RAF provided firefighting assistance in areas inaccessible to normal firefighting equipment: Wessex could carry an overhead bucket of 1,000 kilograms of water to be dropped on the fire.

In addition to its operational role, No. 28(AC) provides training and support to the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and is involved in various community projects, including removing abandoned vehicles from remote areas and transporting youth to camps in the New Territories on government-sponsored holidays and providing flights of air experience for a large part of the Hong Kong Air Scouts and Air Cadet Corps.

Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers)

The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) is a part-time volunteer light reconnaissance regiment. Its role, while primarily homeland security, includes reconnaissance, operations to combat illegal immigration, and assistance to other government agencies in the event of natural disasters. It is administered and funded by the Hong Kong government, but when proclaimed is commanded by the British Forces Commander and forms part of the Gurkha Field Force.

The Regiment has an establishment of 946 volunteers and 54 permanent staff, including nine regular soldiers, one of whom is the Commanding Officer, on loan from the British Army. The volunteers come from all walks of life and nationalities, but over 95 percent are Chinese.

The regiment consists of four reconnaissance squadrons, a homeland defense squadron, and a headquarters squadron. Additionally, a women's force was created in 1983 and expanded to 52 members in 1984 to assist as searchers and interpreters in homeland security and anti-illegal immigration operations. In 1983, a 12-man guard force was established to provide general security at regimental headquarters. There is also a Junior Leaders Corps of 300 boys ages 14 to 17 trained in youth activities and leadership. As part of youth activities in line with the Duke of Edinburgh's Awards Scheme, a Junior Leaders Band was formed in 1984 to perform at youth events. The response to the recruitment campaigns was enthusiastic. a very selective



After a successful campaign that attracted over 1,800 applications, 140 recruits joined the volunteers in 1986.

The regiment's headquarters are located in the busy residential area of ​​Happy Valley on Hong Kong Island, where volunteers have been based since the 1950s. The regiment does not have its own training ground and must share the British Army's training facilities in Hong Kong.

The training obligation includes two nights and one weekend per month, as well as centrally organized regimental training such as regimental camps and exercises. Regimental camps are held for seven days each in April and November, the training highlights of the year. For the November camp, the regiment will be deployed across the border to relieve a regular battalion of its anti-illegal immigration duties. During the year, selected volunteers were sent to overseas training courses in the UK and Malaysia. All cadets are trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

Royal Auxiliary Air Force of Hong Kong

Headquartered at Hong Kong International Airport, the Royal Auxiliary Air Force of Hong Kong provides a variety of government air services. It operates a fleet of seven aircraft: a twin-engine Cessna Titan, a Britten-Norman Islander, two Scottish Aviation Bulldog trainers and three twin-engine Aerospatiale Dauphin helicopters. With a self-sufficient engineering squadron and a facility of 83 permanent staff and 131 volunteers, the RHKAAF can operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the event of an emergency. A total of 3,400 hours were flown during the year.

In 1986, RHKAAF responded to 120 requests for medical evacuation and rescue. Some of those requests came from the local fleet of around 5,000 fishing boats, many of which now have radio frequency radios to call for help if needed. 60 search and rescue operations were carried out involving helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. During the dry season, Dauphins assisted in over 100 firefighting operations, pouring over 600 tons of water on forest and forest fires in areas inaccessible to traditional firefighting equipment.

The Royal Hong Kong Police Force and Department of Correctional Services have used helicopters extensively for operational and training purposes. Helicopter flights were routinely provided to transport technical personnel to the tops of hills to perform maintenance and repairs on the communications repeater stations. During the year, approximately 5,700 government officials were deployed to various areas on duty. Flying services were also offered to give foreign official visitors an overview of the area.

Titan and Islander maintained regular maritime patrols related to anti-immigration operations and were also heavily deployed to support the Department of Lands and Works' ongoing needs for aerial survey, photography and mapping. The Bulldogs provided pilot training for the squadron's own volunteers and air traffic controllers.

Civil Assistance Services

The role of Civilian Auxiliary Services is to provide a uniformed and disciplined volunteer force of men and women trained in civil protection roles to assist regular emergency services and government agencies. Civilian Auxiliary Services members are trained in a variety of emergency tasks related to tropical cyclones, landslides and flooding, search and rescue, building collapses, wildfire fighting, refugee feeding and camp management, oil spills , crowd control, lifesaving and mountain rescue. The



CAS is also very committed to assisting in the fulfillment of civic duties in more peaceful times. It is made up of approximately 3,700 adults and 2,800 young people who make up the Corps of Cadets.

Adult volunteers helped organize fundraising walks and other events throughout the year.

Volunteers are enrolled in either the Operations Wing or the Administration Wing. Units within the Operations Wing are distributed throughout the area, giving members the ability to quickly respond to any incident in their area.

The tactical operation unit, made up of emergency, mountain rescue and liaison units, is made up of volunteers who receive special training in rescue services so that they can react quickly to emergency calls.

All support units are grouped under the administration wing.

CAS has two main training centers located on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and a 20 hectare training ground at Tsing Lung Tau. The centers feature simulated smoke rooms, confined space rescue facilities, height rescue practice towers and classrooms for indoor instruction.

The boot camp is also widely used by many other governmental and non-governmental organizations. It has facilities for all forms of exercise, including a swimming pool, tree climbing, soccer field, camping, oriental garden and a panoramic jogging track.

A new training center is being developed at Tai Tan, Sai Kung which will provide accommodation and classrooms for individuals wishing to participate in all forms of water activities.

Training is progressive and cadets entering between the ages of 12 and 14 undergo a series of useful and beneficial studies. Cadets leave the corps when they reach the age of 18. Cadets are encouraged to join the Duke of Edinburgh's Rewards Scheme. In 1986, three cadets qualified for Gold Awards, 15 for Silver and 103 for Bronze.

medical support services

Founded in 1950, Auxiliary Medical Services is a voluntary organization with members trained and equipped to provide an essential service to the public, particularly during emergencies. In 1986, the organization had 5,835 members, with 1,500 members having professional qualifications in medicine, nursing, paramedical treatment or hospital administration.


In addition to emergency work, members perform a variety of roles, such as: B. Providing first aid at public events, manning medical stations in refugee camps, manning methadone treatment centers, and providing emergency medical services at beaches and swimming pools public.

The service has a fleet of eight ambulances. In addition to motorcycle ambulance patrols and first aid stations, emergency services are also provided in rural parks and suburban areas on weekends and holidays.


communication and media

Pan Jinpu Shiba Kong Yehe

The consultation process, which is critical to the Hong Kong government's decision-making, depends on the ready availability of information about government policies and activities and the free expression of public views and opinions through all available channels. . The media plays a valuable role in this.

A number of important issues arose in 1986, provoking a lively – and sometimes intense – public debate in Hong Kong. These received wide coverage in the local media, along with many editorials and other comments.

First, concerns arose after the Chernobyl nuclear accident about China's proposal to build a nuclear power plant in Daya Bay, about 50 kilometers from central Hong Kong. Also highlighted were far-reaching proposals on the management and organization of Hong Kong's medical services, advancing various aspects of the education system, the future of broadcasting, and stepping up efforts to combat the criminal activities of the triad societies.

The regular meetings of the two diplomatic bodies established under the Sino-British Joint Declaration, namely the Joint Liaison Group and the Land Commission, were widely reported, as were the discussions in the Basic Law Writing Committees and the Consultative Committees of the Chinese government. elaboration of the Basic Law for the Hong Kong SAR after 1997.

Externally, too, communication and public information play an important role in promoting Hong Kong's continued growth as a global center for trade, manufacturing and finance. Sophisticated telecommunications equipment based on the latest technology connects Hong Kong to most of the world, ensuring efficient and continuous exchange of up-to-date information. These facilities not only serve Hong Kong's business interests, but also attract media representatives from various parts of the world. News agencies, newspapers with international readership and television stations and foreign corporations, numbering around 90, have found it convenient to set up their offices and offices here. Regional publications produced in Hong Kong are thriving, reflecting the territory's improved position as a center of industrial and commercial excellence.

In Hong Kong itself, the extensive news media consists of many daily newspapers, several periodicals, two private television companies, a state-owned radio-TV station, a commercial radio station and a radio service for the British Armed Forces. There is a free, critical, and frank press which, together with the electronic media, provides an efficient and rapid delivery of information to an educated, hardworking, and healthy inquiring society. It also plays an important role in preparing the territory against sudden weather threats: when typhoons approach or storms threaten, the media react to alert, inform and advise the population.



Against this background, it is not surprising that there have been notable advances and innovations in the information sector in recent years. The government followed this progress by expanding its information services and producing and participating in an increasing number of public relations programs on television and radio.

information policy

The Secretary for Administrative Services and Information has overall political responsibility for the government's relations with the media. The main objective is to keep the media informed about government policies and thinking, as well as upcoming events and proposed legislation, thereby providing a valuable means of communicating with the general public. On this front, the Administrative and Information Services Department is responsible for coordinating the work of the State Information Services, Hong Kong Radio Television and the Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority.

In addition to formulating policy on various information and broadcasting matters, the Secretary for Administrative and Information Services advises the government on the presentation of its policies and on general public relations matters.

liaison department

The Liaison Division of the Department of Administrative Services and Information is responsible for overseas public relations matters. It serves as a point of contact between government offices abroad and non-governmental organizations such as the Commerce Development Board, the Hong Kong Tourism Association, chambers of commerce, and consulates and commissions. An Overseas Public Relations Group, made up of representatives of governments and non-governmental organizations, coordinates public relations activities abroad.

Receiving foreign visitors is another important function of the department. A Visitors' Office was set up in September 1983 to deal with UK parliamentary visits. Since then, this office's role has expanded to include organizing tour programs and briefings for VIP visitors from around the world. In this task, the office maintains close contact with the foreign ministries, representatives and consuls general.

Since May 1985, in order to promote Hong Kong's public relations work abroad, the Visitors' Office has coordinated overseas speaking programs for prominent figures. Appropriate platforms will be established for influential Hong Kong figures and other internationally known figures to speak on behalf of Hong Kong to audiences in North America, the UK and other European countries.

Hong Kong participated in Expo '86 in Vancouver to project Hong Kong's image as the communications and transport nerve center of the Pacific Rim. The opportunity was also used to spread the message of Hong Kong's continued stability and prosperity. Designed by a Hong Kong architect, the Hong Kong Pavilion had a strategic position on the Expo site. The entire project, which cost $15 million, was jointly funded by the government and several quasi-public organizations and private companies. It took the form of an extremely popular multimedia show in a pavilion surrounded by bamboo scaffolding and represented Hong Kong's ongoing process of growth and redevelopment.

During the six-month run, the Hong Kong Pavilion attracted more than 1.3 million people, a daily average of 8,500 people.

Another important overseas public relations event was the governor's official visit to San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago and Vancouver in July.



During the 13-day trip, the governor met with senior government officials and business leaders from these cities. Addressing an influential forum in each of the four cities, the Governor delivered a positive message on Hong Kong's future, emphasizing the trade and business potential for North America in Hong Kong and highlighting the threat to world trade from the protectionism in the United States. While in San Francisco, he opened the Hong Kong government's new economic office on Sutter Street. While in Vancouver, he participated in the Hong Kong Day celebration hosted by the Hong Kong Pavilion at Expo '86.

to print

Hong Kong's thriving free press consists of 67 newspapers and 515 magazines, which have a large readership. Registered newspapers include 45 Chinese-language dailies and five English-language dailies. Several news agencies - Chinese, English and Japanese - are also registered as newspapers.

Of the Chinese-language dailies, 36 mainly cover domestic and general international news, while others cover only entertainment, especially TV and film news, and one focuses on finance. Larger newspapers include overseas Chinese communities in their distribution networks, and some have editions in print outside Hong Kong, particularly in the US, Canada, UK and Australia.

Hong Kong is the Southeast Asia base for many newspapers, magazines, news agencies and electronic media. International news agencies with offices in Hong Kong include Associated Press, Reuters, United Press International and Agence France Presse. Print editions of Newsweek and Time magazines in Hong Kong, which is also home to regional magazines Asiaweek and Far Eastern Economic Review, as well as the Asian Wall Street Journal and the International Herald Tribune.

Several organizations represent and advise people working in the Hong Kong news media. The Newspaper Society of Hong Kong represents Chinese and English newspaper owners. It is authorized to act in matters that affect the interests of its members. The Hong Kong Journalists Association seeks to raise professional standards by recommending better training, pay and conditions for journalism, and advises its members in disputes with employers. The Foreign Correspondents Club offers its members social facilities and a range of professional activities including press conferences, briefings and films. The Hong Kong Press Club offers journalists the opportunity to meet socially. The Journalists Training Commission of the Professional Training Council plays an important role in expanding and improving journalistic training. During the year, the Executive Board released its third biennial report on the Workforce Survey to the mass media. The report shows that the total number of people employed in industry, excluding clerks, accountants, laborers and printers, increased from 4,033 in 1983 to 4,763 in 1985. The increase was particularly significant as the number of establishments in the four branches namely newspapers, magazines, radio-TV stations and news agencies fell from 357 to 312. This suggests that the mass media industry, which suffered from the 1983 recession, has recovered. The increase was strongest at the supervisory and editorial levels. One specific job, that of news editor, doubled the workforce in the newspaper sector, indicating that newspapers were eager to improve their reporting.

With an allocation of US$200,000 from the Council, the Council launched a core training program for professional journalists in cooperation with five colleges - University of Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong Polytechnic and Baptist College from Hong Kong. In 1986, 14 courses were taught by



Institutions covering subjects such as law, English speaking skills, putonghua, translation, reporting, editing, business and writing with the aim of raising journalistic standards.

From May to June, the annual symposium for journalists took place again, an intensive three-week course taught by the Executive Board itself.


There are 10 radio stations in Hong Kong. Five are operated by Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK), three by the Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company, better known as Commercial Radio (CR), and two by the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS).

RTHK's policy requires the publicly funded broadcaster to provide balanced and impartial broadcasting services to inform, educate and entertain the people of Hong Kong. The goal is to serve the best interests of the community by providing unbiased and balanced news and public affairs programming that accurately reflects the views of government and the public. The editor-in-chief is the Director of Broadcasting.

RTHK now broadcasts 700 hours a week and operates a 24-hour service in Chinese and English. The latest independent survey found that the total number of radio listeners is 75% of the population aged nine and over. The broadcaster developed an individual identity for each of its five channels.

The Chinese service's Radio 1 provides bulletins and news summaries every half hour from 6 am to 11 pm. and hourly throughout the night. It broadcasts hourly financial reports during the day, as well as traffic updates during peak hours. During the year, important political and social events in the region were widely publicized. In addition, the station's telephone transmissions served to reflect the public's views on various current affairs. With the provisional FM programming, it will broadcast the meetings of the Legislative Council every Wednesday on its FM service, maintaining the normal programming on the AM service.

Radio 2 became known as a station, especially for young people. Although popular music is the highlight, more revue shows have been introduced. During the year, the station continued to increase its early morning and late evening magazine programming to appeal to an even wider audience. The station takes a lively approach to civics and community service. It has helped promote major publicity campaigns for the International Year of Peace, as well as anti-narcotics and crime-fighting efforts, and has also organized a number of large-scale fundraisers. In its continued effort to nurture local music talent, the station also hosted its ninth "Top Ten Chinese Gold Songs" performance.

Radio 3, the station's news and information channel for the English-speaking population, continued to cover local and international events. Open Line, the station's 8:15-10:00 telephone program, continued to be a valuable link between the people of Hong Kong and the government. Throughout the year, the channel increased the focus on debates and interviews in the programs. In addition to using foreign stories, comedy and locally produced quizzes and programs, coverage of events continued with specially curated outside broadcasts. The channel also broadcast the weekly sessions of the Legislative Assembly.

Radio 4, the music and visual arts channel, covered the main musical and artistic events throughout the year. The bilingual presentation of these programs was well received by the audience. In January 1986, the broadcaster organized the Chinese Instruments Journey



Competition, event sponsored by a large bank. By working in partnership with other cultural organizations, city councils, regional councils and government bodies, the station has been able to continue to broadcast concerts and recitals in various locations in the area. Concerts with local and foreign artists and ensembles were also held at RTHK studios.

Radio 5 will broadcast the BBC World Service from 5pm. until 2:30 am daily. Outside these hours, it offers an additional FM service with Chinese programming such as Cantonese opera, provincial music, Putonghua dialect programming and Chiu Chow. Seniors programs and programs on Chinese classics and art continued to expand throughout the year.

Planning and construction work continued on the expansion of VHF radio services in Hong Kong. Completion of the project, which will cover seven services across the country, is scheduled for 1988.

Commercial Radio operates two Cantonese services and one English service on the AM frequency band with simultaneous FM broadcasts to areas in the New Territories and the north side of Hong Kong Island. Full-area VHF coverage is expected by the end of 1987. Charitable fundraising continued to be an important part of the station's public service commitments. He actively supported local fundraising activities by participating in the annual outdoor fundraising broadcast for a children's hospital, organizing the 9th Annual Super Stars Charity Basketball Match, and promoting Helping Hand for Lonely Elderly People and SANTA, which donates new toys to orphans at Christmas, both of which activities have their origins in the morning talk shows on the English service. Significant efforts were also devoted to promoting fundraising for foreign aid agencies. CR II, known as "Youth Ward", participated in Worldvision's 30 Hour Famine and "The Sport Aid Race Against Time".

The British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) is part of the radio division of Services Sound and Vision Corporation, a worldwide organization that provides entertainment, information and training, video, television and radio services to the British Armed Forces under contract to the Ministry of Defense.

BFBS offers two radio services tailored to the specific needs of Gurkha and British forces in Hong Kong, Brunei and Nepal.

Broadcasting more than 76 hours a week, Nepali programs serve the interests of the Brigade of Gurkhas, offering music and features that reflect everyday life in Nepal, Nepali and international news, reports, Q&A programs and audience participation telephone programs .

The English service broadcasts over 130 hours a week. The breakfast and lunch programs come from the BFBS studios on HMS Tamar, while the rest of the broadcasts come from the main studio complex at Sek Kong in the New Territories.

Around 40 hours a week are provided by the BFBS Production Center in London, which keeps listeners connected at home and offers special programming involving many of Britain's leading broadcasters.

Highlights of the year included live commentary on Her Majesty The Queen's visit to Nepal and Hong Kong and the arrival of the dedicated BFBS satellite news service.

Broadcasting Audit Committee Report

After the publication of the Broadcasting Review Board's report in September 1985, which included recommendations on the regulation of the broadcasting industry, technical requirements, program quality and advertising and censorship, among other things



Standards, a lengthy public consultation was held and concluded in February to gather community feedback on the report. A large portion of the community spoke out and the report was also debated in the Legislative Council.

As the report contained over 100 recommendations, for ease of administration they were grouped into different packages, each covering a specific policy area. In July, the Governor of the Council announced that the introduction of cable television in Hong Kong would be accepted in principle. This was followed in November by a further announcement of the government's decisions on other major Broadcasting Review Board recommendations. These included:

(i) The existing pattern of two television licensees, each operating one service in Chinese and one in English, is to be continued.

(ii) To allow more effective control over the activities of broadcasting licensees and allow for greater public participation in the regulation of the broadcasting industry, a Broadcasting Authority will be created to be responsible for television, radio and cable television. Its responsibilities include managing the provisions of future Broadcasting Regulations and ensuring adequate broadcasting standards in terms of program content and technical efficiency of transmissions. The agency will consist of 12 members appointed by the governor, including three official members. The Television Entertainment Licensing Authority acts as the authority's executive body. A Grievance Committee will be established as part of the Broadcasting Industry Dispute Resolution Authority.

(iii) Existing television licenses, which expire in December 1988, will be renewed for a period of 12 years, subject to a mid-term review in 1994. Additional regulatory measures will be imposed on new licensees, including a requirement to maintain a complaints, pay revenue-based fees, submit audited statements to the broadcaster, and impose heavier fines for violations of provisions in the upcoming Broadcasting Ordinance. Public consultations will continue to take place before television licenses are granted, renewed or revised.

(iv) RTHK will remain in public service as the executive body of a Board of Governors to be appointed by the Governor. The board comprises nine members, including one official member, and is established by law. Its role will be to decide RTHK's general policies and objectives under the future charter of RTHK, so that it continues to be, and is perceived as, a balanced and objective public service broadcaster. RTHK continues to receive public funding, but can accept sponsors and donations. It will have an increased presence on television both in terms of the total number of hours made available for RTHK programming and its access in prime time.

(v) A complete ban on tobacco advertising on television and radio will be introduced in December 1990. Meanwhile, tobacco advertising and sponsorship on television and radio will be further restricted, including extending the hours of the television ban from 4:30 pm to 6:30 pm to 4:30 pm to 10:30 pm in December 1988.

(vi) In order to enhance the viewing pleasure of the public, restrictions on the frequency and duration of commercial breaks will be included in the terms and conditions of future television licenses.

(vii) The definition of advertisements in the public interest is narrowed so that television stations are required to broadcast only free advertisements



public interest directly related to matters of public interest or government policy.

(viii) There will be no relaxation of current censorship standards to adequately reflect those of the community as a whole. Licensees may also broadcast religious programs subject to prior approval by the future broadcasting authority. There are a number of other recommendations in the Broadcasting Review Board report on radio policy, technical requirements and program content that still need to be considered. These will be reviewed by the Governor in Council or future broadcasting authority in due course.


Watching TV continued to be Hong Kong's main pastime, with around 95% of households owning one or more televisions. Two franchised commercial wireless broadcasters, Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) and Asia Television Limited (ATV), broadcast an average of 490 hours of programming per week and together provide two community services in English and two in Chinese. The 625-line PAL UHF color system is standard and virtually all broadcasts are in color. Both TVB and ATV maintain large, well-equipped studios and office complexes using the latest production and broadcast technologies.

Television stations are licensed to operate under the provisions of the Television Regulations administered by the Television Authority. The Commissioner for Television Licensing and Entertainment is responsible for regulating broadcaster licenses and issuing and enforcing programming, advertising and technical standards required of licensees. In these tasks he is assisted by the television advisory board. One of the main tasks of the television authority is to regularly monitor the performance of television broadcasters to ensure that the terms of their licensing requirements are met.

A great advance has been made in the development of local television technology. Since 1985, the two television stations have been experimenting together with the digital multiplex sound system with the objective of offering stereo and bi-tonal programs. The experiment is carried out in cooperation with the British Broadcasting Corporation. The introduction of such a service would offer viewers a much wider choice of program material as viewers could receive the same programs in English or Cantonese in addition to stereo reception.

Competition among broadcasters is still fierce. This competition brought benefits to the public in the form of more varied and sophisticated entertainment, information and education programs. However, the main attraction of Chinese services remains the serial drama produced by the channel.

There was an increase in sports production, including regular sports magazines and coverage of major local football matches, the 1986 FA Cup and satellite coverage of the 1986 World Cup in Mexico.

Other international sporting events such as the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games were also covered. The growing popularity of snooker has given rise to a number of in-game programs including tournaments. During the year, both channels aired several entertainment specials, mainly about beauty pageants. Folk music and travelogues were also popular.

Information and education programs have also increased. Both channels increased production of current affairs programs, including some special series on municipal and regional elections and district executives.



Since 1982, there have been Television Home Viewing Groups appointed by the Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority in each of Hong Kong's 19 districts. These groups, established with the support of city offices and totaling 570 members, provide the agency with a continuous stream of public opinion on programs and promotions across a broad spectrum of the population. In 1983, three Regional Advisory Panels were created, one each for Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Territories, composed of members representing each group and serving to keep the Authority and Television Advisory Board members in close contact with domestic advertisements. of the groups.

Radio Television Hong Kong, which uses the broadcast services of the two commercial stations, produced 12 hours of public relations programs a week. Under Lion Rock, Children's Drama and Hong Kong Profile are highly acclaimed dramas, while The Common Sense, Pentaprism and Access remain among the top shows.

RTHK's policy requires that its programs provide a communication channel between the government and the public that promotes citizenship and identity, serves the interests of minorities, and educates and informs. The material produced falls mainly into six areas of interest: current affairs, theatre, information and community services, variety shows and games, children and youth and educational programs.

RTHK productions are universally popular and have received praise locally and internationally. RTHK's drama productions during the year included a Writers Series, which ventured into the local literary scene, and the series Beneath the Lion's Rock. To promote citizenship education, a new 'Today at LegCo' program was launched to highlight the work of the Legislative Council. Emphasis continued to be placed on educational programs. Dial A Tutor is a student learning support program and Preschool focuses on the healthy development of preschoolers, while Music Time and Story Time are two new children's programs with a new format that emphasizes the arts. It also launched The New Epoch, a youth documentary program that explores the many facets of Hong Kong youth. Adult education is another developing area, with civics, language and performing arts being the main themes this year.

The highlight of the year was the channel's production of a Youth Spectacular in October to celebrate the Queen's visit to Hong Kong. This special event, held at the Hong Kong Coliseum and featuring music, songs and dances performed by over 6,000 young people, showcased the talents of Hong Kong youth. It was televised and was very well received by the public.

The Educational Television Division and the Education Division of RTHK continued their joint efforts to produce educational programs for schools. The government's educational television service, which uses commercial broadcasters' facilities eight hours a day, is watched by some 600,000 children in primary and secondary schools. Programs are developed and written by specialized Department of Education staff who provide schools with literature and program follow-up. The programs are produced by RTHK and created in color using animation, acting and documentary techniques.

Cable TV tips

Earlier this year, the government accepted in principle a recommendation from the Broadcasting Review Board to introduce cable television in Hong Kong. Assessment of commercial interest in cable television development in Hong Kong



Kong invited the government to submit preliminary proposals between 25 July and 30 September. Eight submissions were received in response to this call. Applications were analyzed by the Government with a view to preparing the conditions and tender documents for issuing the necessary license. To help formulate cable television policy, officials from the Department of Management and Information, the Department of Business Services and the Post Office conducted a study tour to Britain, France, the United States and Canada in late October and early November. . Interviews were conducted with relevant government officials and selected cable network operators in these countries. A tender will be held in 1987.

government information services

Government Information Services (GIS) provide the link between the administration and the media and through them to the people of Hong Kong.

GIS work is carried out by various departments. The News Department disseminates a wide range of government information through its telex and fax networks, which connect directly to major newspapers, radio and television stations, and news agencies. The fax system, which is particularly important for communicating in Chinese, is designed to transmit photos and typed or printed messages to the media. International telex and fax services allow government agencies abroad to receive messages without delay and communicate directly with the department and, through it, the rest of the government. The news department operates a 24-hour media inquiry service and handles an average of 20,000 inquiries per month.

The department is also responsible for organizing and conducting press conferences, including the annual meetings of heads of government departments to meet the media. In addition, a media services team has responsibility for planning and providing press facilities for public events by senior government officials and visits by foreign VIPs. The importance of this service was underlined by the visit of the Queen and Prince Philip in October, where extensive arrangements were made to allow around 200 local and foreign journalists to cover the major event.

In an emergency like a typhoon, the newsroom becomes the coordination center. Disseminates information to the media, mainly radio and television, in order to keep the public informed of developments. In addition to this mobilization of personnel and equipment in the newsroom, other employees occupy various key positions within the government agency to respond to emergencies and contribute to the minute-by-minute flow of information.

The public relations department has three sub-departments: media research, departments and foreign countries. The Media Research Department keeps the government fully informed about public opinion expressed through the information media. It produces The Gist, a daily English-language news bulletin that summarizes news and editorial commentary from major Chinese-language newspapers, as well as opinions expressed on radio and television. Other publications include Opinion, a weekly review of Chinese editorial commentary, What the Magazines Say, and special reports on media coverage of issues of particular concern to the government. The sub-department is also responsible for producing the Hong Kong News Digest, a biweekly Chinese-language newspaper that helps Hong Kong Chinese abroad stay in touch with Hong Kong, and The Week in Hong Kong, a newsletter primarily on trade and economics. is distributed to foreign subscribers.

The departmental unit subdivision coordinates the operation of the 26 information and public relations units in government departments. These entities issue press releases



organize press conferences and site visits, and answer many media inquiries about their respective departments' activities and goals. Through these efforts, they play an important role in keeping information flowing and helping to improve public relations.

The Subdepartment of Public Affairs Overseas (OPRS) supports the government's public relations activities abroad and produces and distributes promotional materials, including articles and news clips, for radio and television. Provides assistance to visiting journalists who need information and interviews with government officials, and maintains close contact with overseas news agencies and journalists based in Hong Kong. In 1986, the unit supported 308 foreign journalists and another 63 visitors, distributed 23 reports and produced 17 videos for television.

The Advertising Division includes the department's creative, publishing, and promotion resources. The area of ​​responsibility includes photography and filming, an extensive photo library, the organization of exhibitions, the design of books, leaflets and posters, as well as the design and placement of all publicity for the State. GIS produces a variety of publications ranging from brochures and information leaflets to the Hong Kong Annual Report and other full-color books. Government publications revenue increased 5.2% to over $22.3 million in 1986, compared to $21.2 million in 1985. Publications continued to focus on informational materials for free distribution. During the year, around 900 articles were distributed to the public, totaling 8,380,000 copies. These included information leaflets on how to use a wide range of government services and information leaflets on 55 subjects, updated annually with the latest statistics.

The Public Affairs Department also plans and executes all government publicity campaigns. Drug control, crime prevention, anti-smoking, workplace safety, road safety and fire prevention programs continued to be seen as important campaigns, along with rehabilitation of the disabled, Keep Hong Kong Clean and issuing new permits. of identity. In 1986, two new campaigns were launched, designed to raise awareness of domestic risks, especially among younger people, and to promote greater civic awareness and a sense of responsibility. Thirty-six other topics were addressed in promotional programs, including road law, rural parks and the summer youth activities program. To support them, various promotional events were organized through mobile exhibitions, live concerts, TV and radio programs and competitions. The department also helped organize and promote Hong Kong's participation in Expo '86 and the October royal visit.

The Hong Kong Government Office's London News and Public Affairs department works closely with GIS to provide a news service on Hong Kong affairs for UK media and UK-based Hong Kong journalists, as well as consultation and information services for the public on events and happenings in Hong Kong.

The News Department monitors sessions of the UK Parliament and media coverage of Hong Kong affairs and keeps the Hong Kong Government informed daily by telex and fax. It also publishes a biweekly newsletter, Dateline Hong Kong, which is distributed to organizations and individuals with a strong interest in Hong Kong.

The Public Relations department was heavily involved in the organization of two major projects during the year. The first, the "Two Cities" project, took place in October to coincide with the formal opening of Hong Kong's new unified stock exchange by Governor



Kong. The project, designed to showcase Hong Kong's growing importance as an international financial hub, featured a one-hour live TV link between two events held simultaneously in Hong Kong and London, and dual screenings hosted by the Financial Times. in association with the London Office, in the Public Gallery of the London Stock Exchange and in the Rotunda in Exchange Square, Hong Kong on financial and corporate services in Hong Kong.

The second major project was the complete refurbishment of the Hong Kong Exhibition at the Commonwealth Institute in London to reflect the important developments that have taken place in Hong Kong since the signing of the Joint Declaration on the Future of Hong Kong and Hong Kong's rise to a manufacturing of " high technology" - and business-driven economy of global importance. The new exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Timothy Renton, MP, Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

Along with the London office, the Hong Kong government offices in New York and Brussels have been busy catering to media interest in Hong Kong.

News media and public inquiries are handled from two North American offices in New York and San Francisco.

The New York office began operations in 1983 and is now firmly established as a resource for news media across the United States and Canada, particularly in the major news centers of New York and Washington. The San Francisco office opened in mid-1986 and will focus primarily on the United States west of the Rocky Mountains. The New York office continued to draw attention to Hong Kong and its positive attributes, particularly its secure future resulting from the Joint Declaration and its status as a free and open trader that does not erect barriers to imports or services from abroad. This work was particularly important during the various congressional debates over protectionist legislation that would have harmed Hong Kong's exports to the United States.

The Brussels office is responsible, among other things, for government public relations in the 12 member states of the European Community, with the exception of the United Kingdom. The Bureau's Information Department works closely with GIS to provide material on Hong Kong affairs in response to queries from European media and to provide information to journalists visiting Hong Kong.

It also distributes articles and press releases to selected media contacts and provides a more general information and consultation service to the public, especially business travellers, tourists and students.

film industry

At the end of 1986 there were 105 cinemas against 104 in 1985. The new ones are generally better equipped, although smaller.

Annual admissions to the cinema have remained constant at around 60 million. Going to the movies remains a popular activity, second only to television.

The number of locally produced films was 100 (including three co-productions), compared to 105 in 1985. While imported films continued to be popular, high quality local films remained the favorites of most viewers. The year's biggest box office hits include A Better Tomorrow, which grossed $35 million; Noble Express ($28 million), Aces Go Places ($27 million) and Lucky Stars Go Places ($25 million). The trend of filming locally produced films in Cantonese instead of Mandarin continued in 1986. Comedy, action films and horror films were most popular.



All films intended for public exhibition in Hong Kong must be submitted to the Film Censors Panel, which is part of the Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority. Censorship standards are derived from identified community views, and a 90-member panel of the public assists film censors in reflecting community views on whether a film is appropriate for public viewing. During the year, 703 films were submitted to censorship (including films intended for film clubs and cultural organizations). Of the total submitted, 479 were approved without excisions, 217 were approved after excisions and seven were prohibited. These numbers do not include films intended for television.

printing and publishing

The international status of Hong Kong's printing industry has steadily grown in recent years, based on its reputation for quality and economy. As a major printing and publishing hub, the territory's growth has resulted in the establishment of over 3,370 print shops employing around 32,130 people and over 200 publishing houses, including many overseas, which have established branches or regional headquarters here. The industry's continued growth throughout the year can be attributed to employers' confidence in Hong Kong's future and the relative depreciation of the Hong Kong dollar against most other currencies, which has enabled Hong Kong printers to attract more business. abroad.

Manufacturing accounts for seven percent of all manufacturing companies and four percent of manufacturing employees. Most printers (77 percent) are involved in general business work, and most of the rest are involved in related work such as typesetting and bookbinding. There are also 38 newspaper printers.

The use of the most recent technologies, namely computer equipment, allowed for a high degree of specialization in the industry. The local electronics industry contributes to the facilities of the most sophisticated printers and publishers, increasingly concerned with the use of data and text processing systems for editorial production and stock control.

Sales and marketing of data and word processing systems are now operated by over 100 companies offering over 200 systems. Output data can be converted at a realistic cost or linked to typesetters to give publishers the added benefit of fast, cost-effective printing. An increasing number of Chinese word processors are being installed to meet demand.

Domestic print exports increased in value by 21.4% year-on-year. A total of US$1,760 million worth of locally printed material was exported, with China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Taiwan being the main destinations. Books and brochures, newspapers, magazines and periodicals represented more than 63 percent of printed exports. The biggest buyers at this reading were Great Britain, the United States and Australia.

Overall, the printing and publishing industry contributed 1.6% to the net output of the manufacturing industry.

postal service

Hong Kong's efficient postal service includes two postal deliveries every weekday in urban and industrial areas and one delivery in other areas of the territory.

Despite the large volume of letters processed, the Post continued to meet its goal of delivering most local mail within 24 hours of posting. In the case of airmail items made to the four main offices - General Post Office, Tsim Sha Tsui and Kowloon Central



The post office and the International Post Office intend to deliver mail on the same day, if outbound flights are available. Other airmail items generally ship to their overseas destinations within 24 hours.

In 1986, a total of 618 million letters and parcels were handled - an average of 1.7 million per day - which corresponds to an increase of 9.4 percent compared to 1985. Around 4,018 tons of letters and 4,372 tons of parcels were sent abroad by air during the year, which corresponds to a total increase of 8.5 percent compared to the previous year.

The Speedpost service has continued to grow rapidly and is now available to 536 cities in 47 countries, including all of Hong Kong's major trading partners such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore and South Korea. South, Sweden, Taiwan, United Kingdom and United States. During the year, 1,409,412 items were processed, a 27.6% increase over 1985.

Intelpost service is now available to 39 major destinations including Argentina, Australia, China, Denmark, West Germany, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Portugal, Singapore, United Kingdom and United States. It offers high-speed fax transmission of high-quality black-and-white reproductions of documents, handwritten materials, drawings and personal messages up to A4 size (210 mm x 297 mm). These items can be accepted at dedicated counters in each of the 26 acceptance offices and are ready for overseas delivery within hours. Facilities are also available to accept Intelpost items for overseas delivery transmitted over the local telephone network directly from fax machines operated by trade organizations in Hong Kong.

A new official aerogram, printed on white paper, was launched in September to replace the traditional solid blue. The new aerogram carries a $1.30 stamp showing a stylized map of Hong Kong.

Lei Cheng Uk, Lok Fu, Ngau Tau Kok and Aberdeen Post Offices moved to larger premises during the year to meet increasing postal demand in their districts. There are now 103 post offices in the area.

The post office issued five special stamps in 1986. The first of these, issued in February, consisted of four stamps commemorating the return of Halley's Comet. A leaflet containing a set of these four stamps was also issued. A set of five stamps was issued on 21 April in honor of Her Majesty The Queen's 60th birthday. This set of stamps formed part of the Crown Agents Omnibus series, issued jointly with 22 other postal administrations.

In July, a set of four stamps, themed Transport, Finance, Commerce and Communications, was released to commemorate Hong Kong's participation in the 1986 World's Fair in Vancouver, Canada. Another set of four stamps featuring four types of old and new fishing vessels found in Hong Kong waters was released in September. The last set of special stamps was issued in December. It consisted of four stamps featuring four 19th-century portrait paintings preserved as part of the art collections of the Hong Kong Museum of Art and the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. In addition to these issues of commemorative stamps, commemorative envelopes with a special date stamp were issued to commemorate the Queen's second visit to Hong Kong on 21 October. For use on these covers, the Queen's 60th birthday stamps were put up for sale again on the first day of the royal visit.

The first covers of the day were also issued on 30 December to mark the introduction in Hong Kong of postal labels issued by a Frama label issuing machine installed at the main post office.


telecommunication services


As Asia's leading financial, commercial and industrial center, Hong Kong has efficient and reliable telecommunications both within the territory and internationally.

Telecommunications services are provided by two local franchises, Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited and Cable and Wireless (Hong Kong) Limited.

The Postmaster General is the Telecommunications Authority and administers the Telecommunications Regulations and the Telephone Regulations, which govern the establishment and operation of all telecommunications services. He also acts as an advisor to the government in the provision and operation of public telecommunications services and in the technical aspects of radio and television broadcasting.

Post uses computer techniques to manage the radio spectrum to ensure it is used efficiently. Develops frequency allocation plans for the area and assigns frequencies to specific applications. Issues licenses under the Telecommunications Regulations for all forms of radio communications in Hong Kong. It continues to monitor radio frequency bands to detect illegal transmissions and interference from sources inside and outside the territory. Conducts examinations leading to radiotelephony or radiotelegraphy certification for radio operators in accordance with the International Radio Regulations. It also carries out inspections of ship radio stations to ensure compliance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.

In addition, the Post provides consulting and planning services for the communication needs of government agencies and coordinates and regulates the use of all radio communication sites. Major systems planned in 1986 included replacing the existing police telephone network with a new network consisting of digital exchanges controlled by stored programs and high-capacity digital connections, a new teleprinter network for Government Information Services, and a digital PBX for replace the existing telephone switchboard for the Secretariat of Government.

Basic public telecommunications services in Hong Kong - telephone, telex and telegram - are operated by the two franchise companies on an exclusive basis. Terminals on customer premises are provided on a competitive basis, but a "connection permit" is required for each device type. Other telecommunications services may be operated concurrently if the service has been licensed under the Telecommunications Regulation.

Internal telephone service is provided by Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited. With more than 2.3 million phones served by over 1.7 million lines, the area has a density of approximately 42 phones per 100 inhabitants.

The company also operates a public data network using a special transmission switching technique known as packet switching to provide the public with more advanced data communication facilities.

The chain helped introduce "cashless shopping" as it allowed the introduction of electronic money transfers at select retail stores.

Hong Kong's international telephone service is jointly provided by Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited and Cable and Wireless (HK) Limited. A worldwide Connected Carrier service is available and international direct dialing can be made to over 140 overseas destinations.

International telecommunications services, including public telegram, telex, telephone, television program transmission/reception, leased lines, ship-to-shore and air-to-shore communications are provided by Cable and Wireless (HK) Limited on at



exclusive license under the Telecommunications Ordinance. The company also operates local telex and telegram service. International facilities are provided by terrestrial and submarine cables, radio systems and satellite links from Stanley Earth Station, which operates via satellites in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

In order to further improve Hong Kong's telecommunications facilities for communication with other territories, new submarine cables and radio links are planned and put into operation from time to time. A new submarine cable between Hong Kong and Taiwan was commissioned in October 1985 to replace the old tropospheric dispersion radio system.

In addition to the basic services provided by the two franchise companies, various telecommunications services are operated by private companies under appropriate non-exclusive licenses granted by the Telecommunications Authority. Services such as paging, cellular radiotelephone, facsimile data transmission, videotex, e-mail, community repeater, and one-way data messaging are competitively offered by various organizations. Pager services are particularly popular, with over 250,000 pagers in use.


religion and custom


The people of HONG KONG enjoy complete religious freedom, with diverse ethnic communities practicing the world's major religions. Buddhist monasteries and Taoist temples coexist with Christian churches, Hindu and Sikh mosques and temples. All major religious communities have created schools that provide general education in addition to religious instruction.

Buddhism and Taoism, the main Chinese religions, exert a strong influence on the population, especially among the elderly. Ancestor worship is also very widespread, as defended by Confucianism, which, although not a real religion, teaches a moral code based on human relationships.

Buddhism and Taoism

Hong Kong has over 360 Chinese temples. Some temples are centuries old and contain priceless antiquities, others are more recent, while others are housed in multi-story buildings and cater to the spiritual needs of a smaller circle of city dwellers.

All temples must be registered according to the Chinese Temple Ordinance. The Chinese Temple Committee manages about 40 public temples, and the proceeds from the donations of believers are used for the preservation and restoration of not only public temples, but also private temples of historical value. Most major temples and monasteries are open to the public.

Each temple is dedicated to one or two deities enshrined in the main hall, while minor deities are housed in the side aisles. As Buddhism and Taoism, essentially two different religions, are often considered related as they both involve sacred rites of traditional origin, Buddhist and Taoist deities can be worshiped together in a temple. Major deities include Buddha, Kwun Yum (the Buddhist goddess of mercy) and Lui Cho (a Taoist god).

There are also a variety of deified mortals traditionally worshiped for their real or mythical accomplishments. The first is Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven and protector of seafarers, who is revered by the fishing community and others in the community, reflecting Hong Kong's heavy reliance on fisheries and maritime trade.

There are at least 24 Tin Hau temples in Hong Kong, the most famous being Joss House Bay, which is visited by tens of thousands of devotees every year on the 23rd day of the third lunar month during the Tin Hau Festival.

Other deified mortals include Kwan Tai, god of war and justice; Pak Tai, Lord of the North and Patron of Cheung Chau Island; Hung Shing, god of the southern seas and meteorologist, and Wong Tai Sin, a Taoist deity who pay homage to a popular traditional Chinese-style temple originally built 60 years ago in northeast Kowloon. Dedicated to the gods of literary achievement and



Also very popular and well known is Martial Valor, the Man Mo Temple on Hollywood Road on Hong Kong Island, which is managed by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, a non-profit organization.

There are five major festivals in the Chinese calendar, all of which are public holidays. The first is Lunar New Year, when gifts and visits are exchanged between friends and relatives, and children receive “lucky money”. The spring Ching Ming Festival is an opportunity to visit ancestral tombs. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon in early summer with dragon boat racing and eating boiled rice wrapped in lotus leaves. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon. Mooncakes, fruit and wine are exchanged as gifts, and adults and children alike take to the parks and fields at night with colorful lanterns. The Chung Yeung Festival takes place on the ninth day of the ninth moon and is celebrated by large crowds climbing to the top of a high mountain in memory of an ancient Chinese family's escape from the plague and death. The family tombs are also visited on this day.

Christian community

The Christian community - Roman Catholic and Protestant - is estimated to number nearly half a million people and includes more than 50 independent denominations and groups.

The Evangelical and Roman Catholic Churches enjoy good communion. The Roman Catholic Diocese and the Christian Council of Hong Kong have a joint development committee that plans joint actions in areas of mutual interest, with official representation on the respective committees. Church leaders issue joint pastoral letters, and various bodies from both groups work together on a variety of mission and service projects. All Chinese and English local religious programs on Hong Kong Radio Television are planned and produced in cooperation with two ecumenical committees. They stand next to the station on an advisory basis. In April, an important event took place for the entire religious community. It was a courtesy visit from a Beijing delegation headed by Mr. Ren Wuzhi, director of the Bureau of Religious Affairs of the State Council of China. The group visited all the major religions in the territory.

roman catholic community

The Roman Catholic Church has been present in Hong Kong since the territory's earliest days. The church was founded in 1841 as a missionary prefecture and in 1874 as an apostolic vicariate. In 1946 it became a diocese.

In 1969 Francis Chen-peng Hsu was installed as the first Chinese Bishop of the Diocese of Hong Kong and was succeeded in 1973 by Peter Wang-kei Lei. The current bishop, John Baptist Cheng-chung Wu, was ordained in 1975.

About 267,250 people or five percent of the population are Catholic. They are served by 350 priests, 71 brothers and 738 sisters. There are 56 parishes and 54 measurement centers. Most church services and other religious activities are held in Chinese, with some churches offering services in English.

The diocese has established its own administrative structure while maintaining traditional ties with the Pope and other Catholic communities around the world. The Deputy Secretary General of the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences has his office in Hong Kong.



In addition to apostolic work, one of the main concerns of the diocese was the welfare of all people in Hong Kong. In education there are 300 Catholic schools and kindergartens with around 321,200 students. There is the Catholic Education Council which is helpful in this area. The medical and social offer includes six hospitals, 10 clinics, 16 social centers, 13 residential homes, 12 seniors' homes, two homes for the disabled and many self-help clubs and associations. Caritas is the official welfare arm of the Church in Hong Kong.

These ministries are open to all people - in fact, 95% of those who have benefited from the diocese's various ministries are not Catholic.

To reach people through the media, the diocese publishes two weekly newspapers, Kung Kao Po and The Sunday Examiner. In addition, the Diocesan Audiovisual Center produces tapes and films for use in schools and parishes, and in general, the Hong Kong Catholic Social Communications Office acts as an information and public relations conduit for the Diocese.

By special appointment of the Pope, Bishop Wu participated in the Extraordinary Synod of Bishops in Rome at the end of the year. The Synod was convened to commemorate the 20th anniversary of Vatican II, assess the implementation of the Council's teachings, and make plans that would emphasize the spirit of the Council.

Earlier this year, Bishop Wu of Guangdong paid an official visit at the invitation of the director of the Guangdong Department of Religious Affairs.

In September, the Bishop participated in the General Assembly of the Conference of the Federation of Asian Bishops in Tokyo.

Evangelical Church

The Protestant community in Hong Kong numbers over 200,000 people. Major traditions represented are Adventist, Covenant, Anglican, Baptist, Church of Christ China, Lutheran, Methodist, Pentecostal, and Salvation Army, plus many independent and indigenous congregations.

Evangelical churches run 200 kindergartens, 175 primary schools, 120 secondary schools, three colleges, three schools for the deaf, several training centers for the mentally handicapped, and 15 theological schools and Bible institutes.

Health is also an important area. There are five large hospitals run by evangelical churches. These are complemented by many clinics, community health programs and other health services, including home visits by nurses. Plans for the expansion of United Christian Hospital have been approved by the government and architectural details are under study. The capacity of 640 beds will be expanded to 1,400 beds. In January, the inauguration marked the beginning of work on two new accommodations for employees of the expanded hospital.

There are two ecumenical bodies that facilitate cooperation between evangelical churches. The oldest of these is the Chinese Christian Church Federation from 1915. About 200 congregations belong to the Church Federation. The union's work is carried out through the departments of evangelism, Christian education, charity, information and cemeteries. The Federation of Churches publishes the Christian Weekly newspaper, which serves all evangelical congregations. A citywide outreach campaign and church music camp were highlights of the year. Also completed that year was a $6 million church center for leadership training and conferences, built adjacent to the Kowloon Christian Cemetery.



The second cooperative body is the Hong Kong Christian Council, established in 1954. The Council draws its members from major denominations and ecumenical service bodies. The Christian Council is committed to building closer relationships between all churches in Hong Kong, as well as with churches abroad. Its program is managed by the Missions Department and the Service Department, which operate as Hong Kong Christian Service. Associate agencies include United Christian Medical Service, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Christian Industrial Committee, Christian Family Service Center and Tao Fung Shan Ecumenical Center.

The council sponsors “alternative tours” on Wednesdays, which aim to give visitors to Hong Kong the opportunity to see concrete ways Christians are serving people. "The Church's Mission in Hong Kong - A Mid-Decade Consultation" was held by the council in January, although it was originally scheduled for the previous month for church improvements.

muslim community

About 50,000 Muslims live in Hong Kong. More than half of them are Chinese, the rest are non-Chinese born locally or believers from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and countries in the Middle East and Africa. Three main mosques are used for daily prayers. The oldest is the Jamia Mosque on Shelley Street on Hong Kong Island, built before the turn of the century and rebuilt in 1915. It offers space for a congregation of 400 people.

Also on Hong Kong Island is the Masjid Ammar Islamic Center and Osman Ramju Sadick. Opened in 1981, this eight-story center in Wan Chai houses a mosque, community hall, library, medical clinic, classrooms and offices across two floors. The mosque, which is run by the Islamic Union of Hong Kong, can accommodate 700 people, but up to 1,500 if needed, using other available space in the centre.

On the so-called "Golden Mile" on Nathan Road is the Kowloon Mosque and Islamic Centre, which opened in May 1984. This imposing building clad in white marble is a new landmark in Tsim Sha Tsui. The mosque can accommodate a congregation of around 2,000 and, in addition to the three prayer halls, it has a community hall, a medical clinic and a library.

There are two Muslim cemeteries, both on Hong Kong Island - one in Happy Valley and one in Cape Collinson, Chai Wan. Cape Collinson Cemetery also has a mosque. The coordinating body for all Islamic religious affairs is the Hong Kong Islamic Community Fund Incorporated Trustees. A board of directors made up of representatives of four Muslim organizations, namely the Islamic Union of Hong Kong, the Pakistan Association, the Muslim Association of India and the Dawoodi Bohra Association, is responsible for the management and maintenance of the mosques and cemeteries. Trustees are also responsible for organizing the celebration of Muslim festivals and other religious events. Charitable work within the Muslim community, including financial aid to the needy, medical facilities and assisted education, is carried out by various local Muslim organizations.

hindu community

The religious and social activities of Hong Kong's 12,000-member Hindu community are centered at the Hindu Temple in Happy Valley. The Hong Kong Hindu Association is responsible for maintaining the temple, which is also used

Waiting for the bread festival.



São Miguel


São Miguel

All set for dragon boat racing

São Miguel

São Miguel

a strong taste





fresh fish



hot tempered

Fresh fish wholesale

Bread Festival mascot







prayer offerings

shine in the middle of autumn






Periods of meditation, yoga classes and teaching Hindi for the Indian community. Naming, betrothal and marriage ceremonies are held at the temple as per Hindu custom. Religious music, lectures and concerts are held every Sunday morning and Monday evening.

The Hindu temple is frequently visited by foreign swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures to the community. Various festivals are celebrated, the most important ones being Holi, Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dussahara and Diwali.

Various language groups among Hindus organize additional festivals for other deities such as Hanuman, Devi and Ganesh and hold prayer meetings on auspicious occasions.

sikh community


Distinguished by their stylized turbans and cropped hair, Sikhs first arrived in Hong Kong from the Punjab in northern India as part of British forces in the 19th century. Due to their generally strong physiques, they also formed a large part of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force before World War II.

Today, community members are involved in a variety of jobs. The center of its religious and cultural activities is the Sikh temple at Wan Chai. A distinctive feature of the temple, founded in 1901, is the provision of free meals and short-term accommodation for foreign visitors of all faiths. Religious services are held every Sunday morning and include the singing of hymns, readings from the Guru Granth (the Sikh holy book) and sermons by the priest. The temple also houses a library containing a good selection of books on Sikh religion and culture and operates a 'beginner' school for four to six year old Indian children to prepare them for Hong Kong English primary schools.

The most important holidays and festivals are the birthdays of Guru Nanak (founder of the faith), Guru Gobind Singh (the 10th and last guru) and Baisakhi (birthday of all Sikhs). To meet the needs of a growing congregation, the temple's prayer hall was expanded.


jewish community


Hong Kong's Jewish community, which includes families from different parts of the world - Friday night, Saturday morning and Jewish holidays at Ohel Leah Synagogue on Robinson Road, Hong Kong Island. The synagogue was built in 1901 on land donated by Sir Jacob Sassoon and his family. The site includes a rabbi's residence and school, as well as a leisure club for the community's 1,000 members. There is also a Jewish cemetery located in Happy Valley.


recreation and art


WHILE people in Hong Kong recognize the benefits of their industry, they also recognize the need for leisure activities.

With shorter working hours and improved living standards, they can participate in and enjoy an increasingly diverse range of leisure, sports and cultural activities. While many regularly attend or attend the various sporting events, others spend their time going to the countryside or to the beach on weekends or holidays.

Great interest is also shown in cultural events, as Hong Kong is emerging as a leading hub in Southeast Asia, with several major new cultural venues having recently opened or soon to open. Thousands of events now take place throughout the year. These events range from traditional Cantonese opera and puppet shows to ballet, theater and orchestral music performances.

Funding and facilities for these activities, as well as training and mentoring opportunities for young athletes and arts students, have been provided largely by government, city council, regional council, sports federations, voluntary organizations and many private organizations.

On the cultural side, the Hong Kong Academy of Performing Arts was officially opened by Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Kent in February. The academy, which aims to promote and provide training, education and research in the performing arts and related technical fields, offers unique facilities and opportunities for multidisciplinary and bicultural training in Chinese and Western music, theatre, dance and related technical fields. The building was funded by a $300 million grant from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and annual operating costs are borne by the government.


Rural recreation is an accepted part of the lifestyle of many people in Hong Kong. Country parks and surrounding forests are used extensively by city dwellers for morning walks, boxing and jogging, and by students for nature study, while more remote parks are used for hiking, picnics, barbecuing, cycling, kite flying. , guidance, etc. .Camping for those looking for a relaxing change of pace from research.

There are 21 landscape parks in Hong Kong, covering about 40% of the land area. Recreational facilities at these landscaped parks include picnic and barbecue areas, marked walking trails, shelters, restrooms, and informational and educational services. Road access will be improved to allow park staff to more efficiently deal with fire and debris - the most serious problems caused by visitors.

During the year, the parks were visited approximately 9.4 million times. Although the parks are more heavily used during the driest and coldest months, from October to April they account for 65%



Of the total number of visitors, more and more people are attracted to the countryside in the summer. Evening visits to roadside picnic spots are also becoming increasingly popular.

The Director of Agriculture and Fisheries is the National Parks Authority and, advised by the National Parks Council, is responsible for these facilities and the provision of management and conservation services for all National Parks and designated special areas.

town hall

City Hall continues to play an important role in community life, providing a wide range of recreational and cultural facilities in the Hong Kong metropolitan area. The Department of Urban Services, as the municipality's executive body, manages a total area of ​​497 hectares. Major recreational facilities include parks, playgrounds, swimming pools, beaches and indoor arcades.

City Council projects completed in 1986 include Hiu Kwong Street Playground and Indoor Arcade, Carpenter Road Park (Phase II, Phase I), Hong Kong Squash Center at Victoria Barracks, Wong Nai Chung Reservoir Park and Harbor Roadgarden.

In order to maximize land use, new or redeveloped Urban Council markets are built as single- or multi-story complexes intended solely for recreational or cultural purposes. Facilities offered include galleries, libraries, classrooms, multipurpose rooms for rehearsals, training, lectures and community events, fine arts studios and exhibition areas.

Two complexes were completed in 1986, one in Wong Tai Sin and the other in Wan Chai. During the year, seven complexes were under construction in the east and west districts of Hong Kong Island and in the Kowloon City, Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok and Yau Ma Tei districts of Kowloon. Twelve similar projects in different parts of the city are being planned. In addition, five new indoor galleries were under construction and 16 were in various stages of planning to complement existing indoor facilities in Aberdeen, Kai Tak East, Cheung Sha Wan, Morse Park, Boundary Street, Lai Chi Kok, To Kwa Wan, Ngau Tau Kok, Chun Wah Street and Hiu Kwong Street.

With a budget of $7 million in 1986, City Council, through its Office of Sports Promotion, provided major financial support for events co-sponsored by athletic federations and other organizations. The 7,800 sports and recreational events supported in this way included national leagues and championships, spectator events and special projects such as school sports, the annual sports festival and sports activities for the disabled. Around 195,180 people participated in these activities, which attracted large numbers of spectators.

Through its network of 10 District Directorates for Leisure, Recreation and Sport, the City Council sponsors together specifically for disabled and disabled people. During the year, approximately 220,000 people participated in 4,000 programs and activities, with 27,000 people in the swimming lessons program and 53,000 people in the gymnastics and dance programs.

The Regional Council

The Regional Council, set up on 1 April, provides recreational and sports equipment in non-urban areas, with the Directorate of Regional Services (RSD), as the county's executive body, responsible for planning and managing the equipment. great rest



Sports facilities include city parks, playgrounds, swimming pools and beaches, indoor recreation centers, sports fields, campgrounds and water sports centers.

Construction projects completed in 1986 include Phase I of the Tuen Mun Pool Complex, the Tuen Mun Pool Squash Courts, an artificial grass soccer field at Tai Po, a waterfront building at Hap Mun Bay, Sai Kung and the scenic drive along Shing Mun River from Sha Tin. Many other recreational and sporting facilities are under construction in the area, most notably large urban parks in all major metropolitan areas and an ambitious program to build indoor recreational facilities. Construction of three indoor recreation centers has been completed in Tai Po, Yuen Long and Sha Tin. Nine similar projects in different districts were built and another 25 covered centers were in various stages of planning.

The municipality also manages 311 hectares of open spaces and recreational properties with recreational and sports facilities.

Through its sports promotion program, the municipality subsidizes various sports associations in the delivery of sports programs at the regional or multi-district level. In 1986, the board sponsored more than 50 of these sporting events with a $1 million commitment.

RSD's nine district offices organized 3,833 recreational and sports programs for 248,308 people, including 19,137 who participated in various fitness and dance programs at four neighborhood sports centers. In addition, 1,179 similar projects were jointly organized with other government agencies and external entities. Some of the designs have been specially designed for seniors, disabled and disabled people. During the same period, some 56 community events, including sports festivals, carnivals and fairs, were jointly organized by the municipality and various district offices to give residents a greater sense of district identity. Around 48,700 people participated in these activities.

In the area of ​​outdoor activities, 87,186 day campers and 97,449 night campers participated in city-organized activities at Lady MacLehose Holiday Village, Sai Kung Outdoor Recreation Centre, Tai Mei Tuk Water Sports Center and Chong Hing Water Sports Center.

beaches and pools

Swimming is by far the most popular summer recreation in Hong Kong. During the year, 8.5 million people visited the bathing beaches and 1.3 million used the public swimming pools managed by the municipality and municipalities.

There are 41 bathing beaches in the Official Gazette: 12 on Hong Kong Island managed by the Urban Council and 29 in the New Territories managed by the Regional Council. The beaches are manned by lifeguards and equipped with changing rooms, toilets, first aid posts, observation towers and other auxiliary facilities.

Currently, there are 20 public swimming pools managed by the two municipalities - 13 in the Municipal Councils area and seven in the Regional Councils area. The competition pools at these complexes are built to international standards. Six public swimming pool projects are planned in the metropolitan region and 12 in the New Territories.

The two municipalities regularly organize swimming courses to promote water safety. During the year, 241 swimming courses and training were held, attracting 6,814 participants.

The city hall

Covering an area of ​​11,000 square meters, City Hall has been a popular venue for the performing and visual arts since opening in 1962.



This well-established civic center is the main venue for the Hong Kong International Film Festival and the Asian Arts Festival, both hosted by the Urban Council, as well as the Hong Kong Arts Festival. Throughout the year, the Town Hall also hosts cultural and recreational shows by performance companies from the City Council and various cultural entities.

The premises of the City Hall complex are located in the Upper Block and Lower Block, which are connected by a memorial garden. The Low Block has a 1488-seat concert hall, a 467-seat theater, an exhibition hall, and Chinese and Western restaurants.

In 1986, some 518,300 visitors saw 1,035 performances in the Concert Hall, Theater and Small Room, and a total of 122 exhibits were presented in the Exhibition Room and Exhibition Gallery.


The completion of Sha Tin Town Hall in October marked another milestone in promoting cultural activities in the regional council area. Five civic centers are now administered by the council. The other four are Tsuen Wan Prefecture, Lut Sau Prefecture in Yuen Long, Northern District Prefecture in Sheung Shui, and Tai Po Administrative Center. Another civic center, Tuen Mun City Hall, similar in design to Sha Tin City Hall, is under construction and will be completed next year.

Sha Tin City Hall is conveniently located between Sha Tin Railway Station and Shing Mun River. Its main feature is a 1,424-seat multipurpose auditorium, including an expanded 323 square meter stage, two side stages and an orchestra pit. Tsuen Wan City Hall is the first cultural complex in the regional council area. Lut Sau Hall, North District Town Hall and Tai Po Civic Center each have an auditorium for around 800 people and a rehearsal room or dance studio.

Hong Kong Cultural Center

Funded by the Government and City Council, the Hong Kong Cultural Center will be built in phases on a waterfront site at the tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. In the first phase, the Hong Kong Space Museum was completed in 1980. The works of the second phase - which includes a 2,250-seat concert hall, a 1,860-seat Grand Theater, a 500-seat studio theater, an art library and administrative offices and two restaurants - started in November 1984 and will be completed in late 1989.

Aberdeen Civic Center

The Aberdeen Civic Center, on the fifth floor of the Urban Council Aberdeen Complex, is primarily intended to be the area's cultural fixture. It features a 160-seat cultural hall, an exhibition hall that doubles as a rehearsal room, a conference room, two music practice rooms, and ancillary facilities suitable for a variety of small-scale cultural performances and community activities such as concerts, dance, theatre, chamber music, pantomime, rehearsals, exhibitions, lectures, meetings and receptions.

During the year, 238 activities were carried out at the site.

Arts Community Center

In order to promote arts and culture at the community level, the City Council ensures an appropriate geographic distribution of community arts centers throughout the city. A community arts center typically includes a 450-seat performance auditorium, rehearsal and practice facilities, an exhibition hall, and a fine arts studio.



Two of these centers are under construction, the Urban Council Ngau Chi Wan Complex and the Urban Council Western Complex, and are due for completion in early 1987 and mid-1988, respectively. Another center in the Sai Wan Ho Urban Council Complex is planned.

Ko Shan Theater

Opened in 1983, the Ko Shan Theater is a purpose-built semi-open theater available for hire by the public. It is located at Ko Shan Road Park in Hung Hom and has 3,000 seats - 1,000 inside and 2,000 outside.

The theater is a venue for City Council performances and community activities. In 1986, an estimated 105,000 people attended 150 performances at the theater.

Indoor stadiums (Hong Kong Coliseum and Queen Elizabeth Stadium)

The Hong Kong Coliseum and Queen Elizabeth Stadium, in their fourth and sixth years of operation respectively, are the two leading multi-purpose stadiums and air-conditioned entertainment complexes in Hong Kong. Both are governed by the city council.

Over the past three years, many local and foreign celebrities, as well as world-renowned athletes, have used the 12,500-seat Colosseum for a variety of concerts, entertainment events and sporting shows. The Colosseum has also hosted several major trade exhibitions and an international conference. A unique feature of the Colosseum is its arena, which can be converted into an ice rink for ice shows or recreational ice skating. In total, 796,000 people attended 105 concerts and events at the Colosseum in 1986.

The 3,600-seat Queen Elizabeth Stadium Arena provides a smaller, alternative venue to the Coliseum to present sporting, entertainment or cultural events to mid-sized audiences. The distribution lobby can be used for exhibitions, trade demonstrations and recreational activities such as chess and bridge.

Other stadium facilities include badminton, squash, volleyball and basketball courts, table tennis facilities, as well as multi-purpose gymnasiums for fitness classes and various sports training, dance or music activities. Over 429,400 people attended events and activities at the stadium throughout the year.

The stadium is also home to the Hong Kong Amateur Sports Association and the Olympic Committee, housing 23 sports associations in its office building.

Hong Kong Art Center

The Hong Kong Arts Center is home to an independent non-profit organization that presents multicultural artistic events including music, theatre, dance, film and visual arts. In general, the emphasis of the program is on promoting local artists, groups and events. The Arts Center is not financially supported by government grants and relies on support from the public and the business community for its survival.

In 1986, the arts center's three auditoriums, namely the Shouson Theatre, Recital Hall and Studio Theatre, were used for 1043 performances, and Pao Sui Loong Galleries held 77 exhibitions. The two rehearsal rooms, arts and crafts studios, music practice rooms and other areas were used for 406 classes.

The main events of the year included a drama project "Trilogy", "Music Series", "International Festival", "Children's Festival", "The Art of Henry Moore", "Guizhou Minorities and Folk Crafts" and "A Modern Exhibition French art". All of these events were sponsored by the industry.



Courses and workshops were held in dance, theater, crafts and ceramics, Western and Chinese painting, fashion design and children's art. The number of participants exceeded 5000.

cultural performances

In 1986, the City Council presented 302 performances by local and foreign groups and artists, excluding those performed by its professional performance groups and presented at the Asian Arts Festival and the International Theater Carnival.

Performances, which attracted 260,945 spectators, included instrumental, vocal and orchestral concerts, stage plays, ballet, folk and modern dances, Chinese and Western operas, pantomime, films and more. Some performances were held in collaboration with other cultural organizations such as the Hong Kong Philharmonic Society, the British Council, the Goethe-Institut and the Alliance Française.

Highlights of the year included performances by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, St. the choir Fung Ming Opera Troupe and the opera production Maria Stuarda.

Work continues to bring the performing arts to the public and create more performance opportunities for local artists and groups.

The Regional Council also presented a variety of cultural programs that made the arts more accessible to the public. The municipality played an important role in the district's artistic festivals, contributing with quality programming and providing professional skills. He participated in the 1986 Tsuen Kwai Arts Festival and the Tai Po, Sha Tin and Kwai Ching festivals.

A total of 260 cultural performances were organized by the regional council and attracted 107,000 visitors. These performances have included performances by world-renowned foreign artists and groups such as flamenco guitarist Paco Pena, pianist Yin Chengzong, pipa virtuoso Liu Dehai and The Bach Collegium Munich from West Germany, puppet company Theater Sans Fil from Canada , the American Ballet Comedy, Japan's legendary Kodo, the Vienna Boys' Choir and the Shanghai Zhejiang Xiao Bai Hua Opera Company.

As an incentive, the regional council offered students and seniors half price.

Computergestütztes ticket office

The City Council operates a computerized ticketing system that has sold over 2.8 million tickets since its inception in 1984. The system provides a full range of postal, telephone and ticketing services for cultural, recreational and sporting events City Council and for events organized by 101 tenants of City Council facilities and commercial spaces. Eight points of sale are available on the premises of the city hall and in commercial establishments. In addition, two more points of sale were set up at the headquarters of the regional council.

Repertory Theatre Hong Kong

Founded in 1977 by the Urban Council, the 24-member Hong Kong Repertory Theater has continued to gain strong support from local audiences. Under new artistic director Dr. Joanna Chan, the company offered a seasonal repertoire of translated Western dramas,



contemporary works from China and abroad, as well as original plays by local playwrights. Seven large productions and four small productions or workshop productions were carried out,

all in Cantonese.

The company also regularly gave free performances at schools and community centers in the area. Its 146 performances attracted 65,100 people. It also organized the annual Drama Festival in July and August.

Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra

The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra is a professional Chinese music orchestra founded in 1977 by the Urban Council. It presents new musical works by hiring local and foreign composers to compose and arrange them. The orchestra's 74 performances under the direction of its new music director, Mr. Kuan Nai-chung, his deputy music director and guest conductors from home and abroad attracted a total of 97,300 listeners during the year. In addition to regular concerts at City Hall, the orchestra performed free concerts at several other civic centers, as well as schools and community centers.

During the year, the orchestra also performed its first series of popular concerts at the Hong Kong Coliseum at the Asian Arts Festival and recorded its first record for release in 1987.

Hong Kong Dance Company

The Hong Kong Dance Company is the only professional dance company in Hong Kong, performing Chinese traditional and folk dances and new dance dramas choreographed with Chinese and Hong Kong themes. Founded by the City Council in 1981, it has grown in popularity with its attractive and innovative dance programs performed regularly both on venues and in community halls. In 1986, the company played 64 shows, some of which were free at county schools and arts festivals. The total number of visitors was 43,650. A highlight was the premiere of a new dance drama Yue Fei, choreographed by Ms. Shu Qiao, the company's new artistic director, and Mr. Ying Eding, who adapted the story of the famous Song Dynasty hero.

Hong Kong Arts Festival

The Hong Kong Arts Festival celebrated its fourteenth year with over 120 performances in the four-week program, which once again had a capacity utilization rate of 95%.

One of the highlights of the 1986 Hong Kong Festival of the Arts was the performance of the Glyndebourne Opera Festival, visiting Asia for the first time. It was presented by the Academy of Performing Arts for the official opening of its magnificent new Teatro Lyrico. Another important event was the largest and most important sculpture exhibition ever held in Asia, The Art of Henry Moore, with more than 250 works by Henry Moore. The extensive concert program included the Minnesota Orchestra conducted by Sir Neville Marriner, the Vienna Chamber Orchestra, the Hong Kong Philharmonic and the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, the New London Consort, the Medici String Quartet, Albert Bolliger, the Brass Band, Cyprien Katsaris, Helene Delavault and Pipa Master Liu Dehai. The range of dance performances included Balletap USA, Scottish Ballet, Desrosiers Dance Theater and City Contemporary Dance Company, while theatrical performances were given by Compass Theatre, Theater Sans Fil, Chinese Youth Arts Theater (Beijing) and Beijing's own repertory theatre. Hong Kong and Chung Ying Theater Company.

The festival is organized in association with the Council for the Performing Arts, Urban Council and the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club.


Hong Kong Festival Rand


Festival Fringe is an open arts festival held concurrently with the annual Hong Kong Arts Festival. It includes four weeks of indoor and outdoor concerts and exhibitions featuring contributions from local and foreign artists in Hong Kong. All artists present their shows with their own financial resources.

The Fringe offers Fringe Club artists and artists a year-round place to create new work and hone their skills. Last year the Fringe Club hosted 116 different shows, 20 exhibitions and 26 different trainings. The facilities are provided free of charge by the state.

Asian Art Festival

The Asian Arts Festival, one of the most important international cultural events in the region, organized by the Urban Council, celebrated its 11th anniversary. The 17-day festival ran from October 17th to November 2nd with 10 foreign and six local groups. Artists from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand showcased diverse facets of Asian culture, from contemporary jazz and popular spiritual singing to ritual dance and experimental theatre.

Performances took place at City Hall Concert Hall and Theatre, Ko Shan Theatre, Space Museum Lecture Hall and Hong Kong Coliseum. In addition, there were free performances in parks and playgrounds.

The festival also included several lectures and performances by visiting and local artists to promote appreciation and understanding of various forms of Asian performing arts. Four museum exhibitions were held in parallel with the festival.

Festival events attracted 407,160 people.

Hong Kong International Film Festival

The Hong Kong International Film Festival, which celebrated its tenth year in 1986, has grown from a modest regional festival to one of the most diverse film festivals in the world and has gained international recognition as a showcase for Asian cinema.

The tenth festival, held from March 27 to April 11, featured new productions from 29 countries and several retrospectives. There were small tributes to Max Ophuls and Jean-Luc Godard, whose distinctive camera style greatly influenced the development of European cinema. A special program was presented with the theme “The Best of Heinosuke Gosho”, presenting the 12 best works of the Japanese filmmaker, considered one of the greatest masters in Japan, but little known abroad. To commemorate the anniversary and recognize the local film industry, 15 local works were highlighted in the retrospective: "Ten Years of Hong Kong Cinema (1976-85)".

In addition, Cantonese melodramas of the 1950s and 1960s were selected as a theme for the Hong Kong Film Retrospective Section, and a short program was dedicated to Li Chenfeng, a renowned Cantonese melodrama film director, who died in May 1985.

International Theater Carnival

The International Theater Carnival was organized by the City Council to offer entertainment programs for the enjoyment of children and young people during the summer holidays.

Six groups from China, Great Britain, Canada, Austria, the Netherlands and the United States participated in the carnival. Along with five groups of local artists, they played 37 shows



at City Hall and the Space Museum, six free shows at major department stores and a fun fair on the pedestrianized Chater Road.

Carnival offered a program that covered almost the entire spectrum of theatrical art. Around 14,600 people attended the presentations and 18,170 saw the exhibition.

Hong Kong History Museum

The year witnessed a significant development in the Hong Kong Museum of History's educational and consulting services.

A regular museum weekend program was first introduced in July to provide educational entertainment in the form of free lectures, exhibits, film screenings, video programs and slides on local history, archaeology, ethnography and natural history. Special museum workshops on historical inscriptions and physical archeology of Hong Kong were organized from March to June and from November to December to serve the school population. Four additional traveling exhibitions were produced during the year for free presentation in schools, bringing the total number of exhibitions to five. All were full. Organized group visits to the museum by schools and local communities continued to be popular, with a total of 320 organized group visits involving 27,400 participants.

Since July 1986, a permanent exhibition featuring the history of Hong Kong from the Neolithic period to 1841 has been on display in the Museum's Ground Floor Gallery.

The gallery on the first floor of the museum has been reserved for temporary themed exhibitions, including the most popular exhibition entitled "Traditional Local Chinese Wedding" organized as a contribution to the 11th Asian Arts Festival in October. Other significant and interesting exhibits included the "Miao Ethnic Costumes of China", the first costume exhibition held at the museum, the "Hong Kong Historical Inscriptions" and the "Macao Currency".

Progress was also made in the collection of ethnographic and historical materials and in special projects to map different facets of the local heritage. During the year, a new project was completed to study the traditional utensils and utensils of local villages.

Pending delivery of a permanent building, the museum plans to temporarily expand and modernize its Kowloon Park facility to provide an additional 1,200 square meters of exhibition space. Furthermore, plans to convert Law Uk, a 200-year-old Hakka house in Chai Wan, into a folk museum have been completed, and construction is expected to be completed by the end of 1988. The Folk Museum will be the second branch of the History Museum , the first being the Han Tomb preserved in situ at Lei Cheng Uk. The Han Tomb continued to attract visitors, particularly school festivals, and had a total attendance of 45,000.

Hong Kong Space Museum

Around 1,217,200 visitors enjoyed the various sky shows, exhibitions and expansion activities presented by the Hong Kong Space Museum throughout the year. Key attractions at the museum's Space Theater included two Omnimax movie shows ("Grand Canyon - The Hidden Secrets" and "Flyers"), two sky shows ("The Universe of Dr. Einstein" and "The Star of Christmas") and an educational program (“Introduction to the Solar System”) for 5-6 elementary school students. Temporary exhibitions on related topics were also held in conjunction with the shows. These shows attracted 536,379 people.

Also during the year, three new exhibitions and a publication were produced by the Space Museum. With the aim of awakening interest in astronomy, especially among young people, the



The museum has organized nine astronomy courses, 24 film screenings and 12 lectures on astronomy. A highlight of the year was the launch of the Astronomical Observation Awards Program, which aims to stimulate public interest in astronomical observation.

Hong Kong Museum of Science and Technology

Following the government's designation to the City Council of a prime site in Tsim Sha Tsui East for a Science and Technology Museum, important steps were taken during the year to move forward with the project. Construction works will be carried out in stages. The first phase of construction with a gross area of ​​13,500 square meters should be completed in 1990.

A museum consultant was appointed to produce a master zoning study, facility master plan, and site use plan, as well as to coordinate exhibition design and exhibit fabrication. The plant's framework program and development plan were finalized in April. A preliminary exhibition plan will be consolidated.

In order to meet the growing demand for science-related activities and stimulate interest in the museum, various educational and consulting activities have been organized in the form of lectures, film screenings and seminars. These programs attracted more than 5,000 people. A joint project with the Hong Kong Polytechnic for the production of simple prototype displays was also started.

Hong Kong Museum of Art

The Hong Kong Museum of Art featured 13 exhibitions, which attracted 243,350 visitors, including 6,300 students in 136 school parties.

The exhibits featured local Chinese and contemporary art, as well as foreign art. The most important exhibition of the year was "The Art of Henry Moore", which had the participation of five institutions from Germany and abroad. A total of 257 exhibits, including monumental sculptures, were displayed simultaneously in seven venues. The exhibition, officially opened by Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Kent, was of unprecedented scale. Two other traveling exhibitions were also held abroad with the generous support of foreign institutions and collectors. These included sculptures by contemporary German sculptors and Chinese paintings under Emperor Qianlong from the Phoenix Museum of Art.

The exhibition of the winners of the Urban Council Fine Arts Prize presented the most representative works of a group of local artists in the fields of painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics and Chinese calligraphy. Four exhibitions of Chinese antiquities and historical photos from the museum's collections were also organized. To stimulate creative artistic activities for local school children, a painting competition and exhibition for children was organized in cooperation with the Ministry of Education.

The branch museum, the Flagstaff House Museum of Tea Ware, continued to hold exhibits on tea drinking and Yixing teaware. A special exhibition on Chinese Bamboo Sculptures was introduced to display items made by the late Dr. Ip Yee, while a large tea pottery competition and exhibition was organized to promote public interest in the art of pottery.

The museum also organized educational and outreach activities, including lectures, film screenings, slide shows, traveling mini-exhibits, and lectures for faculty and students. Throughout the year, the museum acquired suitable objects to expand its collection. The museum also received a donation of 238 Shiwan ceramic figures from Mr. Woo Kam-chiu. With the donation, the museum has a specialized collection for exhibition and research purposes.



Planning work for the new Hong Kong Museum of Art, which forms part of the Hong Kong Cultural Center at Tsim Sha Tsui, has picked up speed. The new museum will have 12,500 square meters of gallery space, educational facilities and support services. Pile driving began in November and the project is scheduled for completion in 1991.

Sheung Yiu Folk Museum

The Sheung Yiu Folk Museum at Pak Tam Chung, Sai Kung Nature Trail was in its third year of operation. The museum features a 19th-century Hakka walled village with dwellings, a gate tower, kitchens, pigsties with displays of antique furniture and agricultural implements. It attracted 86,307 visitors throughout the year.

Eisenbahnmuseum Hong Kong

Housed in the former Tai Po Market Station and opened in December 1985, the museum specifically focuses on the history, development and services of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. It shows the old Tai Po Market train station from 1913, today declared a monument. The station's reservations office, waiting room and signal booth have been restored to the public. Other exhibits include a life-size model of an electrified railcar, five vintage historic railcars, two inspection railcars and other railroad artifacts. During the year, the museum attracted 410 604 visitors.

Museum of the United Kingdom Sam Tung

Construction on the Sam Tung Uk Museum began in February and the museum is scheduled to be completed and open to the public in mid-1987. Located in Tsuen Wan, the museum was converted from an 18th century walled Hakka villa belonging to a Chan clan. The 2,000 square meter museum includes the restored ancestral hall, 12 village houses, a reception room, an orientation room, an exhibition hall, a lecture hall and museum offices, all converted from village houses. The adjacent open space of 8,000 square meters with a pond, gate, kiosk with landscaped seating will reflect the rural character of the museum.

Zoological and Botanical Garden

Administered by the City Council, the Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens are the oldest and arguably the most popular public gardens in Hong Kong. Set on 12 acres at the foot of Victoria Peak overlooking Government House, the gardens contain an array of botanical and zoological features. The gardens were designed between 1861 and 1871 and divided by Albany Road. The Old Garden, east of the road, is home to an extensive collection of birds, while the New Garden, opened in 1871, is home to mammals. The horticultural contribution, located mainly in Jardim Velho, is complemented by extensive plantings within the zoological enclosure.

The mammal collection includes jaguars, clouded leopards, red-eared black gibbons, emperor tamarins, green acouchis, common marmosets, Prevost tree squirrels, Indian porcupines, Goodfellow tree kangaroos, Celebes black monkeys, squirrel monkeys, agoutis and short-beaked echidnas, ring-tailed lemurs, siamangs, orangutans and golden-faced lion tamarins . Among them, 13 species of mammals, including orangutans and lion tamarins, have nested in the gardens.

The bird collection, ranked among the best in Asia, focuses on rare or endangered species. A total of over 850 specimens of around 265 species are housed. With the increasing sale or transfer of zoological stocks between countries



is difficult, more emphasis was placed on raising the animals within the gardens. An excellent record has been achieved in this respect in recent years, including successes with the white-crowned crane, Count Raggi's bird of paradise, the Victoria crowned pigeon and the white-winged caroque duck.

The horticultural collection includes trees, palms and shrubs representing more than 400 species. The Fountain Terrace Garden, rebuilt in 1985, features colorful seasonal floral arrangements. This formal garden has a large fountain as its centerpiece and the landscaped surroundings include over 230 species of shrubs.

public libraries

Community library services are provided under the auspices of the Urban Council in the metropolitan area and the Regional Council in the New Territories.

With the opening of two small libraries at Lok Fu Estate and Hong Ning Road and the re-establishment of Happy Valley Public Library and Wan Chai Public Library in the new Urban Council Lockhart Road Complex, Urban Council now operates 24 stationary and two mobile libraries. Facilities provided by these libraries include adult and children's lending services, outreach activities programs, audiovisual and reference services, newspaper and magazine services, student study rooms, and block lending services to cultural organizations and correctional institutions. .

During the year, the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club donated two readers capable of converting printed English into spoken words to the Kowloon Central Library and the Prefectural Public Library, allowing the blind to use the libraries' English language books. The two libraries also received 10 sets of microcomputers from a local company to encourage computer literacy.


The regional council operates two mobile libraries and 20 public libraries, including Tsing Yi, Shek Wai Kok and Butterfly Estate Public Libraries, which opened earlier this year.

Last November, the Council's first central library - the Sha Tin Central Library - was completed, which is also the largest and most complete library, with an initial inventory of 222,000 books and audiovisual services for libraries in the surrounding areas.

Each of the area's nine boroughs has at least one permanent library. All libraries offer a free book loan service for adults and children and cassette tapes.

To support the Department of Education, study rooms are provided in Tsuen Wan, South Kwai Chung, North Kwai Chung, Yuen Long and Sai Kung District Libraries. Mobile libraries regularly visit different districts across the continent to serve the people.

During the year, new materials were purchased for public libraries, including 466,000 books, 710 discs and 18,028 audiovisual supports. About two million people participated in outreach activities organized to promote the use of libraries. More than 11.2 million books were distributed for home reading and 21 million books were read in libraries.

Leisure and Sports Council

As the government's principal advisory body on recreation and sport, the Council on Recreation and Sport advised on the disbursement of $10.4 million in government funds to sports organizations in 1986. The money was mainly spent on supporting competitions and tournaments at the international level both domestically and abroad, training, development programs and staff salaries and administrative expenses. Of that amount, $1.5 million was awarded to the Hong Kong Amateur Sports Association and Olympic Committee for participation in the Commonwealth and Asian Games.



The board also discussed the disbursement of certain independent funds, including the Sir David Trench Fund for Recreation, which is earmarked for youth recreation projects primarily for capital goods and the purchase of specialist equipment. In 1986, US$5.7 million was allocated for this purpose. On the council's advice, grants for disabled athletes were made available by a newly created sports aid organization.

Recreation camps subsidized by voluntary agencies

Responsibility for consulting and overseeing the 39 volunteer camps was transferred from the Department of Social Welfare to the Department of Community Services to identify camps that could be developed and those that needed reorganization to upgrade them as recreational facilities.

The aim is to make as many camps as possible economically viable and encourage children and young people to make the most of available facilities.

External School

The Hong Kong Outward Bound School is a private charity and part of a worldwide network of 34 such schools. Offers year-round personal development training programs on land and at sea lasting from seven to 18 days.

Training takes place on the school's training ship, the Ji Fung brigantine, and at the residential base on Sai Kung Peninsula.

The objective of each course is to improve the student's self-confidence, self-awareness, leadership and communication skills. Learners include employees of companies and businesses that use Outward Bound as part of their development programs for people, students and young people, both healthy and disabled.

Throughout the year, the school organized a total of 106 courses for 2,900 people, including 39 courses for adults, 16 adventure and social education programs for children, seven special outdoor skills courses and 18 courses for the disabled.

Funding comes from tuition, charitable donations and a government subsidy that allows people with disabilities and young people who cannot afford to pay the full course fee to participate.

adventure ship

The Adventure Ship project began in 1977 with the acquisition of a large Chinese junk called Huan. After being converted from her original design as a passenger ship, she became a training ship capable of carrying 60 young people. Adventure Ship Ltd was established in 1978 as a registered charity with the aim of providing 'skills and character development through sea adventures' to underprivileged youth in Hong Kong. The 90-foot Huan's various modifications also allow handicapped groups to use the vessel.

Groups of young people join Huan for one- to five-day trips that stay in Hong Kong waters, and longer trips to foreign ports are made whenever sponsors are available. More than 5,700 young people participated in the trips in 1986.


Ocean Park, an 87-acre oceanarium and amusement park on the south side of Hong Kong Island overlooking the South China Sea, attracted 1.5 million visitors in 1986.

The park consists of headlands and flat areas connected by a cable car system, and the headland has a second entrance via the world's longest covered outdoor escalator.



The headland's many attractions include six 'Thrill Rides', including one of the longest and fastest roller coasters in the world. There is also the Ocean Theater with a killer whale, dolphins, sea lions and scuba divers. Other headland features include Wave Cove, home to sea lions, penguins and pelicans, and Atoll Reef, the largest aquarium in the world.

Top attractions in the lowlands include Water World, the first water park of its kind in Asia, offering visitors a variety of water activities, a children's zoo, a dolphin feeding pool, a Golden Pagoda with over 100 species of fish and a garden theater and Cine 2000, an exciting new concept in cinematic entertainment.

Additionally, there are now plans to build a $35 million craft village, parking lot and onboard aviary in Tai Shue Wan. Scheduled for completion in 1987, the onboard aviary will include a bird theater, showroom, parrot garden, flamingoes and waterfowl in an existing ornamental pond.

There are also plans to release control and management of the park to the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, which funded the park's capital works and annual running costs. These responsibilities are handled by an independent statutory body to which the Jockey Club has pledged a $200 million grant to operate the park.

Jubilee Sports Center

The Jubilee Sports Centre, a modern 40-acre sports complex in Sha Tin, is becoming an increasingly popular venue for international groups. Some used it as a training ground en route to major tournaments, while others stayed in the center to work specifically with Hong Kong teams and center coaches. The center has hosted many international workshops and courses and hosted several teams throughout the year. Large events and courses are organized in cooperation with sports associations. The combination of world-class facilities and the center's team of experienced instructors has helped to achieve many great results.

During the year, the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club's proposal to give the center full autonomy was approved, equipping it to a level sufficient to cover not only the club's current obligation to cover ongoing operating costs, but also the future depreciation of assets and facilities equal to replacement equipment and capital for 20 years.

Youth summer program

The Summer Youth Program is a large-scale community project involving youth and volunteer agencies, schools, district organizations, the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and government agencies.

The 1986 Summer Youth Program adopted the theme "Take care of your community, get to know it better". Between June and September, more than 10,000 activities were organized and more than one million young people participated in the program, which cost around US$ 15 million. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club donated US$6 million, with the remainder coming from government and city council funds, private donations and participant fees. Six outstanding youth leaders also received Outward Bound scholarships and were sent on an 18-day course aboard the Outward Bound Ji Fung ship. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club also donated US$2.2 million to establish permanent youth recreational facilities in different districts.

Beginning in July, the Summer Youth Program was coordinated by the Summer Youth Program Committee under the auspices of the Central Committee for Youth. One of



The Central Committee for Youth, established in May, is responsible for advising the government on youth activities across the country, including the summer youth program, and its funding.

The Summer Youth Program Committee carries out the coordination work and provides funds between the District Coordination Committees that organize the district activities, the Hong Kong Social Service Board and the relevant government departments that manage various cultural and recreational programs and outreach projects. social service.

youth hostels

The Hong Kong Youth Hostels Association is a non-profit organization that provides youth with outdoor recreation opportunities. Annual membership was around 30,000, mostly in the 18-26 age group.

The association operates several youth hostels. The rebuilt Pak Sha O Hostel, located in one of the most attractive areas of Sai Kung Country Park, has continued to be one of the most popular hostels. The governor visited Pak Sha O Hostel in April, inspected the new buildings and spoke to some of the residents. Plans to build a third hostel in Sai Wan Tsui advanced during the year, with the government agreeing in principle on a site. The plans for the building were drawn up by the architects.

Running costs are covered by membership fees and accommodation fees for using the hostels. The investments are covered by the association's own donations and by donations from philanthropic entities. Youth hostels are provided by the government.

Department of Culture

The municipal government's secretary of culture is responsible for formulating and coordinating the government's cultural policy. Under the guidance of the Council for the Performing Arts, he manages the payment of government grants to various performing arts institutions.

The department also oversees the work of the Book Registration Office and the Office of Antiquities and Monuments, and provides secretariat services to the Council for the Performing Arts and the Advisory Council on Antiquities.

Performing Arts Council

The Performing Arts Council was established in 1982 to advise the government on the development and needs of the performing arts in Hong Kong. It currently has 15 unofficial members and three official members.

Government funds to support the performing arts in Hong Kong are disbursed on the advice of the Council. To encourage and promote artistic excellence in the performing arts, the board has developed a grant program. It also operates an advisor program to provide additional public response to local groups.

1986 Vergab der Council General Support Grants an die Hong Kong Arts Festival Society, die Hong Kong Philharmonic Society, das Hong Kong Conservatory of Music, die Hong Kong Academy of Ballet, die Chung Ying Theatre Company, die City Contemporary Dance Company, und die Seals Fundação dos Jogadores.

More than 20 project grants were also awarded to artists and organizations in various performing arts disciplines. This has meant a significant increase in the number and scope of government support for the performing arts.



In addition, the council aims to encourage private sponsorship of the arts and has formulated plans to establish an Arts Sponsorship Award in Hong Kong.

The Board also provides professional and technical advice to groups and individuals to assist them in their presentations and development.

Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra

The Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra's subscription concerts at City Hall, Tsuen Wan Town Hall and Academic Community Hall continued to attract large audiences last year. Internationally renowned performers have included acclaimed Scottish conductor Sir Alexander Gibson, pianists Stephen Hough, Pascal Roge and Stephen Bishop-Kovacevich, violinists Oscar Shumsky and Boris Belkin, and singers Teresa Berganza and Beverly Hoch. The subscription season ended at the end of June with three performances of Verdi's Requiem.

The Philharmonic gave the opening concert of the 1986 Hong Kong Arts Festival and accompanied the Glyndebourne Festival Opera's performances of Don Giovanni and A Midsummer Night's Dream, which opened the Lyric Theater of the Academy for Performing Arts in February. In June, the orchestra was one of the organizers of the “First Contemporary Chinese Composer” and held three concerts of contemporary Chinese music compositions. Pop and educational concerts were also featured during the season.

Shortly after the start of the 1986/87 season, in September, the orchestra gave two concerts in South Korea for the Asian Games. Kenneth Schermerhorn stayed on for his third season as Music Director of the Philharmonic. Kenneth Jean was appointed Principal Guest Conductor and Yip Wing-sie Resident Conductor for Hong Kong.

Earlier this year, in February, the orchestra made its first trip to China. Conducted by music director Kenneth Schermerhorn, six shows in Shanghai, Hangzhou and Beijing were all very well received, with the public demanding four encores. The orchestra was also the first outside orchestra to perform in Beijing's new concert hall.

Chung Ying Theater Company

Chung Ying Theater Company continued to build its professional experience in Hong Kong's schools, community halls and public places.

The company has expanded its repertoire of Cantonese and English productions, featuring Fantastic Fairground (a play with music for family audiences) and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, set in Canton during the Tang Dynasty. A hit in 1985, I am Hong Kong received its 100th performance in Darwin, Australia, at the end of May 1986. The play was performed with the English version of The Dragon's Disciples, a production that was successful in Singapore in March. Both productions also visited Macao in their Cantonese versions in early May.

The company has also increased the number of workshops it offers to children, teachers and theater students to stimulate interest in theater arts in the Hong Kong community.

Hong Kong ballet

The Hong Kong Ballet had an important year which saw a reorganization of the administrative and artistic team and ushered in a new phase of development.



The integration of his school, the Hong Kong Academy of Ballet, into the Academy for Performing Arts was completed last year. The last final presentation of the students took place on September 26th.

The company presented more than 70 presentations, 18 of them in large halls. The first of these took place at the Ko Shan Theater in May, with Prince Igor, Tchaikovsky Pas de Deux and three works by Garry Trinder - Voices From God, Counterpoint Variations and Pie Jesu.

A gala performance was held at the APA Lyric Theater in July. It featured four important works by Trinder, including Wind Song, a world premiere.

In September, a full-length classic, Giselle, was performed at the City Hall Concert Hall. A November production also took place at the same location, for which the Australian choreographer Jonathan Taylor was invited to present two works: Quicksilver and Sweet Sorrow. In December, Harry Haythorne, Artistic Director of the New Zealand Ballet, came to Mount Coppelia for company at the APA Lyric Theatre.

The company was invited by the Chinese Dancers Association to perform at Dr. Sun Yat Sen Theater in Guangzhou. It was the opening of the Canton Trade Fair.

At the behest of the Hong Kong Urban Council and Housing Authority, the company has regularly performed in playgrounds and housing developments. In addition, it continued the dance training program for local schools.

City contemporary dance company

The City Contemporary Dance Company moved into larger four-story premises with five studios and an experimental theater to further advance its purpose of promoting dance.

In an innovative plan to develop the company and its audience, the company launched a subscription dance series, the first of its kind in Hong Kong. In four months, the series featured four major productions, including seven world premieres.

The company was also invited to perform at the Hong Kong Arts Festival, Asian Arts Festival and various district festivals, bringing 59 performances to the community.

Hong Kong Conservatory of Music

The final merger of the Hong Kong Conservatory of Music and the School of Music of the Hong Kong Academy of Performing Arts went smoothly in the 1985-6 academic year. Four conservatory students who graduated during the year received their final conservatory degrees. All other students were transferred to the academy.

Dr Allen Percival, a former director of the Guildhall who originally advised the government on the Conservatory curriculum, came to Hong Kong as an external examiner. In his final report, Dr. Percival the standard achieved by the Conservatory. At the final award ceremony on 20 June, Professor David Gwilt, former Advisory Director of the Conservatory, also spoke enthusiastically about the Conservatory's historical importance in terms of instrumental teaching at the highest level in Hong Kong and as an example of pioneering semesters at the Academy's School of Music.

Hong Kong Academy of Performing Arts

The Hong Kong Academy of Performing Arts was officially opened by Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Kent in February this year. The administration and academy blocks had been in operation since the previous summer.



To celebrate the inauguration, the Academy jointly presented three major seasons in the areas of dance, theater and music. These were: the Glyndebourne Festival Opera Company, which performed Mozart's Don Giovanni and Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream; Beijing People's Art Theater presents Teahouse and Cloudgate Taipei Contemporary Dance Theater in Legacy. All events played to packed houses and received excellent reviews.

Around 3,000 admission applications were received by the four universities for dance, acting, music and technical arts in September. After an extensive selection process, a total of 153 students were enrolled at the academy in 1986/87, 48 in dance, 30 in acting, 45 in music and 30 in technical art.

Another highlight of the year was the International Festival of Dance Academies, which took place from the 21st to the 25th of July. In an unprecedented event in the history of dance, representatives from eight of the most important dance academies in the world, four from Asia and four from Western countries, gathered to present a series of presentations and participate in master classes taught by directors and teachers from the various schools are given. More than 200 dance students benefited from this week of cultural exchange.

An event of great significance was the First Contemporary Chinese Composers Festival, co-organized with the Institute for the Promotion of Chinese Culture from June 23 to 29, which brought together Chinese composers from around the world for discussions and concerts. More than 30 new works by Chinese composers from Hong Kong and abroad were premiered at the festival.

The academy welcomed around 5,000 visitors to tour the facilities, mostly foreign guests and groups from local organizations and schools.

As part of the comprehensive outreach programs, extracurricular courses and presentations were given by staff and students.

music office

The music bureau continued its regular annual program. Under the Instrumental Music Training Scheme, weekly instrumental courses in Western and Chinese music were held for around 4,000 students aged six to 23 in 700 classes at eight music centers in Hong Kong. As of April 1st, nominal fees have increased from $10 and $20 per month to $20 and $40 per month, respectively. In addition to the instrumental classes, listening and theory classes were organized and 30 particularly talented trainees received individual support.

In addition to instrumental training, Oficina de Música also offers orchestral training to its interns who have reached an acceptable standard. In 1986, the Music Department conducted one youth symphony orchestra, five youth string orchestras, five Chinese youth orchestras, six youth symphony bands, and one children's symphony band. The office also has two orchestras of teachers, one Chinese and one Western, and two choirs. Wherever possible, youth orchestras, bands and choirs have the opportunity to perform with world-renowned musicians and conductors, as well as orchestras and bands.

The music office organizes an international music exchange program to promote international understanding and broaden the horizons of young musicians. In August, the Hong Kong Chinese Youth Orchestra visited Singapore for seven days, while the Hong Kong Youth Symphony Band visited Japan for 12 days. The Hong Kong Chinese Youth Orchestra, consisting of 75 members and seven officers, performed at the Victoria Concert Hall and other venues such as schools and the university in Singapore. The Hong Kong Youth Symphony Band, consisting of 55 members and six officers, performed in Matsumoto, Toyama, Takayama, Nagoya, Hamamatsu and Chiba



Tokyo. These visits allowed the young orchestra and band members from Hong Kong to showcase their achievements to a much wider audience.

Another important activity of the Music Bureau is the “Music for Millions” concert program, whose objective is to introduce music to new audiences. These concerts are given by orchestras, bands and faculty ensembles from the music department and are performed in schools, playgrounds, factories, hospitals, malls and community halls. A total of 316 shows were held with 215,751 spectators.

As in the last six years, the music office organized a music camp for young people from July 12th to 27th. For the third consecutive year, the music camp was held at the Po Leung Kuk Pak Tam Chung holiday camp and over 600 young musicians were able to attend to benefit from expert lessons from eight musicians from China, Japan, South Korea and the UK. United. Among the foreign campers who attended Music Camp 1986 were six young musicians from South Korea and three from Singapore. The 1986 Chinese Youth Music Festival was held in November, and in December, a 60-piece youth symphonic band from Japan, along with local participants, joined the 1986 Hong Kong Youth Band Festival.

Hong Kong Jockey Club Music Background

Established in December 1979 with a US$10 million donation from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, the Hong Kong Jockey Club Music Fund is a non-statutory trust fund established for the promotion and development of music, dance and other related activities. The fund is managed by a 10-member board of trustees. By the end of the year, a total of $7.6 million in scholarships and grants had been disbursed from the fund: 82 scholarships and 802 grants had been disbursed to help young people study music nationally and internationally and to schools and local organizations to help purchase musical instruments and dance equipment.

Due consideration was given to the applicant's suitability and potential for further training when reviewing fellowship applications. With regard to scholarships, full or partial support was granted to candidate organizations that develop valid and worthy projects to promote music or dance.

book registration

The Book Registration Office of the Municipal Administration Department of the Government Secretariat registers books printed or published in Hong Kong under the Book Registration Regulation. In 1986, the Office registered a total of 6,490 books, including 2,722 in Chinese, 3,657 in English and 111 in languages ​​other than Chinese and English during the year. Compared to the previous year, this means a net increase of 551 books or 9.5%.

The Books Registration Office also acts as the Hong Kong representative for the International Standard Book Numbering System. During the year, 88 publishers (against 69 in the previous year) requested ISBN codes for printing new publications.

Office of Antiquities and Monuments

The Consultative Council of Antiquities was created in 1977 based on the Ordinance of Antiquities and Monuments. It is responsible for advising the Antiquities Authority on matters related to the preservation of Hong Kong's historical and archaeological heritage. Board members come from different disciplines such as archaeology, history, architecture and engineering.



Led by the Advisory Council on Antiquities, the Office of Monuments and Antiquities continued to play its role in the collection, preservation, and restoration of historic and archaeological items throughout the area.

Two important traditional Chinese buildings were declared Buildings of Historic Significance during the year. They are the Tai Fu Tai in San Tin and the old house in Hoi Pa Village in Tsuen Wan. Other projects undertaken during the year included restoration of Man Lun Fung's ancestral hall and repair of Tung Chung's fort and battery. In addition, Man Shek Tong, whose restoration was jointly carried out by the government and the Liu clan in Sheung Shui, was officially opened by Lady Youde, wife of the governor, in March. Excavation of a Neolithic site at Yung Long has also been completed. The actual excavation lasted four months and the results were evaluated.

A significant amount of work has continued to be done to identify historic buildings and structures that are at risk of deterioration or development. It is incumbent upon the Antiquities and Monuments Conservation Office to register these buildings and, if possible, to preserve them administratively or judicially by means of a declaration. To help identify these buildings, students at both universities continued their research on traditional villages in the New Territories during their summer break.


The environment

DESPITE Hong Kong having one of the highest population densities in the world, rural parks and low-density rural settlements still make up more than three-quarters of the territory's 1,070 square kilometers. The natural flora and fauna are lush and beautiful, and there are many spectacular hillside and coastal landscapes. The remaining quarter of the land area is heavily built up, with high-density, high-rise residential and industrial buildings, and many commercial and tourist activities that put additional pressure on the environment.

This chapter looks at Hong Kong's natural and physical environment, its geology, topography and climate, wildlife and vegetation. The four elements of the government's program to protect the environment from pollution will be considered in order - anti-pollution planning, environmental protection legislation, waste collection, treatment and disposal, and environmental monitoring and research.

The Territory's climate monitoring is reviewed and the chapter ends with a look at consultation and collaboration in environmental management.

topography and geology

Hong Kong is part of an ancient Cataysian landmass that stretched from Shandong in northern China to the Gulf of Hainan around 1 billion years ago. After intense folding of its metamorphic and crystalline rocks, intense orogeny with granitic incursions and volcanic eruptions occurred during the Mesozoic Era, around 250 million years ago. Since the beginning of the Quaternary two or three million years ago, low-lying areas have been alternately flooded and exposed as bodies of water around the world have been trapped in or released from ice sheets. The last maritime incursion took place about 10,000 years ago. Since then, deposition of eroded sedimentary material from the hills has continued sporadically. Erosion of hills and deposition of valleys increased rapidly under human influence after widespread colonization of the Hong Kong region during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).

The Zhu Jiang (Pearl) River brings large amounts of sedimentary material into the waters of Hong Kong. The resulting sedimentation has been complemented by extensive reclamation projects along the coast in recent years. Hong Kong granite and volcanic rocks are heavily weathered and prone to landslides when disturbed, but can be easily excavated for use as a reclamation material. In the developed part of the Territory, the natural landscape changes dramatically as hills are removed and landfills are used in the various reclamation areas around Victoria Harbor and in the New Territories.

Other than providing decomposed rock as backfill material for reclamation, the hills, which make up most of Hong Kong's land area, have little practical use. Soils are fine and nutrient-poor, with sparse grass or shrub cover, except in sheltered valleys or in



Water catchment areas where reforestation has managed to introduce hardy pines and some deciduous trees. Hong Kong has some deposits of iron, lead, zinc, tungsten, beryl and graphite, but these have only been mined in small amounts.

Due to the lack of large rivers, lakes and groundwater supplies in Hong Kong, reservoirs had to be built in major valleys such as Tai Lam Chung and in the coastal bays of Plover Cove and High Island, where large dams were built. These reservoirs have a dramatic impact on the environment and their watersheds form part of the territory's 21 landscape parks.

The most important agricultural area that Hong Kong has is the flat alluvium around Yuen Long in the New Territories. These floodplains have only emerged from the sea within the last 3,000 years, and some areas are still prone to flooding when heavy rains coincide with high tides. Natural sediment deposition continues around the Deep Bay area, where brackish lagoons have been successfully created in areas that were once tidal flats, mangrove swamps or saltwater rice paddies.

On average, only two or three earthquakes are felt by the public each year. However, hundreds are recorded by a seismographic network made up of three short-term seismometers at Cheung Chau, High Island and Tsim Bei Tsui. Long-term seismographs record tremors from around the world, and powerful motion accelerometers are installed in two locations with different ground characteristics. This network is operated by the Royal Observatory. In recent years, around 150 earthquakes have been detected annually within a 320km radius of Hong Kong.


Hong Kong is right in the tropics, but has a remarkably temperate climate for nearly half of the year. In November and December there are pleasant breezes, lots of sun and pleasant temperatures. Many people consider these to be the best months of the year. January and February are slightly cloudier, with occasional cold fronts followed by dry northerly winds. Temperatures below 10°C are not uncommon in urban areas. The lowest temperature recorded at the Royal Observatory is 0°C, although freezing temperatures and ice sometimes occur at higher altitudes and in the New Territories.

March and April can also be very pleasant, except for occasional periods of high humidity. Fog and drizzle can be particularly bothersome at south-east facing elevations, and air traffic and ferry services are occasionally disrupted by reduced visibility.

The months of May to August are hot and muggy, with frequent showers and thunderstorms, especially in the morning. Afternoon temperatures often exceed 32°C; At night, temperatures usually hover around 26°C, with high humidity. In July there is usually a good dry spell that can last a week or two, even longer in some years.

September is the month when Hong Kong is most likely to be hit by tropical cyclones, although storms are not uncommon between May and November. On average, about 30 tropical cyclones form each year in the western North Pacific or China Sea, about half of which are typhoons (maximum winds of 70 mph (118 km/h) or greater).

When a tropical cyclone approaches 700 to 1,000 kilometers southeast of Hong Kong, the weather is generally mild and exceptionally warm, but isolated thunderstorms sometimes occur at night. As the center approaches Hong Kong, winds pick up and rain can become heavy and widespread. Heavy rains from tropical cyclones can last for a few days, and the resulting landslides and flooding sometimes do more damage than the winds.



Average annual rainfall ranges from around 1,200 millimeters on Waglan Island to over 3,000 millimeters near Tai Mo Shan. About 80 percent of the rain falls between May and September. The wettest month is June, when it rains two days out of three and the average monthly rainfall at the Royal Observatory is 431.8 millimeters. The driest month is December, when the monthly average is just 25.3 millimeters (10 in) and rain only falls about five days a month. Climatological data are provided in Appendix 39.

Severe weather phenomena that can affect Hong Kong include tropical cyclones, strong winter monsoon winds and thunderstorms with associated gusts, most commonly occurring from April to September. Waterspouts and hailstorms are rare, while snow and tornadoes are rare.

wild animals

Hong Kong's physical and climatic environment provides habitats for a wide variety of native animal and plant species in areas of natural and established forest, grass and undergrowth. Under human population pressure, the larger animal species are rarely seen today, but reptiles and amphibians, birds and many insect species

are common.

Most of Hong Kong's landscape is protected by the Forest and Grass Act, the Wildlife Protection Act, the Natural Parks Act and the Plants and Animals Act (Protection of Endangered Species).

One of the hottest spots in Hong Kong for wildlife is the Mai Po Wetlands. It is a restricted area under the Wildlife Conservation Act managed by the World Wildlife Fund and is an internationally significant area for migratory and resident birds. Its 380 hectares of tidal flats, shrimp ponds and dwarf mangroves provide a rich habitat, especially for ducks and shorebirds. More than 250 species of birds have been observed in this area and at least 110 of them are rarely seen in other parts of the area.

Yim Tso Ha, also a restricted area, is Hong Kong's largest heron. Five species, the Chinese Heron, the Night Heron, the Blue Heron, the Little Egret and the rare Great Heron nest there regularly. More than 1,000 herons can be found there between April and September, the breeding season. Another heron near Mai Po is visited by most species, but not by the Swinhoe Heron.

Although traditional fung shui forests near ancient villages and temples are increasingly affected by development, they still provide very important habitat for many birds. Sightings in wooded areas include a variety of warblers, flycatchers, thrushes and bulbuls.

Of the larger native animals, the occasional sighting of the Chinese pangolin (flag anteater), which reaches about one meter in length and is protected by horny scales. The areas around the Kowloon Reservoirs are inhabited by apes descended from those that were released or escaped captivity. There are breeding groups of long-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques. Smaller mammals are common, with gray shrews and house shrews being abundant in some rural areas. The Chinese porcupine, with its strikingly colored black and white feathers, can still be found in parts of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

Wild boars were once so rare that they needed legal protection, but their numbers have increased to the point where they occasionally damage crops and cause complaints from farmers. Consequently, special culling exercises were organized by the Royal Hong Kong Police Force to reduce this threat to the crop.



Occasional reports still come in of sightings of less common species such as the leopard cat, ferret badger, East China river otter and barking deer. However, the increasing presence of human activity on land means an uncertain future for these species.

Snakes, lizards and frogs are abundant in Hong Kong. There are also several species of tortoises and turtles, none of them common. Most local snakes are not venomous and death from snake bites is rare. Venomous land snakes are: Krait Banded, with black and yellow bands; the multibanded krait, with black and white bands; Coral Snake from Macclelland, which is coral red with narrow horizontal black stripes; the Chinese cobra and the hamadryad or king cobra, both hooded; the rare mountain viper; the red-necked keel with a red neck; and the white-lipped viper or bamboo snake. The bamboo snake is light green and less venomous than the others, but it is not easy to see and will readily attack if approached. Hamadryads, kraits and corals almost exclusively prey on other snakes.

Several species of sea snakes are found in Hong Kong waters, all of which are venomous. They have never been known to attack bathers. One amphibian of particular interest is the Hong Kong newt, which has not been recorded elsewhere in the region.

There are over 200 recorded species and forms of variegated butterflies, some of which cause significant damage to farmers' crops as caterpillars. These include the two common species of white cabbage, the swallowtail and the beautiful but less common little blue. Among the many local moths are the giant silkworm moths including Cynthia, Fawn, Atlas and Moon. Atlas has an average wingspan of 23 centimeters and the moon 18 centimeters.

Of the native plant insects, two are particularly noted for their color and shape. They are the rare and beautifully spotted tea beetle, recorded only on hilltops, and the lantern fly, which has delicately colored wings and a remarkably long forehead. Dragonflies and dragonflies are common, as are metallic-colored wasps and beetles. Of particular interest is the giant red-spotted Longhorn beetle, which feeds on mountain tallow and wood oil trees. Many other species of longhorn beetles infest living or weakened trees, including citrus and pine trees.

Since its introduction in Hong Kong in 1938, the giant African snail has become a major pest of vegetable and garden crops. Farmers are also concerned about various types of snails. One of these, Veronicella, is a large black slug sufficiently distinct from other slugs. to be placed in a family of its own.

aquatic life

Marine life in Hong Kong is diverse and mostly tropical in character. They include a large number of commercially important fish, crustacean and mollusc species. The types and amounts of fish stocks vary with seasonal influences and also differ from area to area.

The waters of Hong Kong can be divided into a western sector, influenced by the Zhu Jiang (Pearl) River, which is predominantly brackish, and an eastern sector, with a more oceanic character. In some areas, notably the port of Tolo, pollution associated with rapid urban development has led to a decline in the abundance and diversity of marine life in recent years. Organisms sensitive to pollutants, such as corals, can only be found in a few remote areas. However, several sites provide natural breeding and nursery areas for many species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs, as well as seasonal feeding areas for transient predators such as smallfin tuna, mahi-mahi, sailfish and sharks.



Several species of marine mammals have been recorded in Hong Kong waters and strandings occasionally occur. In 1986, the following strandings occurred: a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia) in Tai Tam Bay, three Risso's dolphins (Grampus) in Tolo Harbor and two Chinese white dolphins (Sotalia) in Tap Shek Kok and Pui O, South Lantau.

More than 20 shark species have been recorded in Hong Kong waters, mainly in the eastern and southeastern areas. Sharks have been sighted in Mirs Bay in the New Territories and in Stanley and Deep Water Bay in Hong Kong Island. Its presence is a result of the influence of warm ocean currents from the South China Sea during the summer months, especially from July to September. Common and potentially dangerous sharks in Hong Kong include the hammerhead and species of the true shark family, which can grow up to three meters in length. Other commonly encountered sharks that do not normally attack humans are the dogfish and the leopard shark.

plant world

Hong Kong is close to the northern limit of the Asian tropical flora distribution and has a rich variety of plants. It is estimated that there are around 2,600 species of vascular plants, both native and introduced.

Prior to the introduction of nature conservation measures, the slopes became increasingly bare due to deforestation, fires and exposure to the elements. For most, the only cover was thick grass or bushes. Now, many slopes, especially those in the water catchment areas, have been planted with trees of local and exotic species. These forests and other landscapes are protected and are being developed as more and more people spend their free time outdoors. Forests not only beautify the landscape, but are also important for the management of watersheds.

Remnants of the original forest cover, whether scrubland or well-developed forest areas, can still be found in steep ravines. They survived the destructive influences of man due to their location in steep topography and humid winter microclimate.

To protect the environment

The environment of which these physical, living components are a part is threatened by human activities, but the specific pollution problems are similar to those found in comparable urbanized areas around the world. Among the aspects that raised public concerns during the year or that the Government considers to deserve special attention, the following stand out:


Pollution of rivers in the New Territories by animal waste

Smoke emissions from diesel vehicles, which account for 35% of road traffic

excessive noise from construction, traffic, and air conditioning systems

- Hot spots of water pollution such as nullahs, typhoon shelters and natural bays of

the sea

general levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere

the continuing need to control and dispose of the large volumes of sewage, municipal, chemical and other waste generated by the community.

Going forward, the continued viability of topographically constrained air and water systems such as those in Deep Bay, Tolo Harbour, Junk Bay, Port Shelter and Victoria Harbour, is at risk. They are exposed to new or additional pressures from urbanization, which often includes entire new towns for several hundred thousand people.



In response to these concerns, a comprehensive and tightly integrated program to protect Hong Kong's environment from pollution has been developed over the past decade. It consists of four interlocking key elements. First, environmental planning is used to avoid creating new problems for the future. Second, laws and legal measures ensure compliance with emission control standards. Third, facilities and services are provided for the collection and disposal of community-generated waste. Finally, research and monitoring, supported by community consultations, ensure that the rest of the program is operating effectively and responsively.

Overall political responsibility for environmental protection rests with the Minister of Health and Welfare. It is advised by the Consultative Committee on Environmental Pollution (EPCOM) and supported by the Department of Environmental Protection (EPD).

The EPD was released on April 1st. It grew out of the former Environmental Protection Agency and combined environmental protection responsibilities and some of the resources of several other government departments. The EPD undertakes environmental planning work, implementation of most environmental protection laws, development and review of waste treatment and disposal programs, and necessary environmental monitoring and investigations to support policy development and review. Several other government departments, including Electrical and Mechanical Services, Civil Engineering Services, Marine, Municipal Services, Regional Services, and the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, operate waste collection and disposal services.

anti-pollution planning

Great attention is now given to avoiding future environmental problems by considering environmental problems at all stages of development planning. In detailed local planning and project implementation, this happens in a variety of ways. A major development in 1985 was the inclusion of an “environmental” chapter in the Hong Kong Planning Norms and Guidelines, a government document that served as guidance for the preparation of land use plans and development projects. In 1986, this principle was expanded into a formal requirement for the environmental assessment of all Government Public Works Program projects at the detailed planning stage. A full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) may also be required for suitable private development projects, often including conditions in leases. The new gas production plant at Tai Po, the coal-fired power plants at Tap Shek Kok and Lamma Island, and several power plants and facilities on Tsing Yi Island have gone through this process.

At the level of strategic planning, attention is focused on general and large-scale issues. Strategic planning offers opportunities for major improvements in environmental quality that are not available in the normal course of detailed site planning and project implementation. More constrained natural systems can be threatened by strategic planning decisions because of their limited ability to absorb or disperse pollution loads associated with urban development. On the other hand, development in areas not constrained by such factors can offer benefits. These areas can potentially absorb more urbanization with lower infrastructure costs for a given environmental quality. The historical use of Victoria Harbor's high assimilative capacity for sanitation is an example, but the limited capacity of even this natural system has become increasingly evident in recent monitoring results.

Planning studies carried out in the first half of this decade tended to address only environmental issues related to each individual sub-regional plan. The need for a



A comprehensive assessment of environmental and other intangible benefits was explicitly recognized in the territorial development strategy preparation programme. Priority development areas for future urban growth were identified as part of this strategy. However, there is still a need to fully consider the environmental aspects related to these major development proposals.

Strategic environmental concerns arising from the planned major rehabilitation in West Kowloon relate to maintaining acceptable water quality in Victoria Harbor and requirements for wastewater treatment and disposal. Water quality has been identified as a constraint to further growth in the port area, and previous water quality modeling studies have shown that large-scale reclamation would increase pollution levels while reducing tidal currents, leading to deteriorating quality. from water. However, current major recovery proposals have yet to be tested by model studies. To address this need, a full assessment of the area's complex water flow and pollutant spread characteristics was initiated in 1986. The results of this study need to be reviewed before firm commitments are made on this development option to avoid the risk of significantly increased costs for sewage and wastewater treatment infrastructure and unacceptable damage to the port's water system.

Another area where environmental concerns are having a major impact on development is Ma On Shan's proposed second phase development at the Port of Tolo. The extreme topographic confinement and the limited dispersion capacity of the natural air and the watershed of Porto de Tolo impose serious environmental restrictions on urban development. These areas already have restrictions on the use of fuels with high sulfur content to reduce atmospheric emissions. The recently enacted Water Pollution Control Regulations, scheduled to be implemented at the Port of Tolo in April 1987, will address the long overdue need for more water pollution controls in the catchment area.

On the other hand, the development of other areas such as Pok Fu Lam, Sham Tseng and Tuen Mun East do not pose insurmountable environmental problems, but offer advantages in terms of sanitation, as they allow discharge of wastewater loads into bodies of water with fees relatively high and currently underutilized absorptive capacity. The development of Ilha Verde and the recovery of central and western land are also favored for environmental reasons. This would provide opportunities to simplify and improve the sewer system, control sewage discharge into Victoria Harbour, and address a number of longstanding environmental issues. The relatively good ventilation of the port air shelter is an advantage in maintaining adequate air quality in view of future development.

In Deep Bay, the movement of air and water, and therefore the spread of pollutants, is very limited. While the proposed development on the Hong Kong side may not present environmental issues with strategic impacts, the eventual environmental conditions in the area will largely depend on the type and scale of development taking place in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone on the north and west coast of the bay.

Detailed assessments and advice on strategic issues and individual projects continue to be provided by the EPD using a variety of sophisticated techniques, including computational modeling of the spread of air and water pollutants. Anti-noise planning, using computer and acoustic models, has resulted in significantly improved noise climates for many new schools, hospitals and housing developments.

Architectural and construction drawings for new buildings are submitted to the Department of Buildings and Land for approval under the Building Ordinance. plans that concern



Drainage, or industrial effluent, has been forwarded to the EPD for an opinion since April 1, which will verify whether industrial, commercial and residential buildings contain facilities for discharging polluted effluents into polluted sewers or internal sewage treatment plants. Many buildings were constructed without proper drainage, leading to the widespread practice of discharging industrial and commercial waste directly into surface water drains, which not only causes heavy pollution but also underutilizes costly wastewater treatment plants.

legislation and environmental protection

The Environmental Protection Department is responsible for implementing most of the measures contained in the most important environmental protection regulations.

In June, after extensive consultation, implementation of the Water Protection Decree issued in 1980 was enacted. According to this ordinance, anyone wishing to discharge environmentally harmful wastewater into a water protection zone (WZZ) needs to a license from the water protection zone EPD. This permit specifies the amount of contaminants that may be discharged and may require pre-discharge treatment of the effluent or impose other conditions to ensure that published water quality targets are met or maintained. Discharges before controls take effect in a specific water control zone may, under certain conditions, continue without a permit.

There is already a water control zone covering the port and channel of Tolo. The controls will be introduced there at the beginning of 1987 and, following this experience, they will be extended to the other waters of the territory.

Water quality is further protected by the implementation of the Sea Dump Act (Overseas Territories Order), which remains in effect in Hong Kong for the time being. Anyone wishing to discard litter at sea must first obtain permission from the Director of Environmental Protection. Careful control is exercised over the types of materials that may be dumped, the locations where dumping may occur, and the dumping operations.

Also relevant to water protection is the Waste Disposal Ordinance issued in 1980, which provides for the licensing of disposal companies and disposal companies. Regulations in accordance with this regulation are formulated by the EPD for the control of chemical and other toxic, hazardous and difficult residues, as well as for the control of agricultural residues. The indiscriminate disposal of these waste categories currently accounts for a large proportion of Hong Kong's water pollution.

Air Pollution Control Ordinance (1983) regulations require industry to reduce emissions of all forms of air pollutants that may cause nuisance and obtain prior approval from the EPD when installing or modifying fuel burning equipment.

In 1986, public consultations were held on draft regulations for licensing 23 industries (known as "specific processes") that have the potential to cause major pollution problems, as well as proposals to declare air quality targets and control zones. in Hong Kong, starting with the Porto and Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung areas. These measures are expected to be implemented in early 1987.

The Clean Air Ordinance and the auxiliary ordinances provide for the limitation of air pollutant emissions from stationary sources. The ordinance authorizes the director of environmental protection and the officers of the aviation control group to issue notices demanding the elimination of air pollution, the modification or repair of chimneys or installations or the prohibition of the use of inappropriate fuels or the provision of information. In 1986, 61 notifications were made and six non-compliance proceedings were initiated.



Clean Air (Smoke) Regulations restrict emissions of dark smoke from stationary combustion sources, and 59 criminal cases have been initiated against recalcitrant violators.

Clean Air (Stoves, Furnaces and Fireplaces) (Installation and Modification) Regulations require the submission of plans and specifications for the installation or modification of fuel burning appliances to ensure proper construction. Around 450 sets of these plans and specifications were processed and 42 procedures were initiated regarding unauthorized work.

As part of its oversight duties, Air Control Group officials visited 6,531 industrial and commercial enterprises as well as state institutions to provide advice on air pollution control issues.

About 1,418 air pollution complaints were received and investigated, most of which were resolved through voluntary corrective actions recommended by the control team or through legal actions.

A Vehicle Emissions Control Unit will be established within the EPD to take over the existing smog vehicle control programs of the Ministry of Transport and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force and be responsible for developing policies related to motor vehicle emissions. It is planned to set up a team of professionals and technicians to carry out the program, which will follow the recommendations of a consultant from the United Nations Organization for Industrial Development (UNIDO).

Other measures to control air pollution are contained in the Road Traffic Regulations (vehicle construction and maintenance), which require that new vehicles meet the same exhaust emission standards set by the Economic Commission for Europe, in addition to requiring that Exhaust smoke is not exceeded allowed 60 Hartridge smoke units.

A gasoline lead reduction program has been agreed with the Hong Kong oil supply industry. Lead levels were reduced from 0.84 g/l to 0.6 g/l in July 1981, to 0.4 g/l in January 1983 and to the current 0.25 g/l in January 1985 Similar agreements in September 1985 resulted in a reduction of sulfur in Class No. oil. 3 from a maximum of 2.8 percent to 2.5 percent.

There has also been progress in noise protection. A comprehensive Noise Reduction Act was drafted to consolidate and extend existing noise reduction measures and delegate various statutory powers to the Director of Environmental Protection. The bill opened for public consultation in October and is due to be submitted to the legislature in 1987.

In the interim, the most important existing noise controls will be enforced under the Summarized Offenses Ordinance and the Public Health and Community Services Ordinance. It is an offense under the Summary Offenses Ordinance to disturb public peace between 11:00 pm and 11:00 pm. and 6:00 am, this regulation foresees, namely, the fight against construction noise during the night and holidays. Police are currently responding to complaints about construction and neighborhood noise. In accordance with the Health and Municipal Services Regulations, the City Council and the Government Council are the competent authorities in their respective areas in combating noise pollution from ventilation and air conditioning systems. Around 550 complaints were received and investigated during the year, resulting in the issuing of 158 notices of infraction and seven lawsuits.

Conservation and management of Hong Kong's landscape is one of the responsibilities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries under the National Parks Act. This ordinance, which came into force in 1976, provides for and allows the designation, control and management of the most important landscape areas as landscape parks



they are developed for recreational purposes. Offers special protection for plants and animals.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries has overall responsibility for protecting wildlife and plants in Hong Kong. The Forestry and Landscape Ordinance provides general protection and vegetation management, and specific protection is given to certain plants, including native camellias, magnolias, orchids, azaleas and the Chinese New Year flower.

The Wildlife Conservation Ordinance prohibits the hunting of wild animals and restricts access by unauthorized members of the public to two important wildlife habitats, Mai Po Wetlands and Yim Tso Ha Heron.

General enforcement of ordinances is carried out by nature and park rangers. These officers also provide information at visitor centers and accompany groups on guided tours. In addition to general landscape conservation, Hong Kong has adopted the concept of identifying and conserving places of special scientific interest to ecologists, such as: B. a place where a rare tree or a rare species of butterfly can be found. More than 46 sites have been identified for future protections.

Waste: Provision of facilities and services

The Department of Environmental Protection is responsible for developing cost-effective and environmentally responsible programs for the disposal of liquid and solid waste, including animal waste and sludge. Municipal services and regional services are responsible for the collection of household waste in the respective areas.

Over the years, the government has made large investments in waste collection, treatment and disposal facilities and this program continued in 1986. Civil Engineering Services and the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. The primary objective when planning and designing these sewage treatment plants is to match the discharges to the capacity of the receiving water.

Major biological treatment plants are located at Sha Tin, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui, Sai Kung and Yuen Long, with six smaller plants at Hei Ling Chau, Shek Pik, Tung Tau, Stanley Fort, Ah Kung Kok and Mui Wo. Primary treatment to remove solids will be used at Cheung Chau and screening plants will be established elsewhere. In the current 10-year wastewater treatment and disposal program, priority is given to expanding existing factories in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui and Yuen Long to cope with population growth.

Key achievements in the provision of municipal wastewater treatment and disposal facilities during the year were the completion of the screening plants in Wan Chai (West) and Kwun Tong in the Victoria Harbor area and the completion of the Sha Sewage Treatment Stage Tin at Tolo Harbor II, Ma On Shan Wastewater Pumping Station Phase I Phase I and Tai Po Wastewater Treatment Plant Phase IVa. Other major developments included the completion of the main sewer and subsea outlet at Junk Bay, the development of the Sai Kung sewer and subsea outlet, and several smaller wastewater treatment programs at Cheung Chau and Lantau.

Several other sorting plants are under construction in different areas of the territory. Investigations into East Kowloon's (Kwun Tong and Wong Tai Sin) pollution issues have been initiated and Victoria Harbor sanitation issues are being assessed using the water quality model currently under development. work continued



in the West Kowloon sanitation program to be completed in the early 1990s. An action plan was developed for the port of Tolo to halt short-term water quality degradation and improve water quality in order to meet water quality objectives. water in the medium term (1990).

Work on improvement measures for Kai Tak Nullah continued. After intercepting some polluted sewage streams and a limited dredging program, oxygen is being injected into the lower Nullah. However, it will take some time before the full benefits of these works become apparent.

To improve Tuen Mun Nullah's water quality and typhoon protection, the dry weather flow was intercepted at the upper Tuen Mun Nullah and is now being discharged into the Pillar Point sewer outlet.

The amount of waste collected by municipal and regional services together with industrial and other waste collected privately is currently 8 000 tons per day. Of this total, 2,100 tons are incinerated in the three municipal incinerators in Kennedy Town, Lai Chi Kok and Kwai Chung, and the remainder is sent to controlled landfills in Junk Bay, Jordan Valley, Pillar Point Valley and Shuen Wan.

Waste generation is expected to double over the next 10 years. The strategy developed for its disposal, using a computerized waste management model, involves moving away from incineration and small locally controlled landfills to a system of transfer stations that feed some large controlled landfills.

Nim Wan South and Ping Yeung North were identified as the main long-term deposits for the New Territories. Environmental impact assessments have been carried out to ensure that the impact on the environment is minimised. These two controlled landfills provide sufficient disposal capacity for 30 to 40 years.

Proposals have been developed for Hong Kong's first waste transfer station in Kowloon Bay, supported by the new controlled landfills, to replace the Jordan Valley controlled landfill and the Lai Chi Kok incinerator. This transfer station is expected to be operational in 1989. The consultants are also exploring the possibility of upgrading the Chai Wan composting plant to a waste transfer station to ensure that Hong Kong Island has disposal facilities for the increase in waste volumes. To reduce pollution caused by smoke from city incinerators, electrostatic precipitators were installed in the Kennedy Town incinerator and will be installed in the Lai Chi Kok 'A' incinerator in July 1988.

The Maritime Department is responsible for cleaning the port. She operates a fleet of a harbor sweeper and six water hags, collecting an average of 17.9 tons of floating debris per day. Additionally, the department collects around 7.5 tonnes of trash from ocean-going vessels and houseboats moored in Victoria Harbor for typhoon shelters every day. To combat oil pollution, the department operates a purpose-built pollution control vessel and has stockpiles of low-toxicity chemical dispersants and 2,400-meter large and medium-sized oil booms.

surveillance and investigations

There has always been a commitment to cost-effectiveness in government environmental programs. This means that any controls or facilities must be proven to be adequate for the prevailing circumstances in Hong Kong and not just foreign copies. Accordingly, the Department of Environmental Protection operates a comprehensive monitoring system and conducts investigations to provide an objective basis for local action.

orangutan and cub



Flamingos, cranes and red-breasted geese





Crane with a red crown




An advanced network of six continuous air quality monitoring stations was created to assess air pollution in urban areas and provide data for government environmental planning and control programs. According to the declaration of air control zones and air quality targets in Hong Kong, it will be necessary in the future to gradually expand the network coverage to new urban and rural areas of the territory. The development of vehicular pollution monitoring stations also continued.

During the year, a revolutionary new data telemetry system developed by Department of Environmental Protection staff went live. This system allows pollution readings from each of the city's monitoring stations to be continuously relayed over telephone lines to a computerized network control center. In 1986, over 25 million immission measurements were recorded, processed and analyzed in this way.

Results from the Air Pollution Monitoring Network in 1986 show that levels of sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted as a result of fuel combustion from stationary sources and motor vehicles are generally low in urban areas of Hong Kong. In industrial areas like Kwun Tong or Kwai Chung, however, there are significantly higher concentrations of these pollutants. In particular, a clear upward trend in nitrogen dioxide levels was observed in 1986. Total and respirable particulate levels also remained relatively high at all monitoring stations, particularly during the dry winter months. High levels of precipitation acidity and high rates of sulfate deposition in rainfall were also recorded at several locations throughout the year. Intensive research into “acid rain” is ongoing.

In 1986, several additional studies on air quality were carried out. The mobile air quality monitoring laboratory was briefly deployed in several areas not covered by the current network of permanent monitoring stations. This laboratory was used for an intensive study of air quality in the Deep Bay area, which borders Hong Kong and China. This project was carried out jointly with the Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau. Photochemical pollution studies have also been carried out with this laboratory, as well as with specially equipped aircraft of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. In general, these studies have shown higher concentrations of photochemical oxidants in rural areas than in urban areas.

One of the water quality studies initiated in 1986 was a three-year study conducted jointly by the EPD and the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Hong Kong to assess any possible link between water quality and the health of bathers on the beaches of Hong Kong. Gazette.

Pollutant discharge surveys are conducted throughout the area in response to complaints and to identify sources of pollution discovered through routine monitoring. Much of this activity over the past year has been aimed at identifying discharges of industrial and other effluents into surface water sewers, and in many cases action has been taken against factory owners who have requested that they install and use appropriate drainage facilities.

Waste generation is now monitored annually and the information used to plan future disposal facilities. In 1986, waste increased by 16%, from 6,900 tons per day in 1985 to 8,000 tons per day. This represented a six percent increase in municipal and regional services departments, an 11 percent increase in private sector collection, and a 55 percent increase in construction waste.

Measurements of beta and gamma radioactivity in airborne dust and rainwater are taken by the Royal Observatory in King's Park. The observatory cooperates with the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment and the International Atomic Energy Research



Agency in carrying out these measurements. There are plans to implement a more comprehensive background radiation monitoring program.

The Royal Observatory

The Royal Observatory was established in 1883 primarily to provide scientific information for the safe navigation of ships. Over the next century, the observatory evolved according to the changing needs of the community. Although the department's work now spans a wide range of disciplines, its primary function remains the provision of weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings to the public, shipping, aviation and other industries.

operations and services

The Central Forecasting Office issues local weather forecasts and warnings of dangerous weather conditions to the press, radio and television stations and government agencies. Whenever tropical cyclones threaten Hong Kong, warnings about necessary precautions are often issued and widely publicized. Other warnings include thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, thunderstorms, fire hazard, severe monsoons and freezing. Regular weather reports are issued for ships at sea, fishermen in coastal waters and sailors. Special forecasts are prepared upon request for coastal operations in Hong Kong waters and offshore operations in China seas. As of 1 January, metric units have been introduced in the provision of public meteorological services.

Following the successful completion of two operational typhoon experiments in 1982 and 1983, organized under the auspices of an international typhoon committee, the usefulness of improved exchange of observational data and forecasts between meteorological services in the region during tropical cyclone situations was widely recognised. During the year, the Royal Observatory continued to participate in the Enhanced Information Sharing Program and provided an Editor-in-Chief for publication of the 1985 ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Annual Review for the Typhoon Committee.

Aviation services are provided by the airport's meteorological office. About 90 aircraft taking off receive prognostic weather maps and airport forecasts every day. Special warnings are issued in case of bad weather. Wind conditions in and around the airport are continuously monitored using a network of anemometers and acoustic Doppler radar at Lei Yue Mun on the southeast approach to the airport.

To provide these services, meteorological data from other countries is received through a computerized telecommunications system. This information is regularly analyzed and made available to meteorologists, while encrypted messages are also transmitted to neighboring countries.

Weather monitors at the Royal Observatory Headquarters, Hong Kong International Airport and Cheung Chau continuously monitor local conditions. Additional observations are made by the Marine Department at Waglan Island and Green Island, by the Royal Navy at Tai O and by the Royal Air Force at Sek Kong. Anemometers are also operated by the observatory at some other locations. Winds recorded at Star Ferry Pier in Kowloon and Waglan Island, representing conditions in Victoria Harbor and offshore, are transmitted to the Central Forecasting Office via telemetry. A Spherics recorder records thunderstorm activity within a radius of about 100 kilometers, and a lightning detection system provides information on lightning within a radius of about 130 kilometers. The observatory also operates a dense network of rainfall measurement stations, mostly by volunteer observers. Up-to-date precipitation information is collected by 20 automatic rain gauges with a



Microprocessor System and exposed in the Central Forecasting Office. Implementation of the plan to collect real-time water level data in the Kam Tin River and Yuen Long Flood Channel continued. A local network of automatic weather stations in Ta Kwu Ling, Lau Fau Shan, Chek Lap Kok, Tsing Yi and Sha Tin send weather data over telephone lines to the observatory headquarters.

Another automatic weather station is operated in cooperation with the Guangdong Meteorological Bureau on Huangmao Zhou, an island 40 kilometers south of Lantau Island. The Royal Observatory also operates several tide gauges that send instantaneous information to the observatory headquarters from stations at Lok On Pai, Quarry Bay, Tai Po Kau and Tsim Bei Tsui. Wave data is collected on Waglan Island.

Hong Kong tide tables for 1987 were compiled for the first time based on forecasts from the Royal Observatory.

Atmospheric conditions in the upper air are measured by radiosondes carried by balloons launched from King's Park Weather Station. The signals sent by the radiosondes are processed by a minicomputer on the ground.

A digital radar system, which processes radar signals with a minicomputer, provides information on precipitation distribution to meteorologists at the Central Weather Service and the Airport Weather Service. The system also produces objective estimates of short-term precipitation in selected locations.

High-resolution satellite cloud images from Japan's geostationary weather satellite are received in Hong Kong. The images, recorded in digital format, are processed by microprocessors to provide specific displays to estimate rainfall intensity and maximum winds in a tropical cyclone. If necessary, images are also received from meteorological satellites in polar orbit, which complement the information from the geostationary satellite.

During the year, orders were placed for additional data processing equipment for several new applications in the department, including automation of weather mapping and local dissemination of weather information, improved quality control and processing of weather data, numerical modeling for forecasts and alert services.

The observatory has been measuring beta and gamma radioactivity in airborne dust and rainwater since the early 1960s. In 1986, a comprehensive background radiation monitoring program was launched in Hong Kong. The program is designed to establish an accurate baseline of background radiation levels in Hong Kong prior to the commissioning of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in 1992.

The observatory operates a cesium-beam atomic clock that provides time signals with an accuracy of about a microsecond. A six pip signal is broadcast every fifteen minutes on 95 MHz and is also rebroadcast to Radio Television Hong Kong for public broadcast.


The Royal Observatory conducts research on weather systems affecting Hong Kong to improve the standard of weather services. The performance of existing objective methods for predicting tropical cyclone movements was evaluated and new methods were introduced. Several recent tropical cyclones were analyzed in detail.

The development of numerical weather forecasting methods for timely predictions and warnings of dangerous weather systems has continued. Computer models were adopted and tested for use in flood forecasting.



Irradiance observations for calculating atmospheric turbidity, collecting precipitation samples and measuring airborne particles were carried out at the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMON) station in Sai Kung East Country Park to study long-term climate change and the area. of air transport of matter.

The survey also aims to meet the demand for meteorological analysis in industry and engineering projects. Other projects during the year included work on wind and precipitation parameters and computer modeling of storm surges, ocean waves and tides. Meteorological monitoring of the western part of Victoria Harbor for potential air pollution studies was completed during the year.

To support forecasting operations, the Royal Observatory develops many of its own microprocessor-based data acquisition systems.

The weather of the year

Generally, normal weather conditions prevailed in Hong Kong during the year 1986. The average annual temperature recorded at the Royal Observatory was equal to the normal reading of 22.8°C, while there was only 2338.3 mm of rain per year, five per year. percent above normal. However, on 1 March a record low of 4.8°C was set for the month of March and frost was reported for the first two days of the month in Tai Mo Shan and Tate's Cairn.

Additionally, Typhoon Wayne set a record for being the first tropical cyclone to require warning signs to be raised in Hong Kong three times between 19 August and 5 September.

A waterspout was reported near Tap Mun and a tornado was reported in Aberdeen on 21 August. The Gale or Storm signal was lifted twice in 1986, during Typhoon Peggy in July and Typhoon Wayne in August. Both typhoons caused some damage in Hong Kong.

January was generally fine and sunny with no measurable rainfall. It was the second driest January since records began in 1884. The exceptionally dry weather resulted in 266 hill fires, the most serious of which occurred on January 8 in Shing Mun Country Park and raged for 34 hours, destroying more than 130,000 trees. on 900 hectares. plantation land. February was cooler and wetter than usual, with an average temperature of 14.7°C, 1.2°C below normal, and total rainfall of 68.8 mm, 64 percent above normal for the month.

The winter monsoon was active in March and March 1 set a new temperature record of 4.8°C for the month. It was reported that the first two days of the month, Tai Mo Shan and Tate's Cairn, saw frost and temperatures on March 2nd dropped to -4.0°C and -0.5°C respectively. The month was also marked by the frequent occurrence of fog. There were 15 days of coastal fog, a record only matched in March 1980.

Under the continued influence of a humid south-easterly air current, sea fog appeared on the morning of 10 and 11 April, disrupting ferry traffic. Storms on April 21 and 22 caused landslides in Mong Kok, Lai Chi Kok and Pok Fu Lam. Rainfall measured by the Royal Observatory on those two days totaled 106.3 mm, representing more than 90% of the month's total.

While total rainfall was below normal for the first four months of the year, rainfall in May more than made up for the shortfall. Total rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory from January to May was 615.0 mm, 10% above normal



amount for the same period. As an active depression loomed, Hong Kong was hit by heavy rain and severe thunderstorms on May 11. More than 200 mm of rain was recorded in Tai Lam Chung, Tai Mo Shan and Tai Po. Heavy rain continued into the morning of May 12, causing 48 floods and seven landslides that day.

Overall, June was a normal month in terms of temperature, cloudiness and precipitation. The 415.9 mm precipitation measured at the Royal Observatory was close to the monthly normal of 431.8 mm. However, it was unevenly distributed, and precipitation on two separate days accounted for 58% of the month's total: on June 6, when a valley of low pressure moved rapidly across Hong Kong, and on June 25, when a disturbance in the southwest monsoons affected the area. After the downpour on June 6, the rainy weather continued. As a result, minor flooding in Western District and a landslide in Ngau Chi Wan were reported on 7 June. The disruption on 25 June was accompanied by frequent squall showers.

July was wetter than usual, with 547.3mm of rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory, 73 percent above normal. About 85 percent of the month's precipitation was due to storm surges on July 3-4 and Typhoon Peggy, the first typhoon to require tropical cyclone warnings in Hong Kong during the year. Heavy rain and gusty thunderstorms hit July 3, when a moisture-laden southwest monsoon hit the area. Strong and frequent thunderstorms returned the next morning. Typhoon Peggy crossed Luzon on July 9 and headed towards the southern coast of China. With light winds coming from Peggy, temperatures rose to 34.8°C on July 10th. On 11 July, the weather deteriorated rapidly under the influence of Peggy, who made landfall near Shanwei in the afternoon. Strong to gusty winds, accompanied by frequent and widespread gusty showers, hit the area on the morning of 12 July.

August was warmer than normal, with an average temperature of 29.0°C and frequent storms. From 9 to 11 August, Hong Kong was hit by heavy rain and thunderstorms as a tropical depression moved towards Hainan over the South China Sea. More than 300 mm of rain was recorded in Tai Po, Sha Tau Kok and Sai Kung.

Wayne, the longest-lived tropical cyclone ever in the South China Sea and Pacific, issued warning signals three times between August 19 and September 5. The storm took an unusual trajectory on August 20, first approaching from the south. On August 21, after a very hot and sunny day, heavy storms developed over land and moved southeast in the evening to hit Hong Kong. A waterspout was reported near Tap Mun and a tornado in Aberdeen. And on August 23, during severe morning thunderstorms, 15 people were struck by lightning in different places.

After Wayne crossed Taiwan, it weakened to a tropical storm and moved southwest back into the South China Sea. As Wayne headed west towards Dongsha, signals were raised in Hong Kong for a second time on 25 August, but were lowered the following day as it moved southwest. Wayne then turned northwest to affect the Bashi Channel and the Philippines. It then intensified into a typhoon, moving west again on September 4–5 to hit Hong Kong for a third time.

September was a normal month apart from being a little drier than usual. However, on September 16, Hong Kong was hit by torrential downpours and thunderstorms and 72.0 mm of rain was recorded at the Royal Observatory between 14:00 and 22:00. and 8 pm This caused some instances of flooding in Kowloon and the New Territories.



October was drier than normal, with 61.3 mm of precipitation recorded during the month, just 51% of the normal value. On the morning of 18 October, Typhoon Ellen approached from the southeast and passed about 150 km south-southwest of Hong Kong, causing only minor damage. On October 28, a strong winter monsoon swell brought noticeably cooler weather for the remainder of the month.

After three consecutive months of below-average rainfall, November was wetter than normal. Although the total monthly rainfall of 4.5 inches (112.6 mm) was more than three times the normal amount, the cumulative rainfall on January 1 was only four percent above normal. Severe Tropical Storm Ida, which made landfall in the northern part of the South China Sea in mid-month, was responsible for most of the month's rainfall.

December was marked by a period of significant cold from the 18th to the 20th of December, followed by an exceptionally warm period leading up to Christmas and New Years.

consultation and cooperation

This chapter reviewed Hong Kong's physical, climatic and living environment, the government's strategy for protecting it, and the various monitoring and investigation activities, including climate monitoring. But this is not just the government's job. Environmental problems and the actions taken to prevent or mitigate them affect all sectors of society. District committees and city and regional councils are increasingly interested in local and territorial environmental issues. Major environmental protection initiatives, such as proposals to control noise and agricultural residues, are subject to consultation with these bodies, as well as organizations such as the Hong Kong Federation of Industries, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong Association Chinese Association of Manufacturers, the Association of Conservation and Friends of the Earth.

In many cases, the Environmental Pollution Advisory Committee, EPCOM, is the final forum for consultation on environmental proposals before they are presented to the Executive Council and the Legislature. This committee advises the government on all aspects of pollution and helps ensure that legislative proposals and other measures balance the need for environmental improvement with industrial feasibility. EPCOM is composed exclusively of members who are not civil servants, but prominent citizens or representatives of industrial and environmental interests.

An important aspect of consultation and cooperation on environmental issues is the liaison with the Guangdong Environment Bureau, the South China Environmental Research Institute and the Shenzhen authorities. In 1986, a two-year collaborative study of air and water quality in the Deep Bay was completed. This study identified a number of specific issues and its results will be used to guide future developments in this area. At the end of the study, representatives from Guangdong and Hong Kong reaffirmed the commitment of both governments to improving the environment.



The total population was 5,588,000 at the end of 1986, including 2,875,500 males and 2,712,500 females. This represents a 23% increase over the 1976 population estimate of 4,551,000.

The average annual rate of growth over the 10-year period was 2.1 percent, with the rate fluctuating from year to year due to changes in migration flows. In particular, 1978-80 saw a large influx of immigrants from China - both legal and illegal - and an influx of boat people from Vietnam. The compound annual growth rate increased from 1.4% in 1976-7 to 3.6% in 1978-80. The compound annual growth rate for the period 1981-1986 was 1.4%, reflecting a decline in immigrant flows as a result of immigration policy revisions in the late 1980s and 1982.

Meanwhile, the natural rate of growth has steadily dropped from 12 to 8 parts per thousand. This was the result of the decline in the birth rate from 17 per thousand in 1976 to 13 per thousand in 1986 and the death rate, which remained stable at around 5 per thousand.

With an area of ​​just 1,070 square kilometers, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. The total density per square kilometer was 5,192 at the end of 1986. However, this number masks large density differences between different areas. According to the 1986 census, the population density in the metropolitan areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and Tsuen Wan was 20,811 people per square kilometer, but in the New Territories it was 1,449 people per square kilometer. This situation will of course change with the continuation of the new urban development program in the New Territories, which aims to reduce high density in urban areas and help provide better housing and living environments for a growing population.

The age distribution of Hong Kong's population has changed significantly over the 10-year period. In 1976, 30.2% of the population was under 15 years old; In 1986, it was 23.1 percent. The proportion of people aged over 65 increased from 5.4% to 7.7%. As a result of these changes, the proportion of the working age population (people aged 15 to 64) increased from 64.4% to 69.2%, indicating that a larger potentially productive population is available. The dependency ratio - the ratio of young to old to those aged 15 to 64 - fell from 554 per thousand in 1976 to 444 per thousand in 1986.

The gender ratio of the population has also changed. The ratio increased over the 10-year period, falling from a peak in 1981. In 1976, the ratio was 1,052 males to 1,000 females; In 1986 there were 1060. The increase in the male/female ratio in this period can be explained, in large part, by the significant influx of predominantly male immigrants.



The 1986 census showed that 59.3% of the population was born in Hong Kong. Most of the population came from Guangdong province. Those from Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao and neighboring towns make up the largest community, while the second largest group is Siyi, followed by Chaozhou. The rest of the Chinese population comes from other parts of Guangdong and other provinces in China.

The estimated number of non-Commonwealth Hong Kong nationals residing in Hong Kong at the end of 1986 was 67,700, including: 16,000 British (excluding military); Indians 15,300, Malaysians 10,100; Australian 8,400; Singapore 5,400; Canadian 8 100; and other Commonwealth countries, 4,400. The estimate of non-Commonwealth residents in Hong Kong was 100,700. Of these, the largest groups were: Filipinos 36,800, Americans 14,000; Pakistanis 7,100; Japanese 7 500; Thai 9900; Portuguese 7,800; Indonesian 4 100; Germans 1,600; Korean 2,600; French 1 400 and Dutch 1 300.


All marriages in Hong Kong are subject to the Marriage Act and the Marriage Reform Act. According to the Marriage Regulations, an intended marriage must be notified to the registry office at least 15 days in advance. Registrar, in its sole discretion, may shorten the notice period under special circumstances or grant a special license waiving termination entirely. However, this only happens in the most exceptional cases.

Marriages can take place at any of 198 licensed public places of worship for marriages or at one of 13 full-time marriage registries and three part-time subsidiary registries in major urban counties and rural centers. During the year, 40,860 marriages were celebrated in notary offices and 2,420 in licensed places of worship. All records are permanently maintained at headquarters.

The Marriage Reform Ordinance provides that all marriages contracted in Hong Kong from 7 October 1971 onwards involve the voluntary union of a man and a woman for life, to the exclusion of all others, and may be contracted only according to the Marriage Ordinance. It validates certain customary marriages and other so-called modern marriages, provided they were contracted before October 7, 1971. The regulation provides for the post-registration of these marriages and their dissolution. During the year, 98 traditional and 27 modern marriages were re-registered.

births and deaths

Registration of births and deaths is mandatory. The General Registry Office maintains all birth and death records. District birth registration services are provided by two main birth registries, one on Hong Kong Island and the other on Kowloon. There are also six rural birth offices that provide similar services in their respective districts. In remote areas and on islands, births are registered at various rural committee offices by visiting county registrars, and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The legal reporting period is 42 days from the date of birth. During the year, 72,211 live births and 26,030 deaths were registered, against 76,433 and 25,325, respectively, in 1985. Adjusted for underreporting, the 1986 figures give a natural increase in the population of about 46,040.

A birth unregistered within a year can be re-registered with approval from the Birth and Death Registry and a fee of $70. Over the course of the year, 480 births were registered.



There are two death records, one in Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon. In addition to registering deaths, they also issue cremation permits and offer cremation facility booking services.

The Immigration Service is responsible for registering births, deaths and marriages in Hong Kong.





HONG KONG suffered a heavy loss when Governor Sir Edward Youde, GCMG, GCVO, MBE, died on 5 December during a visit to Beijing. He was the first governor to die in office.

From the day he took over as Governor in May 1982, Sir Edward has continually worked for Hong Kong, guiding it through a crucial period in its history. He was personally involved in the negotiations that led to the joint declaration by the British and Chinese governments on the future of this territory.

The high regard shown to him was reflected in the unprecedented and spontaneous public mourning by people from all sectors of the community, during and after the state funeral and state funeral.

Sir Edward was 62 years old at the time of his death.

His appointment as Governor of Hong Kong was followed by a highly distinguished foreign service career, which included an ambassadorship to China.

With the successful conclusion of the Sino-British negotiations to which he had devoted so much time, Sir Edward was able to concentrate fully on internal administration.

But he was also concerned with promoting a broader international understanding of Hong Kong and its dependence on free access to global markets to survive.

His untimely death in Beijing occurred while on a mission to China to promote trade with Hong Kong. Three more such missions took him to Japan, North America and Great Britain during the year.

These promotions were accompanied by a strong resumption of trade, industry and business activity in general, which paved the way for a more optimistic scenario to replace the political uncertainty that weighed on many aspects of life in the region.

This trend has also been reflected in major development projects to improve Hong Kong's infrastructure, including the expansion of new cities, the construction of more hospitals and housing developments, a light rail system and a second underground harbor crossing, which will be one of the largest projects of its kind in the world.

All these developments have given new impetus to Hong Kong's ongoing commitment to the future.

A place to trade

Hong Kong's history has been one of material and social improvement: the expansion of cities and towns by cutting through hills, reclaiming land from the sea, and building homes, schools, hospitals and other forms of public facilities to meet the demands of a growing population.



But in its early days, the area was considered uninviting for settlements. The population of around 3 650 inhabitants was spread over 20 villages and hamlets and 2 000 fishermen lived aboard their boats in the port. Because of its mountainous terrain, lacking fertile land and water, Hong Kong had only one natural asset, a beautiful and protected harbor. The main reason for the British presence, starting in the 1840s, was Victoria Harbour, which was strategically located on the Far Eastern trade routes and would soon become the center of growing trade with China.

With the establishment of Hong Kong as a settlement under the British flag in 1841, the development of Hong Kong as a commercial center began. At the end of the 18th century, the English dominated foreign trade in Canton, but found conditions unsatisfactory in the face of unequal civilizations, mainly because of opposing points of view.

The Chinese considered themselves the only civilized people, and foreigners trading in Canton were subject to residential and other restrictions. Confined to the factory premises, they could only stay during the commercial season, when they had to leave their families in Macau. They were forbidden to enter the city and learn the Chinese language. Shipping rates varied arbitrarily, and in general, there was a lot of bickering between UK and Chinese merchants. However, mutual trust prevailed and the spoken word was sufficient for even the largest transactions.

Trade was in China's favor and silver flowed until the growth of the opium trade from the 1800s onwards reversed this trend. The outflow of silver intensified from 1834 after the East India Company lost its monopoly on trade with China and foreign traders, hoping to get rich quickly, joined the lucrative trade in opium, which the Chinese had outlawed. in 1799. This led to the appointment of Lin Ze-xu (Lin Tse-hsu) in March 1839 as special commissioner in Canton with orders to end the opium trade. A week later, he surrounded the foreign factories with troops, cutting off food supplies and preventing anyone from leaving until all opium supplies were abandoned and merchants and shipmasters signed a pledge not to import opium on pain of execution. . Captain Charles Elliot, RN, representative of the British Government as Superintendent of Commerce, was silenced with the others, and after a six-week siege, authorized the delivery of 20,283 cases of opium.

Elliot would not allow normal trade to resume until he had reported and received instructions from the British government. The British community withdrew to Macau and fled aboard ships in Hong Kong harbor in the summer of 1839, when the Portuguese governor warned that he could not be responsible for their safety.

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, decided that the time had come to sort out Sino-British trade relations. Arguing that the British in Canton were compelled by the sale of opium to ransom their lives - though in fact their lives were never in danger - he demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations on a satisfactory basis or the cession of a small island where the British could live free from threats under their own flag.

An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 to support these demands, beginning what became known as the First Opium War (1840-2). Hostilities alternated with negotiations until an agreement was reached between Elliot and Qishan (Keshen), the Manchu commissioner. Lin was replaced by Qishan after his disgraced exile due to treaty preparations.

Under the Chuanbi (Chuenpi) Convention of 20 January 1841, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Great Britain. On 26 January 1841, a naval landing party raised the British flag at Possession Point and the island was officially occupied. In June, Elliot started selling lots and the sell-off began.



Neither side accepted Chuanbi's terms. The cession of part of China aroused shame and anger among the Chinese, and the unfortunate Qishan was sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he despised as "a barren island with hardly any houses", and he refused to accept it as the island's station demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty.

"You treated my instructions like they were rubbish," Palmerston told Elliot in an authoritative rebuke, replacing him. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, arrived in August 1841 and conducted the hostilities with determination. A year later, after moving up the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) and threatening to attack Nanjing (Nanjing), he ended hostilities with the Treaty of Nanjing signed on August 29, 1842.

Meanwhile, Whig rule in England had fallen, and in 1841 the new Tory Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, issued revised instructions to Pottinger and abandoned the demand for an island.

Pottinger, who had returned to Hong Kong during the winter lull of the campaign, was pleased with the new settlement's progress and deviated from his instructions in the Treaty of Nanjing, demanding a treaty and an island, thus securing Hong Kong. In addition, five Chinese ports, including Guangzhou, were opened to trade. The trade treaty was enshrined in the Humen (Bogue) Amendment of October 1843, which granted the Chinese free access to Hong Kong Island for trade purposes.

lease of new territories

The Second Anglo-Chinese War (1856-1858) arose from disputes over the interpretation of earlier treaties and the Chinese boarding a British lorcha, the Arrow, in search of suspected pirates. The 1858 Treaty of Tianjin (Tientsin) which ended the war gave the British the privilege of diplomatic representation in China. The first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had been the first Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong, was fired upon at Dagu (Taku) Bar on his way to Beijing to present his credentials, and hostilities were renewed from 1859-60.

The troops of this second expedition camped on the Kowloon Peninsula, as evidenced by the first photographs of the territory. They found it solid and wished to keep it as a military barracks, with the result that Sir Harry Parkes, Consul in Canton, secured the perpetual lease of the peninsula up to Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island, from the Viceroy. The Beijing Convention of 1860, which ended hostilities, provided for its total cession.

Other European countries and Japan began to demand concessions from China, particularly after Germany, France and Russia saved China from the worst of its defeat by Japan in 1895 and landed around it.

By a convention signed in Beijing on June 9, 1898, respecting an extension of Hong Kong's territory, the New Territories - encompassing the area north of Kowloon to the Shenzhen River and 235 islands - were leased for 99 years. The move was aimed at France and Russia, not China, whose warships were allowed to use the dock in Kowloon City. There, the Chinese authority was allowed to proceed "except to the extent that this is inconsistent with the military requirements for the defense of Hong Kong". However, a council order dated 27 December 1899 lifted this clause and the British unilaterally took over Kowloon City. When the British took over the New Territories in April 1899, there was some aimless resistance, but it soon faded. The area was declared part of the general territory of Hong Kong, but administered separately from the metropolitan area.


initial growth


Resettlement did not go well at first. It attracted unruly elements while fevers and typhoons threatened life and property. Crime was rampant. The Chinese influx was unexpected, as they were not expected to choose to live under a foreign flag. The population increased from 32,983 (31,463 Chinese) in 1851 to 878,947 (859,425 Chinese) in 1931. Just wanting to be at peace, the Chinese prospered under liberal British rule. Hong Kong became a center for Chinese emigration and trade with overseas Chinese communities. Maritime traffic using the port increased from 2,889 ships in 1860 to 23,881 in 1939. The dominance of trade with China forced Hong Kong to conform to Chinese custom and adopt the silver dollar as its unit of currency in 1862. of silver, Hong Kong had to follow suit with a corresponding “managed” dollar.

Hong Kong's administration followed the usual pattern for a British overseas territory, with a governor appointed by Whitehall and executive and legislative councils appointed with an official majority. The first non-governmental members of the Legislative Council were appointed in 1850 and the first Chinese in 1880; The first non-governmental members of the Executive Council appeared in 1896, and the first Chinese in 1926. In 1972, the old agreement that two electoral bodies, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the unofficial Justices of the Peace, were allowed to appoint a member to the Legislative Council, has been discontinued.


British residents have pushed strongly for self-rule on several occasions, but the country's government has always refused to subject the Chinese majority to the control of a small European minority.

A Sanitary Council was formed in 1883, partially elected in 1887, and expanded into an Urban Council in 1936. The intention was initially to govern the Chinese through Chinese magistrates sent from the mainland. But this system of two parallel administrations was applied only half-heartedly and failed mainly because of crime. It was abandoned entirely in 1865 in favor of the principle of racial equality before the law. This year, the governor's instructions were significantly amended to prohibit him from assenting to an ordinance "that may subject persons of African or Asian descent to disabilities or limitations not common to persons of European birth or descent." The government's policy was laissez-faire, treating Hong Kong as a market where everyone could come and go freely and where the government maintained the balance impartially.

Public and utility companies developed - the Hong Kong and China Gas Company in 1861, the Peak Tram in 1885, the Hong Kong Electric Company in 1889, China Light and Power in 1903, electric trams in 1904 and the then state-owned Kowloon-Canton Railway completed in 1910. From 1851 there were successive claims - notably one completed in 1904 in the Central District creating Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, and another in Wan Chai between 1921 and 1929. A public education system started in 1847 with scholarships to Chinese primary schools. Later, in 1873, voluntary schools, run mainly by missionaries, were incorporated into a scholarship program. Founded in 1887, the College of Medicine for the Chinese evolved into the University of Hong Kong in 1911, offering schools of arts, engineering and medicine.

After the Chinese Revolution of 1911 that overthrew the Manchu Dynasty, China experienced a long period of unrest and many people took refuge in Hong Kong. The unrest continued after China's participation in World War I brought with it strong nationalist and xenophobic sentiment - both inspired by deception.



Failure at the Versailles Peace Conference to win back German concessions in Shandong (Shantung) and post-war Kuomintang radicalism. The Chinese tried to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong, where a seafarers' strike in 1922, under pressure from Canton, was followed by a severe general strike in 1925-26. This subsided, but not before causing significant disruption in Hong Kong. Britain, with the largest share of foreigners in China, was the main target of anti-foreigner sentiment at the time, but would soon be replaced in that odious role by Japan.

1930s and World War II

During World War I, Japan made its "21 Demands" of China. Then, in 1931, Japan occupied Manchuria and an attempt to sever the northern provinces of China led to open warfare in 1937. Guangzhou fell to the Japanese in 1938, triggering a mass exodus of refugees to Hong Kong. It is estimated that around 100,000 refugees arrived in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939 - bringing the population to around 1.6 million at the start of World War II. It was believed that at the height of the flow, about half a million people slept in the streets.

Japan entered World War II when its planes bombed US warships in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong around the same time (December 8, 1941 local time). The Japanese invaded Hong Kong across the mainland border, and subsequently the British were forced to withdraw from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. After a week of stubborn resistance on the island, the defenders - including the local volunteer corps - were defeated and Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and eight months.

Commerce virtually disappeared, the currency depreciated, food supplies were disrupted, and government services and public facilities were seriously affected. Many residents moved to Macau - the Portuguese province hospitably opened its doors to them. At the end of the occupation, the Japanese tried to alleviate food problems by organizing mass deportations. In the face of growing oppression, most of the community remained loyal to the Allied cause. Chinese guerrillas operated in the New Territories and fleeing Allied personnel were supported by rural residents.

Shortly after news of the Japanese surrender arrived on August 14, 1945, a provisional government was installed by Colonial Secretary Mr. (later sir) Frank Gimson. Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units from the British Pacific Fleet on 30 August to establish a temporary military government. Civilian government was officially restored on 1 May 1946 when Sir Mark Young resumed his suspended government.

The post-war years


After the Japanese surrender, around 100,000 Chinese civilians returned each month, many of whom had migrated to China during the war. The population, which had dropped to around 600,000 in August 1945, increased to around 1.8 million by the end of 1947. Then, in 1948-1949, when the Chinese nationalist government forces began to be defeated by the communists in the war civil society, Hong Kong has received an influx unprecedented in its history. Hundreds of thousands of people - mostly from Guangdong Province, Shanghai and other commercial centers - arrived in the area in 1949 and the spring 1950s. In the mid-1950s, the population was estimated at 2.2 million. It has since continued to rise and now stands at 5.58 million.



After a period of economic stagnation caused by the United Nations trade embargo on China, Hong Kong began to industrialise. The territory could no longer rely on its port alone to provide prosperity for its vastly expanded population. From the beginning, the industrial revolution was based on cotton textiles, gradually adding wool fabrics and, in the late 1960s, synthetic fibers and apparel. Although the share of textiles and apparel in total exports has declined over the past 10 years, they still account for around 40% of domestic exports by value. While textiles remain the mainstay of Hong Kong's economy, electronics, watches, plastic goods and other light industries are major contributors.

In connection with events in China, tensions rose in Hong Kong in 1966, which escalated into a series of civil unrest in 1967, which affected all aspects of life and temporarily paralyzed the economy. But by the end of the year, the unrest had subsided and the community continued its traditions of peaceful progress.

As the postwar years unfolded, Hong Kong continued to expand its role as a hub for its neighbors, and trade with China was no exception. Along with tourism, this has led to vast improvements in communications as increasing numbers of people enter China from or through Hong Kong, their natural gateway, each year. The territory's largest airline, Cathay Pacific, and the Civil Aviation Administration of China operate scheduled flights and a significant number of charter flights between Hong Kong and cities in China, and a new airline, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines, now operates flights chartered to various cities in China. The Kowloon-Canton Railway operates express trains between Kowloon and Canton in conjunction with the Canton Railway Administration; several direct bus services, including a British and Chinese joint venture, operate various routes to Guangdong and other parts of southern China; and there are several daily ferry services to Guangzhou and other ports in southern China. Hoverferries operate on some of these services.

In keeping with development and a policy of decentralization, the government is committed to improving infrastructure, and an estimated $6.625 million, about 17% of expenditures, will be spent on public works projects in 1986-7. New roads, tunnels and viaducts completely transformed road traffic throughout the area in the post-war period, and modern multi-lane highways open up many new areas.

The development of Hong Kong's economic base allowed the government to increase spending on social services over the years - from US$3,059 million in 1976-7 to an estimated US$21,953 million in 1986-7.

Housing has always been an issue with a rapidly growing population and spending in this area has increased accordingly. More than 2.5 million now live in some form of social housing provided by the housing authority. Throughout 1986, social housing was built at an average rate of almost 100 dwellings per day and it is expected to continue supplying around 40,000 dwellings per year under current conditions.

Spending on educational facilities and improvements for Hong Kong's young and vibrant population has always been an important budgetary consideration, and there are now places in primary and secondary schools for all students aged 15 and under. In the field of social welfare, great strides have been made by both government and voluntary organizations over the last decade, with spending increasing from $348 million in 1976-77 to an estimated $2,487 million in 1986-8 and increased in 1987.

Medical and health services are also undergoing vigorous development programs that will include four more hospitals and about 18 additional clinics and polyclinics by the end of the decade.



In the post-war years, a comprehensive protection system was established for wages, time off, holidays, paid annual leave, maternity leave, sick pay, severance pay, year-end bonuses and birthday bonuses, and the benefits offered have constantly improved. The minimum age for employment in the commercial and non-commercial sectors is 15 years old.

Public Registry Office

Established in 1972, the Public Records Office is now one of the largest local sources of information for historical and other studies related to Hong Kong. Currently, the Office maintains 10,000 linear meters of official records, around 2,000 photographs and an extensive collection of maps, local newspapers and official publications.

The Public Records Office provides a records management service to government agencies and makes material available for reference and research by domestic and foreign scholars, journalists, students, members of the public, and employees of other government agencies.

Records requiring permanent retention are maintained at the main office in Central District and one of two subsidiary offices at Wong Chuk Hang Road, Aberdeen. Semi-active archives, many of which are eventually destroyed, are kept in the second branch.

Hong Kong's growing international profile has led to an increase in the number of requests for references received by the Public Records Office and the number of people carrying out research on source materials maintained over the past year. In addition to the publication of several books based on these materials, the recordings have been used for the production of television documentaries, films, exhibitions and articles for various newspapers and magazines.

The Public Records Office reached an agreement with the University of Hong Kong Library in 1986 to microfilm its holdings of local Chinese-language newspapers, and significant additions to the Office's library collection are expected in the coming years.

Due to the extensive loss and destruction of official records during the period of Japanese occupation, most of the Office's holdings date from the resumption of British administration in 1945. However, the loss caused by the war was partially offset by the acquisition of microfilm copies of certain pre-war British government records relating to Hong Kong. The most important of these are the dispatches exchanged between the governors of Hong Kong and London from 1842 to the end of 1952.

The Document Repair Department continued its restoration work, and numerous old maps and documents relating to Hong Kong that could not be edited due to their fragile state have now been made available to the public.

The microfilm department continued to film selected records for preservation and preservation in microfilm form.

Public access to the library, including the newspaper, map and photo collections, is unrestricted, but formal permission is required to access official records. Photocopying, microfilming and reading services are available.

archaeological background

Archaeological studies in Hong Kong that began in the 1920s have uncovered ancient artifacts and other evidence of human activity at various locations along the winding coastline, testifying to events spanning over 6,000 years. The interpretation of these events is still controversial today. From an archaeological point of view, Hong Kong is only a small part of it.




much larger cultural sphere of southern China, which itself is still imperfectly known. In this context, the scholarly debate over definitive interpretations can be expected to continue for many years to come.

Recent excavations have revealed two main Neolithic cultures arranged in stratified order. In the lower, older levels, there is coarse pottery with cord marks, along with fine, soft, fragile pottery, decorated with incised lines and perforations and occasionally painted. Chipped and polished stone tools are also present. Current evidence points to a date of the 4th millennium BC. for this initial phase.

Cord-marked pottery and chipped stone tools continue as long-standing traditions in the higher and later levels, where a new style of pottery appears, decorated with a variety of printed geometric designs. At this stage, starting in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. BC, polished stone tools show better finishing and an increase in shapes, some with steps and shoulders, characteristics probably related to improvements in gripping techniques. Quartz and other appropriate stones have also been used to make jewelry such as rings, some with a slot, of various sizes, sometimes with exquisite craftsmanship.

The last phase of Hong Kong's prehistory is marked by the advent of bronze in the mid-2nd millennium BC. marked. Bronze artifacts do not appear to have been in common use, but some fine specimens of weapons, swords, arrowheads and halberds, and tools such as socket axes and hooks have been unearthed at sites in Hong Kong. There is also evidence from the Tung Wan site at Shek Pik, Lantau